Ringfort, Lipki
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
photo

The hillfort in Lipki may have functioned as a guard and customs facility on the former route from Brzeg via Oława to Wrocław, along the Odra River in the area of the so-called Silesian Cutting (Przesieka Śląska).

Location and description

The hillfort is located in the extensive Odra River valley, in its southern side, about 1,100 m north-east of the east edge of the village of Lipki. The site is clearly visible against the landscape of the Odra River valley. It has an oval shape with the dimensions of around 70x80 m. The flat inner yard is elevated to a height of 2 m above the surrounding fields. The moat overgrown with grass has a width from 10 to 14 m. It fills with water seasonally. Since the 19th century, the site has been used for farm purposes: first as pasture and then, in the 1950s and 1960s, as arable field. As a result of many years’ cultivation, the yard and moat were levelled and the rampart virtually ceased to exist. The conservator’s intervention in the 1980s resulted in the change of use. In 1986, the elements of the settlement (the rampart and moat) were partly reconstructed. Today, it is a wasteland overgrown with shrubs and trees and a refuge for animals.

History

The surface examination demonstrated that the site was occupied in the early and late mediaeval period.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The site was already known in the 19th century; in the interwar and post-war period, numerous surface examinations were conducted, e.g. by J. Kaźmierczyk in 1958. In 1959 and 1962, survey studies were conducted by J. Kramarek, and in 1970 and 1986 by J. Romanow. The research confirmed the existence of a cultural layer. Numerous pieces of vessels and animal bones were uncovered. Also the duration of use was determined. The site was used in two periods: from the 11th to the 12th century and between the 13th and 14th century. In 1993, a contour plan was drawn up.

The hillfort in Lipki is located in the area of the Odra River valley, near the road from Opole via Brzeg to Wrocław running along the river; it may have fulfilled a guarding function. At the same time, it is situated by the probable crossing of the Odra River to the north bank towards the Ryczyn towns. It could therefore serve as a customs house. Because the cultural layer detected on-site has a small thickness, its function of a refuge (shelter) for the residents of the neighbouring hamlets should not be ruled out.

The ring fort is located in the area of land being private property. To reach the site, walk about 1,200 m along a dirt road from the Brzeg-Lipki road towards the Odra River. After covering 30-400 m, the site becomes visible from the road. A clump of trees growing on the site is clearly distinguishable among the meadows.

Compiled by Krzysztof Spychała, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 11-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Hellmich M., Schlesische Wehranlagen, [w:] Altschlesien, t.3, 1930, s.39;
  • Kaźmierczyk J., Sprawozdanie z weryfikacji wczesnośredniowiecznych grodzisk na terenie woj. opolskiego za rok 1958, [w:] Ślaskie Sprawozdania Archeologiczne, 1958, t.1, s.35;
  • Cisek I., Kramarek J., Grodziska ryczyńskie, pow. Oława w świetle badań w 1958 r., [w:] Silesia Antiqua, t.2, 1960, s.138-139;
  • Kramarek J., Lipki, pow. Brzeg, [w:] Silesia Antiqua, t.3, 1961, s.222;
  • Kramarek J., Wyniki badań archeologicznych na grodzisku w Lipkach, pow. Brzeg, [w:] Silesia Antiqua, .6, 1964, s.133-141;
  • Antoniewicz W., Wartołowska Z., Mapa grodzisk w Polsce, 1964, s.36;
  • Bagniewski Z., Romanow J., Sprawozdanie z badań sondażowych powiatu brzeskiego, [w:] Terenowe badania archeologiczne na Opolszczyźnie rok 1970, 1970, s.37-38;
  • Kaźmierczyk J., Macewicz K., Wuszkan S., Studia i materiały do osadnictwa Opolszczyzny wczesnośredniowiecznej, 1977, s.269-270;
  • Wojewódzkie Archiwum Państwowe we Wrocławiu, akta zespołu Wydział Samorządowy Prowincji Śląskiej we Wrocławiu, sygn. 667, teczka Linden, Kr.Brieg;
  • Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Opolu teczka nr A-290/70 oraz Karta Ewidencji Stanowiska Archeologicznego Lipki nr 3, AZP 84-32/7;
  • Archiwum Działu Archeologicznego Muzeum Piastów Śląskich w Brzegu, notatki E. Geunthera.

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: XI-XII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Lipki
  • Location: Voivodeship opolskie, district brzeski, commune Skarbimierz
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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