Primary artillery fort GHW III “Łuczyce”, Łuczyce
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Primary artillery fort GHW III “Łuczyce”

Łuczyce

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One of the best-preserved defensive works of the fortress - the artillery fort GHW III - presents high scientific values as an untypical, late (after modernisation conducted in the years 1902-1914) example of the fortified structure constituting a part of the centralised fort system. What is more, the fort presents considerable landscape values. As a crucial part of the system of fortifications which formed the Fortress of Przemyśl, it remains a valuable historical monument of European importance.

History

In the years 1854-1855, as part of construction of fortifications of the first stronghold around Przemyśl, a seven-sided artillery sconce no. 25 of the FS type (Feuer-Schanze) was built in Łuczyce village, in the southern part of the ring. In 1878 the sconce was transformed into a provisional artillery sconce III “Łuczyce”. In the years 1884-1887, during the construction of permanent fortifications forming part of the Fortress of Przemyśl, the sconce was transformed into a provisional, single-rampart artillery fort GHW III “Łuczyce”. It is marked as Werk III Łuczyce on the Festung-Umgebungs-Plan von Przemyśl (fortress map). In the course of usage, the provisional buildings collapsed. In the years 1902-1914 the fort was modernised - new barracks, bunkers and caponiers were erected. The fort’s task was to defend the Wiar river valley along with a railway line and hills located south of Cyków village. In 1909 the fort was armed with four 15 cm cannons of the M.61 type standing on wooden fort trailers and four 9 cm field cannons of the M75/90 type. In 1901 the fort was manned by 1 infantry company, 91 gunners and 9 pioneers (sappers). During the siege of the fortress (18 September - 9 October 1914) the fort’s artillery participated in repelling a massive attack of the Russians on the neighbouring fort III b “Rożubowice”. During the second siege (9 November 1914 - 22 March 1915) the fort was not under direct attack. Before the surrendering of the fortress on 22 March 1914 the fort had not been blown up. During the third siege (30 May - 4 June 1915), the fort was overrun by German and Austro-Hungarian forces. In the years 1920-1930 and after the World War II small-scale demolitions were carried out. From 2002 onwards, a museum run by private persons, recently - by Wiesław Sokolik, functioned there. In that period ordering works in the fort area were conducted. In 2010 the fort was taken over by the Przemyśl Association for the Care and Revitalisation of the Molotov Line “Projekt 8813”, which performed ordering works and made the feature available for viewers.

Description

The GHW III “Łuczyce” fort (Gürtelhauptwerk VIII Łuczyce) is a single-rampart artillery fort erected as part of the centred fort system. The fort is located on top of a hill (278.2 metres above sea level) south-east of Łuczyce village.

The area of the fort measured within the boundaries of its allocated plot of land is approximately 3.5 hectares.

The fort was designed as a pentagon. The feature is surrounded by a deep, dry moat, which is shallower in the gorge part. The gorge part also includes remnants of an earthen roundel erected on a trapeze floor plan, with an entrance located in the western flank. In front of the entrance there is a concrete guard house containing 2 rooms. In front of the fort’s head, external earthen fortifications have survived - a rampart with a roundel along the fort’s axis. The fort’s gorge terminates in a rampart including an entrance gate in place where the gorge roundel is located. The secondary, wider passage was cut through the rampart in the inter-war period on the western side of the gate. One-storey barracks are located inside the fort, parallel to the gorge rampart; they are surrounded by a wide earthen rampart. Partition walls separating particular rooms were partially demolished inside the barracks. Along the barracks’ axis there is a passage leading to an internal courtyard, restricted in the head part and on the eastern side by a wide rampart, formerly protecting a wooden main bunker. Currently, a small masonry bunker containing two rooms: a former munitions warehouse and a cannons station, is situated on the western edge of the courtyard. The main rampart extending along heads and flanks includes transverses housing emergency bunkers and a cannons station. Fire posts of cannons and infantry with masonry parapets were positioned between the transverses. The only preserved, free-standing, masonry caponier is situated in the moat, at the meeting point of the left flank and the head. All buildings feature concrete ceilings laid on a layer of steel double-t beams. The barracks’ façades are made of bricks and feature window openings with sections vaulted with segmental arches as well as doors including horizontal lintels. The façade is crowned with a concrete cornice, below which gutter hooks have survived.

The historic monument is accessible. The fort is located along the “right-bank fortress route of the Fortress of Przemyśl” (marked in black) and along the cycling route running around the forts of the Fortress of Przemyśl.

compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 14-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bobusia B., Gosztyła M., Zub M. Plany Twierdzy Przemyśl, Przemyśl 2004
  • Bogdanowski J. Sztuka obronna, Kraków 1993.
  • Bogdanowski J. Architektura obronna w krajobrazie Polski od Biskupina do Westerplatte, Warszawa - Kraków 1996.
  • Brzoskwinia W., Idzikowski T., Środulska-Wielgus J., Wielgus K. Wartości zabytkowej Twierdzy Przemyśl, [w:] Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Forstner F., Twierdza Przemyśl, tł. Bańbor J., Warszawa 2000.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Powstanie. Rozwój. Technologie, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Sapeta A. Zestawienie obiektów Twierdzy Przemyśl, [w:] Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Strona internetowa: Przemyskie Stowarzyszenie Opieki i Rewitalizacji Linii Mołotowa „Projekt 8813” http://projekt8813.pl

General information

  • Type: defensive architecture
  • Chronology: 1884-1887
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Łuczyce
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district przemyski, commune Przemyśl
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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