Manor house complex, Łomnica
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

Manor house complex

Łomnica

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The manor house complex in Łomnica, built in c. 1770 (an initiative by Edward Garczyński), is an example of an impressive Baroque complex in Greater Poland. Characterised by an axial layout, it comprises: a manor house with a decorative formal garden at the back, a courtyard with residential outbuildings and an avenue lined with lime trees, and a wooden church in the centre. The layout, complemented by a landscaped part of the park with an eclectic chapel — a mausoleum from the late 19th century — has been preserved, however, it is currently hardly identifiable due to the neglected park and the poor technical condition of the manor house, the residential outbuildings, and the mausoleum. There is a replica of the complex in the Greater Poland Ethnographic Park by Lednica Lake.

History

The village of Łomnica is located close to Zbąszyń, among forests being the remains of a large primeval forest stretching from Zbąszyń to Opalenica. The village was part of an array of estates in Zbąszyń owned successively by the Ciświcki, Zbąski, and Garczyński families.

The oldest historical information about the village of Łomnica comes from 1439. In 1482, the owners were brothers Piotr and Marcin Zbąscy, and in the late 16th century — the Ciświcki family. In 1613, Abraham Ciświcki, castellan of Śrem, built a stronghold in Zbąszyń. A decorative Italian garden was established inside; it is believed that it served as a model for the garden in Łomnica. The Ciświckis remained the owners of Łomnica until the 2nd half of the 17th century. Subsequently, the village was the property of the Tuczyński family (c. 1641), and then, from the mid-17th to the mid-18th century — of the Garczyński family. The complex in Łomnica was established in the mid-18th century. It was founded by Edward Garczyński, castellan of Rozprza. From 1828 to 1945, it belonged to the Opitz family. After the war, it was used by a State Agricultural Farm (PGR). It underwent numerous modifications and modernisation works. In March 2004, the southern part of the manor house collapsed. At present, it is private property and it is being renovated.

Description

The manor house, which was originally located approx. 200 m to the north-west of an older village (a linear settlement) and was bordered by a large manor farm to the north, is currently located in the centre of the village.

The central elements of the complex are the manor house and the church located at the termination of the axial spatial arrangement. The manor house is located in the westernmost part of the complex, and the church — in the easternmost part.

In front of the manor farm, there is an impressive long courtyard with two residential buildings on the north side, separating the manor house from the farm complex. The view corridor between the manor house and church is accentuated by a lime tree avenue. A public road running perpendicularly to the complex connects with the complex. The points of junction are marked by two gates, situated within the view corridor and leading from the road to the churchyard and to the manor house. Beside one of the gates, there is a one-storeyed administrator’s building. Behind the manor house, there used to be a decorative, regular, geometric garden laid out along one axis, established at the time of the construction of the manor house. The garden passed into a landscape park in the western part. A chapel-mausoleum from the late 19th century, currently dilapidated, is located in that part of the park.

The manor house faces the east. It has a frame structure with brick infill. The walls, resting on a tall wall base, are covered with plaster. The building, resting on a tall wall base, is topped with a half-hip mansard roof, originally covered with slate (it is currently being renovated).

The residence has a rectangular floor plan with a triaxial, two-storeyed avant-corps on the front façade and a lower triaxial avant-corps on the façade facing the garden. The front avant-corps is topped by a gable with curves framed by profiled wooden cornices terminated with volutes in the lower part. In front of the avant-corps, which contains the main entrance to the building, there is a newer, protruding porch-terrace. The porch has a low gable roof covered with sheet metal, supported by two embedded and four free-standing wooden posts. Broadening, fan-shaped steps lead to the porch. The garden avant-corps is topped with a three-sided dormer set in the lower plane of the roof. Originally, there was direct access from the manor house to the garden; since 1859, the manor house has been connected with the garden by means of a wooden sun parlour.

Only the northern part of the manor house has a basement. It consists of five rooms of different dimensions, having brick walls and covered with vaults. The ground floor has a symmetrical, tripartite, two-bay layout, with the central part being particularly prominent. On the central axis, there is a vast rectangular hall, further — an octagonal drawing room, ending in the three-sided avant-corps on the garden façade. The rooms on the south side of the hall still have the original layout and divisions. The layout of the rooms on the north side was modified at some point. In the front part of the hall, there are wooden winder stairs with a landing, enclosed with a balustrade made up of balusters cut out in boards. In the rear of the hall, on both sides, there are chimney walls.

The interior of the manor house was modified in 1965. It was adapted to serve as a club and café and a cinema auditorium. A projection room was built in the hall, by the drawing room wall, which resulted in the destruction of the central door leading to the drawing room. According to documentation from 1975, the only original elements of the interior that had been preserved were some sections of the floors and two artificial stone fireplaces, classicist in character, adorned with coats of arms on the sides (they were probably constructed in the late 19th century).

The two-bay attic has an irregular layout. It was modified after 1945. A number of new divisions were introduced as the rooms were adapted to contain bathrooms and kitchen rooms. The chimney flues in the attic are available from the hall.

According to a report by Renata Linette from 1975, the only original elements preserved in the attic was a walled-up, tall, Baroque fireplace, located in the south-west corner of the front northern room.

An brick plastered annex was built onto the north wall of the manor house in 1936. Its form indicates that it was originally a free-standing building which was later connected with the manor house by means of a lower section. It is a one-storeyed building with an attic and a basement, having a nearly square floor plan. It is covered with a “Polish” säteri roof having a short ridge. In 2004, the southern part of manor house collapsed and was dismantled.

The residential outbuildings are arranged in a row. They separate the courtyard from the farm yard. The buildings, constructed in 1770, were used as residential buildings (in 2010, the west outbuilding was not used). They face the manor house courtyard; they used to be separated from it with flower beds. The east outbuilding has a rectangular floor plan. It has a two-bay layout with a hall in the centre. It has one storey and an attic (no basement). It is topped with a mansard roof covered with slate. The front wall of the building features a two-storeyed wall dormer topped with a gable. The west outbuilding, similar in shape and design, was modified a number of times during various renovation works. The entrance was located on the east side. Moreover, the arrangement and size of the windows in the dormer at the attic level were modified.

By the southern boundary of the courtyard, in its front, eastern part, stands the administrator’s building. It has brick plastered walls and is topped with a tall gable roof covered with roof tiles. The building has one storey, a basement, and an attic in the western part. Built on a rectangular floor plan, it has seven axes, with a wooden sun parlour in the front. Above, there is an eclectic wall dormer. There is a similar wall dormer in the rear, southern plane of the roof. The two-bay interior layout was modified. According to Renata Linette, the room in the rear of the building, covered with a groin vault, indicates that the building was erected in the 18th century and that it may be the first manor house, built before all other elements of the complex.

The Church of St Lawrence, currently a parish church, was a filial chapel of the Zbąszyń Parish from the date of its construction, i.e. 1770, up to 1974. The church is the dominant element and the eastern termination of the axial layout of the manor house complex. The church is oriented towards the east. It has a cross-shaped floor plan. It has a porch on the west side and a lower sacristy, adjoining the chancel, on the east side. The building has a wooden log structure. The walls are covered with weatherboards. The entrance is recessed into the front wall and sheltered by its overhanging part, supported by two posts. The central part of the church is octagonal in shape, with four columns with palmette capitals supporting an octagonal tholobate with a flat ceiling and a roof which gives the impression that the church is covered with a dome. The dome is surmounted by a quadrangular lantern with cut-off corners decorated with pilasters with volute motifs, topped with a dome-like cupola with a spire crowned with a sculpture — a putto supporting a cross. The four gables of the arms of the cross are framed by curved cornices. The roofs over the arms are dual-pitched and covered with slate. The tholobate and the lantern are covered with sheet metal. Inside, there are Rococo wall paintings from c. 1770.

The park, laid out on the east-west axis, has an elongated, one-axis layout determining the entire spatial arrangement. Originally, it consisted of two parts: a formal, geometric garden between the manor house and a watercourse flowing on the west side, and a landscape park stretching further to the west. The main axis of the park was a path, partially preserved to this day, which further passed into a field path lined with trees.

The geomteric garden was established in the 18th century by Edward Garczyński. Originally, the garden was surrounded by a hornbeam avenue, which started at the corners of the manor house and formed a semi-circle on its west side; currently, it is unidentifiable in the seriously neglected surroundings of the manor house. The lines of trees on the central axis, with the main avenue featuring four semi-circular rows of hornbeams on the sides, can no longer be identified, either. There are still a stone table and a seat from the 19th century in one of those semi-circular spaces. Only some sections of the main avenue, lined with hornbeams, have survived to this day. On the north side of the main avenue, there is a stone obelisk from 1898, erected by the last owner of the complex, Wiktor Opitz. On the obelisk, there are a coat of arms of the Garczyński family with the date “1772” and an inscription: “Illi qui hos hortos creavit et possedit Edoardo Garczyński pio animo heres. V.O. Wiktor Opitz”.

A brick bridge used to span the stream. The landscape park contains both coniferous and deciduous trees.

In the western part of the park, there are ruins of a chapel containing a burial crypt, erected as a mausoleum by the contemporary owners of Łomnica, the Opitzs, in the late 19th century. The eclectic building is predominantly Baroque in character, although it also has Renaissance features. Built on a floor plan in the shape of a Greek cross, with a square central part, it is covered with a dome resting on a round tholobate. It is made of brick. The arms of the cross are covered with plaster. It is topped with dual-pitched roofs covered with slate. Light is provided by four round windows set in triangular gables with prominent cornices. The interior is dilapited and has no fittings. There are parts of the original paintings on the walls.

The complex is accessible. Limited access to the historic manor house. Private property.

compiled by Radomiła Banach, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 30-11-2015.

Bibliography

  • Barokowe dwory i pałace w Wielkopolsce, red. Maria Strzałko, Poznań 2006, s.333.
  • Zofia Ostrowska -Kębłowska, Architektura pałacowa drugiej połowy XVIII wieku w Wielkopolsce, Poznań 1969, s.97.
  • Renata Linette: Zespól dworski w Łomnicy, Dokumentacje historyczno-architektoniczna, Poznań 1975, [ msp. w zbiorach Wielkopolskiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Poznaniu].
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, t. V: Województwo poznańskie, z. 14: Powiat nowotomyski, oprac. Ruszczyńska T., Sławska A., Warszawa 1969, s. 24-27.
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa, Dwór w Łomnicy, oprac. Marcin Szeląg, 1999, Archiwum Wielkopolskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Poznaniu.

General information

  • Type: manor house
  • Chronology: 1770 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Łomnica 21
  • Location: Voivodeship wielkopolskie, district nowotomyski, commune Zbąszyń - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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