Manor house complex - Zabytek.pl
Manor house complex
woj. wielkopolskie, pow. gnieźnieński, gm. Trzemeszno - obszar wiejski
In the 18th century, following its extension, it was given Baroque features. During the 1920s, a classicist portico was built in the front and an arcaded porch with a balcony was constructed by the back façade. The manor house still has the original, 16-century walls and ceilings at the ground floor level and, on the first floor, the original arcaded hall and Baroque stairs which were constructed during the 18th-century modification works. The building is surrounded by a landscape park whose original design is now difficult to identify.
The Late-Renaissance manor house was built in 1582 by the abbot of a Canon Regular monastery in Trzemeszno, Aleksander Mieliński. Originally, the manor house was surrounded by wetlands on the east side, by a deep moat on the north side, and by Kruchowskie Lake on the south-west side.
In c. 1766, the building was modified and given a Baroque character. At that time, Kruchowo was owned by Józef Rosen.
After the modification works were completed, an Italian garden was established by the manor house.
Before 1846, new interior decor and new fittings were introduced; some of the rooms were adorned with wall paintings.
In the 1st half of the 19th century, a landscape park was established with the use of the elements of the previous garden.
In the late 19th century, when the owner was Johann Franz H. von Poncet, the window woodwork was replaced and a large room on the first floor was converted into a spacious hall.
In 1921, the building was given classical features. A portico with columns was built in the front and an arcaded porch with a balcony and a balustrade were constructed by the back wall.
After 1945, a door opening was made in the south wall.
Kruchowo, a village in the Trzemeszno commune, is located approx. 5 km off Trzemeszno, by a road leading to Ławki and Gościeszyn. The village, along with the manor house and a church, was located by the north-eastern shore of Kruchowskie Lake. The oldest written records mentioning the village date from the 14th century. Archaeological excavations which were carried out in the mid-19th century (which was an initiative by the contemporary owner, Adolf Malczewski) provided evidence of the existence of a prehistoric settlement in this area. The archeological finds included early-medieval graves nearby the so-called Wendowa Mountain and a lion-shaped bronze vessel from the 12th century, the so-called aquamanulla. In the Middle Ages, the territory of the present village belonged to the Sulim family, from whom the Kruchowski family were descended. In 1533, Kruchowo became the property of the Mieliński family. It was Aleksander Mieliński, a royal secretary and the abbot of a monastery in Trzemeszno, who contributed to the construction of the first residence in Kruchowo. In 1582, a Late-Renaissance manor house with two towers, defensive in character, was built on a small artificial hill. It was surrounded by wetlands on the east side; currently, those areas are occupied by fish ponds established in the inter-war period. To the north of the building, there is a deep moat, and to the south-west — Kruchowskie Lake. In 1634, Kruchowo became the property of the Mielżyński family. The next owners (from 1676) were the Rosens (or Rozens) of the Gryf coat of arms. In 1766, Józef Rosen modified the existing building, converting it into a Baroque manor house. A larger part of the estate remained the property of this family until the early 19th century. Documents from the mid-1830s name Adolf Ignacy Skarbek Malczewski as the owner of Kruchowo. In 1860, the village was offered for sale. During the next years, it had a number of new owners. In the early 1880s, the estate, covering an area of 740 ha, became the property of Franz H. von Poncet. In 1926, Kruchowo was purchased by Count Alfred Jankowski of the Jastrzębiec coat of arms, a farmer by trade; he had graduated from universities in Zurich and Munich. Together with his wife, Zofia, he modernised the estate and the breeding facilities and built fish ponds. Both he and his wife were social activists. Zofia Jankowska established a number of Polish Female Peasant Associations, e.g. in Kruchowo and Trzemeszno. Alfred and Zofia Jankowski remained the owners of Kruchowo until 1939. Currently, the complex is managed by the Agricultural Property Agency.
The manor house is a two-storeyed, brick building covered with plaster, having a rectangular floor plan and a compact structure. It has a high mansard roof with roof tiles. It rests on cellars covered with barrel vaults. The manor house façades are covered with smooth plaster. The window openings, rectangular in shape, are arranged regularly, along axes, and framed by smooth surrounds. The original Baroque colour scheme and façade decor are still visible under the newer layers of paint, now flaking off. Originally, the walls were a whitened yellow ochre colour, with the decorative architectural details — the window surrounds — painted red. The ground floor and the first floor levels are divided by means of a smooth frieze. At the top, below the eaves, there is a profiled cornice. The front (south-west) façade of the manor house has 7 axes, with a four-column portico in front of the main entrance. On the portico frieze is the following inscription: MDXLV NON DORMIT QUI CUSTODIAT MCMXXI. The tympanum incorporates the Jastrzębiec coat of arms, which was used by the pre-war owners of Kruchowo, the Jankowski family. The back façade also has 7 axes. In the centre, there is a porch supported by massive piers, with a terrace enclosed with a balustrade at the first floor level. The side façades of the building underwent major modifications in the past; originally, they both had 4 axes. The manor house has a two-bay layout, with a spacious hall on the axis of the front bay and a number of side rooms, some of which are still covered with the original vaults. The preserved interior fittings include two Baroque fireplaces, a stair balustrade, and door woodwork from the 18th and 19th centuries. The building is seriously neglected.
After the manor house was modified in the Baroque style, an Italian garden, incorporating water reservoirs, was established around it. The landscape park surrounding the palace was established in the 1st half of the 19th century. It was laid out on a terrain sloping down towards the lake, with a vast meadow framed by trees, which stretched in front of the manor house and reached down to the lake. Behind the building, there used to be a large flower garden, which separated the residence from the farm yard. To the north of the park, across a local road, there used to be vast gardens. Currently, the original park layout is largely unidentifiable.
The historic monument can be visited from the outside. The manor house is currently used as a residential building and a library.
compiled by Teresa Palacz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 30-09-2015.
- Strzałko Maria, Majątki wielkopolskie, t. IX, z. 1, s. 226-236, Szreniawa 2013.
- Słownik Geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich, t. IV, s. 721, Warszawa 1883.
- Architektura niedostrzegana. Budownictwo folwarczne Wielkopolski, Poznań 1994.
- Kalinowska K., Kruchowo - Dwór. Dokumentacja historyczno-architektoniczna wykonana na zlecenie WKZ w Bydgoszczy, 1975 r. [Archiwum WKZ w Poznaniu].
- Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, Mogilno, Strzelno, Trzemeszno i okolice (d. pow. mogileński), t. XI, z. 10., s. 15-16, Warszawa 1982.
- Białłowicz-Krygierowa Zofia, Zabytki Mogilna, Trzemeszna i okolic od gotyku po barok. [w:] Studia z dziejów ziemi mogileńskiej, s. 317-431., Poznań 1978.
Category: manor house
Protection: Register of monuments, Monuments records
Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_N_30_ZE.49828, PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_E_30_ZE.5124