The complex of the former hospital church, currently serving as the filial church of St Mark the Evangelist and St Anne the Mother of Mary, Końskowola
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The complex of the former hospital church, currently serving as the filial church of St Mark the Evangelist and St Anne the Mother of Mary

Końskowola

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The central part of the complex is the small hospital church - one of the most eminent examples of the so-called Lublin Renaissance style and one of the first such buildings ever to be constructed, having been completed back in 1613. Both the architectural form of the church and the interior décor, fixtures and fittings dating back to the first quarter of the 17th century have been preserved intact to the present day. The main altarpiece, incorporating the image of The Virgin and Child with St Anne as well as the portrait of Stanisław Lisowicz, the parish priest of Końskowola and the benefactor of the church, remains a historical artefact of note. The portrait in question remains the only work which may be attributed to Stanisław Szczerbic, a painter working in Lublin in the first quarter of the 17th century, with any degree of certainty. The historical value of the church is further enhanced by the truly unique gallery or loge positioned above the sacristy, featuring the preserved Late Renaissance painted decorations as well as a polychromed brick fireplace surround.

History

The hospital church of St Mark the Evangelist and St Anne the Mother of Mary was erected in years 1610-1613, replacing an earlier, wooden church funded by Jan Gabriel Tęczyński back in 1526, along with the nearby infirmary. The design of the church is attributed to Piotr Durie, a brickmason from Lublin. In years 1617-1624, the building performed the function of a parish church. The main altarpiece, funded by the erstwhile parish priest, Stanisław Lisowicz, dates back to 1618. The surviving drawings from the 1st half of the 19th century have made is possible to determine that a two-storey, brick annex originally abutted upon the southern wall; the annex featured an entrance on the first-floor level, leading into the pipe organ gallery and further down to the room located above the sacristy. This annex was torn down towards the end of the 19th century. The church was renovated in years 1900, 1916, 1983-86 (when the wall paintings were restored, among other things) and in 2013.

The rectory was built after 1617, after the former rectory which stood next to the parish church was lost to the blaze along with the church itself during that same year. There have been theories that the rectory might have originally been the castle tenement house of the Tęczyński family; these, however, have not been confirmed so far. Having suffered damage during the Swedish invasion commonly referred to as the Deluge, the structure was rebuilt somewhere around 1676. In 1840, a two-storey southern wing was added, followed by a single-storey eastern annex in 1892. It was most likely at that point that the ground floor layout was also modified, with the main entrance and the stairs inside the vestibule towards the north being both moved to the western side of the building, while the two rooms inside the southern bay were combined into one. The rectory underwent renovation works on a couple of occasions, including in 1913, when both the window and door joinery and the stoves were repaired. During the post-war period, a single-storey vestibule was added to the southern wall of the rectory wing, topped with a terrace on the first-floor level; in addition, a large window opening was also added during that period. Today, the building serves as a restaurant.

The hospital was built on the site of an earlier, wooden infirmary dating back to ca. 1526. A new, brick building was erected in years 1644-1650, with the funds for its construction being donated by Jan Mikołaj Daniłowicz. That building was then replaced by the one which survives to this day, built in the second half of the 18th century for the funds provided for that purpose by the Czartoryski ducal family. It is possible that fragments of the earlier structure might have been incorporated into the new one. Following the construction of a new almshouse in 1902, the old infirmary was converted into a parish house with an apartment for the organist. The building suffered damage during World War I, after which the attic of the building was converted into a residential space, with the roof shape being changed from a half-hip roof to a gable roof with large wall dormers positioned along the middle axis, merged together with the adjoining, smaller dormer windows. From 1945 onwards the building serves the needs of the Missionary Sisters. After the war, two annexes were added to the northern and western façades.

Description

The ensemble is located on a hill in the western part of the settlement, on a site which had once been outside the town limits. The buildings lie on both sides of Lubelska street (formerly known as Szpitalna (Hospital) street, leading through a trench which was excavated at a later date. The church is positioned in parallel to the street, on the northern side thereof; behind the church (towards the west) stands the former infirmary (hospital) building, its front façade facing the street.

The church is oriented towards the east; it is a brick and limestone building with a short, single-nave body and a slightly narrower, short chancel with a semi-circular termination, its height identical to that of the nave. The church features gable roofs clad with roof tiles. The side annex containing the sacristy is covered with a shed roof. In the western part of the nave lies the section located underneath the pipe organ gallery which includes a narrow, tunnel-like porch in the centre, a blind hallway leading off towards the south as well as the spiral staircase towards the north, leading up into the gallery. A two-storey annex containing the sacristy adjoins the southern wall of the main body of the church, accessible from the nave through an entrance in the middle of the wall. Above the sacristy there is a loge consisting of two small rooms, the larger of which features a window opening up towards the nave; an overhanging walkway leads from the smaller room towards the staircase and the pipe organ gallery.

The interior of the church features simple walls without any decorative divisions; the nave and the chancel feature barrel vaults with lunettes, covered with decorative plasterwork incorporating the motif of stylised hearts with volute-shaped endings as well as plaques in the form of large rosettes along the middle strip of the vault and beneath the rood arch; smaller rosettes can be seen in places where the decorative strips meet. Similar rosettes are also placed inside faux ceiling coffers. The floor is made of new, wooden boards, with brick flooring used for the gallery, the sacristy and the loge. The sacristy and the rooms upstairs feature barrel vaults and brick floors.

Outside, the walls are supported by buttresses and feature no vertical divisions whatsoever; the walls, set atop a tall plinth below, are crowned with a somewhat incomplete entablature (lacking an architrave), adorned with a flat dentilled strip beneath the cornice. The main entrance features a simple surround and a small pediment. The gable is divided into two parts by a strip of entablature supported by a middle pilaster with a capital which, although reminiscent of the Corinthian order, does not strictly adhere to the rules of the style. From the shaft of the pilaster extend two arms, arcing upwards to join the flowing gable coping which is adorned by three pairs of pinnacles. The upper part of the decorative gable takes the form of a small pediment which is also flanked by volutes. Fixtures and fittings; decorations Inside, visitors can admire a Mannerist altarpiece with a painting of the Virgin Mary with Child and St Anne. Inside the sacristy there is a fireplace niche topped with a stone cartouche; in the larger room stands a polychromed, brick fireplace, its hood supported by a pair of Ionic columns. The walls of the rooms above the sacristy feature an exquisite polychromed decoration in the form of trompe l’œil ceiling coffers with rosettes as well as of imitation wall-hangings adorned with stylised flower motifs.

The rectory is a two-storey brick and limestone building originally designed on a square floor plan, with a tripartite, two-bay interior, the (former) vestibule being positioned on the axis of the building in its northern bay, while a single-bay wing and a single-storey annex adjoin the building to the south-east and the east respectively. The original layout of the interior has been modified since the times when the building was new. The vaulted former vestibule features a bricked-up entrance which survives as a niche with a window. The stairs have been moved from the vestibule into a room in the north-western corner, along the current western entrance. The façades are devoid of any decorative divisions, flanked by simple, corner buttresses. The tall hip roof with a short ridge is covered with roof tiles.

The former hospital is a single-storey brick building with an adapted attic. Designed on a rectangular floor plan, the building follows a two-bay, five-section plan with two vestibules leading across the entire building. A pair of wall dormers is positioned on the transverse axis of the building; these were added at a later date and were not part of the original design. Both the wall dormer and the main body feature gable roofs with intersecting ridges, clad with roof tiles. The roofs above the smaller dormers are of the mono-pitched type.

The church and the hospital can be viewed from the outside; the former rectory may also be viewed from the inside during the restaurant opening hours.

compiled by Roman Zwierzchowski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 27-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Record sheet, The hospital church of St Anne in Końskowola, compiled by R. Zwierzchowski, 198, Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw
  • Record sheet, Rectory, Końskowola, compiled by E. Bortkiewicz, 1988, Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw
  • Record sheet, Former hospital, Końskowola, compiled by E. Bortkiewicz, 1987, Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw
  • Dzieje Końskowoli, R. Szczygło (ed.), collective work, Lublin 1988
  • M. Wasiluk, Kościół pw. św. Anny w Końskowoli, Końskowola 2010
 

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: 1610-1613
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Końskowola
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district puławski, commune Końskowola
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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