Palace, Krzyżowice
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The palace in Krzyżowice is one of the few Silesian residences whose grand interior décor has survived substantially intact. In addition, it also forms an interesting example of an impressive aristocratic residence in which the relics of its Baroque origins blend seamlessly with the subsequent Gothic and Baroque Revival additions, emphasising the venerable roots of the family that inhabited it.

History

The palace was originally erected during the first half of the 18th century; designed on an L-shaped floor plan, the palace may have incorporated the fragments of an earlier structure which had once stood on the same spot. The palace started its life as a rather modest residence, its designers apparently determined to cling to 17th-century traditions; the first floor level of the house was a wattle-and-daub structure and the entire building was covered by a tall gable roof. A free-standing servants’ house with a similar structure stood next to the palace, covered with a hip roof. In 1854, the residence was remodelled in connection with the attainment of the fee tail estate status by the Krzyżowice manor. The resulting palace was merged with the neighbouring outbuilding through the addition of a connecting annex, resulting in the formation of the current western wing of the structure. The former wattle-and-daub structures on the first-floor level were replaced by brick walls, with the façades taking on a new appearance, blending the Baroque and Neoclassical styles. A tall Gothic Revival tower performing the function of a belvedere was erected on the garden side of the palace. In 1891, following a devastating fire which gutted some of the interiors, the palace was reconstructed in the Baroque Revival style. The corps de logis of the palace was reconstructed and a number of pronounced avant-corps were added, one of which - the western one - was designed to house the staircase. The façades of the palace were enlivened through the addition of stone portals and other detailing. The palace interiors have also been redesigned, with the most impressive ones now being located in the middle section of the building, including the grand staircase and the opulent hall and drawing room on the first floor. Some of the ground floor interiors were designed in the Dutch style, their walls clad with Delftware. Those residential areas where grandeur and opulence was called for received a new, Rococo Revival décor.

From the 17th century until 1908 both the residence and the surrounding manor remained in the hands of the interrelated noble families of von Reichell and von Tschirschky; later on, it became the property of the von Eulenburg family.

The nearby manor farm buildings were erected in years 1857-1925, while the villa located near the western wing came into being in years 1891-95. The ornamental garden surrounding the palace underwent transformation in the second half of the 19th century and in the early decades of the 20th century.

In 1947, the palace became the property of the Agricultural School Complex; from the year 2000 onwards, it has been occupied by the District School Complex no. 1 in Krzyżowice. The interiors of the palace were modernised in order to adapt them to serve their new, educational purposes in years 1952-83. Subsequent renovation works were carried out in years 1983-2000 and in 2008.

Description

The palace is situated in the middle of the village, surrounded by two granges; to the east, south and west lies a garden where traces of the original layout can still be discerned. A free-standing villa stands near the western wing of the palace. North of the palace lies a moated motte which may still harbour the remnants of a residential tower or manor house.

The palace itself is a brick building, its walls covered with plaster and enlivened by stone architectural detailing. It consists of three wings covered with tall gable roofs. Designed on a horseshoe floor plan, the palace is made up of Baroque side wings, a Baroque Revival corps de logis and a Gothic Revival tower in its north-western section. The overhanging uppermost storey of the tower is supported by machicolations and topped with a crenellated parapet. The monotony of the structure is broken by dormers and impressive, distinctive avant-corps; the individual storeys are separated by a cornice which runs along the entire length of the façades, as does the upper, crowning cornice positioned beneath the eaves. The windows and doors are framed with eared stone surrounds and portals, one of them bearing the date 1891; coats of arms of the von Tschirsky and Tschirsky-Reichell noble families adorn the northern façade. Inside, in the western wing, visitors may admire two rooms featuring double barrel vaults with pronounced groins. In the middle section of the palace there is a vestibule whose walls is lined with Delftware; strips of tiles of the same kind are also present in a grand hall which features a lavish, Baroque Revival décor. The main, double staircase is graced by a marble lion brandishing a cornucopia.

The site is open to visitors.

compiled by Beata Sebzda, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Wrocław, 9-06-2015.

Bibliography

  • Degen K., Die Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler des Landkreises Breslau, Frankfurt am Main 1965, pp. 275-276.
  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce. Seria Nowa, vol. IV, issue 2, Województwo wrocławskie, Sobótka, Kąty Wrocławskie i okolice, J. Pokora and M. Zlat (eds.), Warsaw 1991, pp. 50-51.
  • Pilch J., Leksykon zabytków architektury Dolnego Śląska. Warsaw 2005, p. 173.
  • Sieber H., Schlösser in Schlesien, Frankfurt am Main 1971, p. 34.
  • Zabytki sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, Warsaw 2006, p. 464.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1. poł. XVIII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Krzyżowice
  • Location: Voivodeship dolnośląskie, district wrocławski, commune Kobierzyce
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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