Palace and park complex, Łabunie
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Palace and park complex

Łabunie

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A palace and park complex designed in the “entre cour et jardin” (between the courtyard and the garden) style, a considerable rarity in the region; it was created during the third quarter of the 18th century, its design being attributed to Bernard Meretyn, an architect who worked for the Zamoyski noble family at the time. The palace is considered to be a pioneering work of Rococo architecture in Poland; originally, in addition to the outbuildings, the palace also featured galleries designed on a quarter-circle floor plan, which have, however, not survived to this day.

History

The first mentions of the village date back to 1428, when it remained in the hands of the Łabuński family; in the 16th century, it came through the hands of both the Oleśnicki and, later on, the Firlej families. In 1648, the village was known to have been the property of Stanisław Firlej from Dąbrowica, the castellan of Lublin; later on, it was acquired by Andrzej Sułkowski and then, finally, by the Zamoyski family, who owned the land from the late 17th century onwards. From ca. 1743, the land was the property of Jan Jakub Zamoyski, the voivode of Podolia and the husband of Ludwika Poniatowska, whose brother would later be crowned as king. J.J. Zamoyski erected the surviving palace complex in years 1750-1770, its design being attributed to Bernard Meretyn, a well-known architect. Initially the palace featured a pair of connecting galleries designed on a quarter-circle floor plan, which were later town down in the early 20th century. The palace was - and still is - flanked by a pair of outbuildings positioned on the sides of the cour d’honneur. A formal, geometric parterre garden was created behind the palace; during the second half of the 19th century, this garden was partially transformed into a landscape park. During the 19th century, the palace and park complex changed hands a few times, its owners including the Tarnowski noble family; as the 19th century was drawing to a close, Jan Stanisław Tarnowski sold Łabunie to count Aleksander Szeptycki from Łaszczów, whose wife was Izabella Sobańska. In 1922, the Szeptycki family donated their residence in Łabunie to the Franciscan Missionaries of Mary as a sign of gratitude for the support which they provided them with as their daughter was going through a period of long illness. From 1930 onwards, the palace underwent a series of renovation works intended to adapt it to its new function. The residence has sadly suffered extensive damage during both world wars. In 1944, the Germans blew up the middle section of the palace and set the remaining buildings on fire. During the period between 1957 and 1962, the nuns began the labourious process of reconstruction of the entire complex, adding new utility buildings as well. During the years 1996-2003, the park was revitalised, while parts of the palace and the accompanying buildings underwent renovation works.

Description

The palace and park complex is located on the eastern side of the village, at a distance of approximately 500 metres from the Zamość-Tomaszów road. The spatial layout of the complex is an example of a Baroque residence designed in the “entre cour et jardin” style, with the palace being positioned between the cour d’honneur and the garden. A quadrangular ensemble of utility buildings adjoins the courtyard to the south-west.

The Palace. The palace was designed in the Late Baroque style. The building was erected on a rectangular floor plan and features a symmetrical floor plan which is also reflected in its overall shape. It is a single-storey building with four-storey avant-corps, perched atop a semi-basement level with windows, and featuring a tall, residential attic level, giving it the appearance of a three-storey structure. The interior follows a two-bay layout, with a three-bay layout being used for the outermost parts. The interior layout has been partially transformed over the years. Originally, the ground floor level featured an octagonal vestibule positioned on the axis of the building, followed by representational Rococo drawing room overlooking the garden, with a tall, oval-shaped theatrical room (ballroom) positioned directly above. The palace is a brick building, its walls covered with plaster. The structure features a mansard roof with dormer windows, clad with sheet metal. Both the front façade and the façade overlooking the garden follow the same design, featuring massive, three-sided, four-storey avant-corps positioned on the axis thereof and crowned with openwork parapet walls. The front entrance is located on the piano nobile, preceded by fan-shaped stairs and framed with a Rococo portal. The corners of the avant-corps are adorned with pilasters, while the walls of the palace are partitioned by decorative framing. The side façades feature rather subdued, three-storey avant-corps crowned with semi-circular pediments. The ground floor section of the main body of the palace as well as its middle avant-corps are topped with a simplified entablature; the basement level of the palace extends partially above the ground, serving as a plinth upon which the entire structure stands. The windows are rectangular in shape; those on the ground floor level are adorned with profiled surrounds with label stops, while the avant-corps windows on all levels save for the ground floor level are framed by window surrounds made of stone. The interior is devoid of the original decor and fittings.

The southern and northern outbuildings which flank the courtyard follow an identical design; the northern outbuilding has in fact been reconstructed following its destruction. Designed on a rectangular floor plan, the outbuildings are single-storey structures with two-storey avant-corps positioned on the axis and preceded by fan-shaped stairs. Both buildings are made of brick, their walls covered with plaster, and feature hip roofs clad with sheet metal.

The pavilion (also known as the castellan’s house) was erected at the same time as the palace and forms part of the ensemble of buildings surrounding the utility yard. It is connected to the southern outbuilding by a wall which incorporates a large gate. Designed on a roughly square-shaped floor plan, it is a two-storey brick structure, its walls covered with plaster, covered with a mansard roof. The interior follows a tripartite, two-bay layout. The facades are partitioned with a string course and crowned with a lavishly profiled crowning cornice. The corners are also adorned with pilasters.

The park contains vestiges of the 18th-century parterre garden, with the main alley positioned on the axis of the palace, flanked by a pair of alleys lined with lime, chestnut and hornbeam trees; these alleys are what remains today of the initial axial/radial layout of the park. A wooded landscape garden stretches towards the north-east; inside this section of the park visitors will find the monastic cemetery, the family graveyard as well as the burial place of the insurgents of 1863.

The historical monument is accessible to visitors, currently serving as a place of spiritual retreat with guest rooms available (for more information please call (84) 611-30-52).

compiled by Bożena Stanek-Lebioda, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 27-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Record sheet. Palace complex. Łabunie, compiled by Fornal M., 1990, Archive of the Regional Office for the Protection of Historical Monuments in Lublin, Zamość branch; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Record sheet. Palace. Łabunie, compiled by Fornal M., Szponar J., Dzierżanowski F., 1990, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin, Zamość Branch; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Record sheet. Palace complex - right outbuilding. Łabunie, compiled by Fornal M., 1990, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin, Zamość Branch; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Record sheet. Palace complex - left outbuilding. Łabunie, compiled by Fornal M., 1990, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin, Zamość Branch; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Record sheet. Palace and park complex - the pavilion (also known as the castellan’s house) Łabunie, compiled by Studziński J., 1997, Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin.
  • Aftanazy R., Dzieje rezydencji na dawnych kresach Rzeczypospolitej, Vol. VI, Województwo bełskie, ziemia chełmska województwa ruskiego, Wrocław (…) 1995, pp. 83-88.
  • Kowalczyk J., Zainteresowania i działalność architektoniczna ordynatów Zamoyskich w XVIII wieku (in:) Ziemiaństwo na Lubelszczyźnie, compiled by Maliszewska R. Kozłówka 2003, pp. 87-111.
  • Kurzątkowska A, Barokowy zespół pałacowy w Łabuniach koło Zamościa, “Studia i Materiały Lubelskie. Historia Sztuki”, vol. 1, Lublin 1963, pp. 201-220.
  • Omilanowska M., Polska. Pałace i dwory, Warsaw 2005, pp. 80-81.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1750-1770
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Łabunie
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district zamojski, commune Łabunie
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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