Palace, Łoźnica
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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It is a rare example of Pomeranian seat of a noble family dating from first quarter of the 18th century.

History

Łoźnica was called “Kantreck” until 1945. Since the Middle Ages, the knightly estate belonged to the prominent von Köller family from Pomerania. A number of investment projects were carried out in Łoźnica in the later 17th century and early 18th century. In 1695-1697, the von Köller founded a local church. According to the map of the village of 1731 and based on the architectural features, it has been established that the palace was erected probably in the first quarter of the 18th century. Bogislaw Henning von Köller, titular pastor of the Cathedral of Kamień Pomorski, who funded the construction of the tower of the church in Łoźnica, could be the builder of the palace.

The palace complex in Łoźnica is an example of one of the earlier-encountered variants of a French style palace built entre cour et jardin (between the entrance court and the garden) in Pomerania. It features an axial and symmetrical layout. The palace with a representative driveway was located in the centre, with utility buildings in front of it. A garden stretched behind the residence. The whole complex was surrounded by a fence and a ditch.

The residence was flanked by two rectangular half-timbered guest pavilions of the type known as Kavalierhaus on each side. The palace was a rectangular two-storey building with shallow entrance and garden avant-corps accentuating the axis. It was covered with a tall hip roof with a roof ridge. The façades were crowned with cornices, and the corners were accentuated by wide rusticated pilaster strips. The windows were framed by smooth wide surrounds with keystones in the lintels.

The palace in Łoźnica is characterised by its distinctive and unadorned Baroque forms exhibiting strong Classical influences, which were once popular in the architecture of rural manor houses and buildings of burghers in Pomerania and entire Prussia. The closest formal analogies can be found in the preserved residences in Siemczyno (1722-26) and Stolec (1726-28). A good example was the palace in Radowo Wielkie, which has not survived to this day.

In 1804, Ulrich von Dewitz (1747-1808), emeritus President of the Privy Council of the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, acquired ownership of the village of Łoźnica. The new owner made alterations to the palace. According to the author of the record sheet of 1998, the southern gable end featured the inscription “A. Kohn 1804”, which most probably included the name of the master builder and the years of reconstruction. Based on the map of the village of 1821, it has been established that the spatial layout of the whole complex was altered. The alterations included the construction of a quadrangular complex of farm buildings to the north-west of the palace. The Baroque garden was replaced with a landscape park. The palace was covered with a new mansard roof with jerkin heads, as evidenced by the character of the structure of the roof truss. A rectangular avant-corps was added to the south probably at that time. Another alteration, which was made probably around 1825, involved demolishing one of the so-called cavalier houses to the north of the palace in order to add a single-storey side wing. The interior layout was partly altered in the first half of the 19th century.

Ernst Matthias von Köller (1797 -1883), court clerk at the Higher Regional Court in Szczecin, purchased Łoźnica from the von Dewitz family in 1837. Ernst Matias was a person of great merit because he played a major role in the life of the region. He was a member of the Landtag of Prussia in 1849-50 and the Prussian House of Lords in 1854. Since 1876, he served as the President of the Landtag of the Province of Pomerania. Ernst Matthias von Köller was also appointed as the Director-General of the Pomeranian Fire Insurance Association called Ständische Alt-Pommersche Land- und Feuer-Sozietät. In 1879, he was award the 1st Class Order of the Crown, major Prussian national award, for his work in the civil sphere. Georg Ernst Maximilian von Köller (1823-1916), member of the Privy Council and district administrator, was the son of Ernst Matthias and his heir. He was known as an active politician. He was a member of the Prussian House of Lords in 1866-1903. Her served as Vice-President of the Prussian House of Lords in 1874 and its President in 1879-1897. From 1876 to 1906, he was the President of the Landtag of the Province of Pomerania. It was awarded the Order of the Black Eagle, the highest Prussian national order. Ernst Matthias von Köller (1841 -1928), well-known Prussian politician, was born in Łoźnica at that time. He began his clerical career in 1864, when he became so-called “Auskalkulator” at the Higher Regional Court in Frankfurt am Main. In 1866, he became a government clerk (Regierungsreferendar) in the Szczecin Governorate. Between 1868 and 1869, he served as the administrator of the Kamień Pomorski district. He began his career in the national public service in 1887, when he held high office as the President of the Police in Frankfurt am Main. Since 1889, he held the post of the Under-Secretary of the Alsace-Lorraine state, and in 1894-1895 he was the Prussian Minister of the Interior, in which position he contributed to a political crisis due to his intransigently conservative attitude. In 1897, he became the Chief President of the Province of Schleswig-Holstein, where he became known for the germanization of Danes. In 1901-1908, he served as the Secretary of the Alsace-Lorraine state. He was a member of the Prussian House of Lords in 1908. According to address books, the next owners of property in Łoźnica were Hans Joachim von Köller in 1920 r. and Alfred von Köller in 1939.

In the second half of the 19th century and the first half of the 20th, utility facilities were rapidly and widely improved and extended. The area occupied by farm buildings was extended to the west and south.

After World War 2, the property was nationalised and a State Agricultural Farm (PGR) was established. The palace housed employees’ flats, offices of the State Agricultural Farm, club, and warehouse. The side wing was intended for use as the offices of the Construction Company. In 1993, the property in Łóźnice was taken over by the Property Agency of the State Treasury, and later by the Przybiernów commune, which has remained its owner to this day. The palace gradually falls into disrepair.

Description

It is located in the southern part of the village. It is part of the Baroque residence complex featuring an axial and symmetrical layout. A yard forming part of the former farm, the remains of which include a small group of utility buildings and a representative driveway, is located in front of the centrally situated residential building. A park stretches behind the palace. An eighteenth-century outbuilding is situated is located to the south-west.

The seat of nobility in Łoźnica is characterised by its Baroque forms exhibiting strong Classical influences, which are popular in Pomerania and entire Prussia.

The front façade of the palace faces the west. It is built on a rectangular floor plan, consists of the main body with shallow avant-corps in the middle of both longer façades, and side wing that was added to the south. A rectangular avant-corps juts out from the gable-end façade to the south. A terrace with large stairs adjoins the rear façade to the east. The two-storey body is covered with a mansard roof with jerking heads; the single storey wing with a gable roof.

The building was built of brick and plastered. The rooms in the basements are covered with a barrel vault with lunettes and a wooden ceiling made of exposed beams with a crossbeam supported by wooden pillars. The upper storeys of the building separate the wooden beamed ceilings fitted with additional wooden boards. The roof was clad with interlocking tiles. The loom window joinery with winter casements consists of two sections, two levels with horizontal muntins.

The façades are horizontally divided by crowning and string-course cornices in the form of smooth strips. The corners of the main body, wings and avant-corps were highlighted by rusticated pilaster strips. The windows were framed by flat surrounds with keystones in the lintel. The sections of the walls of the main body under the windows have the shape of flat rectangular recesses framed by floral ornaments. The eleven-axial layout of the front façade with a three-axial avant-corps in the middle was repeated in the rear façade. The four-axial gable-end façades were designed similarly to the longer façades.

The interior of the palace features a two-bay layout in the central and northern part of the main body, a two-and-a-half-bay layout with the corridor in the southern part of the body and in the side wing. The central part of the main body features a hallway in the front bay and a garden salon in the rear bay. The building has fallen into disrepair. Parts of the roof and ceilings have collapsed. The windows have been badly damaged.

Private property. The building can only be viewed from the outside.

compiled by Radosław Walkiewicz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Szczecin, 26.11.2014.

Bibliography

  • Brüggemann L., Ausführliche Beschreibung des gegenwärtigen Zustandes des Königl. Preusischen Herzogthums Vor-und Hinterpommern., I Th., II Bd., Stettin 1784r.
  • Berghaus H., Landbuch des Herzogthums Pommer und Fürstentums Pommern und Fürstentums Rügen., II Th. Bd VI, Anklamm-Berlin 1870 r.
  • Zilch R., Die Protokolle des Preußischen Staatsministeriums 1817-1934/38. Band 9, 23 Oktober 1900 bis 13. Juli 1909. Wydane przez Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. [w] Acta Borusia, Neue Folge. 2001, s. 380
  • Spenkuch H., Die Protokolle des Preußischen Staatsministeriums 1817-1934/38. Band 8, 21 März 1890 bis 9. Oktober 1900. Wydane przez Berlin-Brandenburgischen Akademie der Wissenschaften. [w] Acta Borusia, Neue Folge. 2003, s. 569
  • Kromann K., Katalog dworów i pałaców woj. Szczecińskiego, gmina Przybiernów, z. 5, Szczecin 1978 r.,. maszynopis w zbiorach: NID, OT Szczecin.
  • Słomiński M. Karta ewidencyjna zabytku. Szczecin 1998. W zbiorach WUOZ w Szczecinie.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: pierwsza ćw. XVIII w
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Łoźnica
  • Location: Voivodeship zachodniopomorskie, district goleniowski, commune Przybiernów
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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