Palace complex, Komierowo
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
photo

The palace in Komierowo is a valuable example of a gradual architectural evolution, with successive changes ushered in by the architects Wiktor Stabrowski and Stefan Cybichowski. Surrounded by an extensive park, the palace remains one of the most important structures of its kind in the entire Kujawsko-Pomorskie province. For centuries, the palace remained the property of one of the oldest Polish noble families - the Komierowski family of the Pomian coat of arms, who have made a name for themselves in the annals of both the Krajna region and the entire country in general, with members of the very same family still holding the title to the palace today.

History

The very first mentions of the village of Komierowo date back to the year 1376, when Jesko de Comyrow and his brothers sold the settlement of Nasława Łąka to the Cistercian monks from Koronowo. During the 15th century, Komierowo became the property of a man named Piotr; after his death in 1494, his property was inherited by his grandsons - Mikołaj and Maciej, who remained under the care of Jan of Brudzewo at the time. Once the brothers came of age, Maciej became the lord of the manor; later on, Komierowo was inherited by his daughter, Zofia. In 1561, Zofia disposed of her part of the inheritance in favour of Jędrzej Opaliński, who in turn sold Komierowo to Piotr and Maciej Komierowski, the sons of Mikołaj, who were also Zofia’s cousins. This transaction occurred during the very same year as the previous one (1561). From that moment onwards, the village and manor remained in the hands of the Komierowski family. The oldest fortified manor house was located south-east of the church, at the base of the nearby ramparts. The available historical sources indicate that this building was destroyed in 1656. A new, Baroque manor house was then erected on the site of the existing building by Piotr Komierowski, who became the lord of the manor in 1680. However, towards the end of the 19th century the manor house was in such dire technical condition that it could no longer serve as the family residence. In 1896, Roman Komierowski began the restoration and extension works. The design was produced by the architect Wiktor Stabrowski, with the new manor house being an example of the Gothic Revival style. The mansion was remodelled once again in the years 1924-1929 by Tomasz Komierowski, based on the design produced by the architect Stanisław Cybichowski. Until the onset of World War II, the owner of the Komierowo manor was Tomasz Komierowski; as he was trying to make his way towards Nieżychowo, he was apprehended by German soldiers and transported to Lipka near Złotów, where he was executed by firing squad in the night hours of September 3/4, 1939.

During the early days of the Nazi occupation, many valuable items were taken away from the palace, including the library, the collection of portraits as well as other fixtures and fittings. The building and the accompanying manor farm served as a makeshift camp for Polish detainees.

In the April of 1945, the retreating German forces have destroyed the tomb chapel of the Komierowski family located in the south-eastern part of the park (erected in 1911). After 1945, the palace and the rest of the manor was taken over by the State Treasury and remained abandoned until 1960. In years 1961-1962, the Komierowo manor became a penal labour facility for the inmates of the Koronowo prison, with many changes being made inside the palace for that purpose. From 1962 onwards, many of the rooms inside the palace were used as apartments or storage facilities, while the entire first floor and garret remained abandoned. The building was renovated in the years 1976-1978. Until 1989, the palace and the manor farm buildings served the needs of the Komierowo State Agricultural Holding (PGR). After the PGR was dissolved, the palace remained in the hands of the State Treasury until 1993; on 11.08.1993, it was taken over by the State Treasury Agricultural Property Agency (Bydgoszcz branch office). Until 1997, the palace saw intermittent use as a recreational and leisure facility. On December 16, 1997, Janina Anna Komierowska became the new owner of the palace and part of the former manor farm, with the conveyance of ownership confirmed by the relevant notarial deed. Today, the palace remains in the hands of the Mazovian line of the Komierowski family.

Description

The palace complex is situated in the eastern part of the village. The roads from Sępólno Krajeńskie to Włościbórz as well as the roads towards Wałdowo and towards Przepałkowo serve as the western, northern and southern boundaries of the manor respectively. An extensive park stretches around the palace, surrounding it from the south, the east and the north. East of the palace there is an ensemble of three ponds, interconnected by narrow waterways. Beyond the eastern part of the park lies an extensive swathe of arable land. The palace itself stands on a glacial mound; it was designed on a rectangular floor plan, roughly following the north-south axis, albeit with a slight deviation. Designed as a brick building with no cellars but with a low, semi-basement-like ground-floor level, the palace is a three-storey structure, its walls covered with plaster. The entire structure is crowned with a mansard roof punctuated by dormer windows.

The ground-floor level is separated from the higher sections of the façade by a cornice protected by a narrow skirt roof. The top section of the walls is topped with a dentilled crowning cornice, beneath which runs a profiled cornice accentuating a plain frieze positioned just above the windows. The corners of the edifice are reinforced with buttresses. The front (western) façade faces a large driveway flanked by a pair of outbuildings.

The rectangular windows are framed with surrounds with pronounced window sills; some of the window sills beneath the windows of the avant-corps are combined to form a single cornice. The doorways are likewise rectangular in shape; the main entrance is topped with a segmental arch.

The ground-floor hallway is graced by an elliptical groin vault supported by four rectangular pillars; a vaulted ceiling of the double-barrel type is also present inside a room positioned at the edge of the southern section of the building. The hallway inside the northern part of the ground floor features a barrel vault. The ground-floor hallway is graced by an elliptical double-barrel vault supported by four rectangular pillars; a vaulted ceiling of the double-barrel type is also present inside a room positioned at the edge of the southern section of the building, on the middle axis thereof. The hallway inside the northern part of the ground floor features a barrel vault. Segmental vaults are used for the front suite of rooms in the north-western part of the ground floor. An elliptical vaulted ceiling of the double-barrel type is found on the first-floor level of the staircase. The second-floor gallery surrounding the staircase features barrel vaults, some of them equipped with lunettes. The remaining rooms have flat ceilings.

The front (western) façade and the eastern façade overlooking the park both feature an avant-corps in the middle. The northern façade likewise features a subtle avant-corps projecting beyond the outline of its wall. The southern façade is adjoined by a single-storey loggia with a terrace on top. The northern façade features an avant-corps designed on a rectangular floor plan, containing a staircase. A small, corner annex designed on a square floor plan adjoins the eastern section of the building.

The front (western) façade follows a nine-axial layout with a total of three avant-corps. The central avant-corps is flanked by two pairs of Ionic giant order columns, perched atop a pair of buttresses at the ground-floor level and supporting a triangular, split pediment. In addition, the avant-corps is also flanked by a single engaged column on each side. The pilasters occupying the corners where the walls of the avant-corps and the main body meet likewise feature Ionic capitals. The first-floor balcony door is framed with a portal adorned with a faux keystone, flanked by composite columns; the capitals of the columns support impost blocks upon which rest the two sections of a segmental split pediment. The walls of the avant-corps at the edges are topped with simple roof parapets. The southern façade follows a four-axial layout, with the middle section of the ground floor being preceded by a rectangular loggia with a pair of elliptical arches positioned on a pair of rectangular pillars at the edges and a single, simplified Tuscan column in the middle. The side walls of the loggia are pierced with a single opening, topped with a round arch. The roof of the loggia doubles as a terrace, fitted with a metal balustrade.

The eastern façade follows an eight-axial layout with a two-axial central avant-corps; the side façades of the avant-corps follow a single-axial layout. The entire avant-corps is topped with a roof parapet positioned at the height of the eaves, with each individual storey being accentuated with a cornice. An entrance and a stairway leading into the surrounding grounds is positioned on the second axis (counting from the south), at the ground-floor level. The northern façade follows a four-axial layout incorporating an avant-corps containing the staircase. A roof parapet runs at the level of the eaves of the roof of the main body of the palace. A small annex topped with a two-sided roof, reaching slightly above the first-floor level, adjoins the eastern corner of the staircase extension. The façade of the annex is punctuated with small, rectangular windows.

Interiors: The ground-floor hallway is graced by an elliptical double-barrel vault supported by four rectangular pillars; a vaulted ceiling of the double-barrel type is also present inside a room positioned at the edge of the southern section of the building, positioned on the middle axis thereof. The hallway inside the northern part of the ground floor features a barrel vault.

Segmental vaults are used for the front suite of rooms in the northern part of the ground floor. An elliptical vaulted ceiling of the double-barrel type is found on the first-floor level of the staircase. The second-floor gallery surrounding the staircase features barrel vaults, some of them equipped with lunettes. The remaining rooms have flat ceilings.

The central avant-corps follows a two-bay layout. A wind porch is located in the front suite of rooms. The main staircase is positioned alongside the wall separating the two suites of rooms. A single-bay space with remnants of a now-vanished wall that used to separate it into two suites of rooms adjoins the southern part of the avant-corps. The part of the palace positioned north of the avant-corps features a two-and-a-half-bay layout. The avant-corps at the southern edge of the building features a distorted arrangement of rooms. The ground floor rooms positioned alongside a narrow hallway in the northern section are of different sizes and feature an irregular layout. On the first floor, a narrow hallway flanked by rooms arranged in an enfilade layout leads away from the central hall towards the north. A large room created by combining separate suites of rooms is located on the southern side of the hall, followed by the avant-corps rooms adapted for residential purposes. On the second floor, there is an arcaded gallery surrounding the staircase, connected with the hallway running through the building. The hallway is flanked by interconnected rooms which had originally served as guest accommodation. The side staircase is positioned inside the avant-corps projecting from the northern façade, facilitating access to the garret, where former servants’ quarters are located.

Manor farm complex

The front (western) façade is preceded by a large courtyard with a driveway and an ornamental flower-bed in the centre. On the northern side of the courtyard stands the masonry outbuilding dating back to the late 19th century and subsequently remodelled in 1919; designed on a rectangular floor plan and positioned along the east-west axis, it is a two-storey structure with an avant-corps, topped with a multi-faceted roof. In the south-western part of the courtyard there is a single-storey brick smithy building with an arcade up front, dating back to 1919.

A complex of manor farm buildings erected or substantially redesigned in the late 19th and early 20th century is located north of the palace. The entrances into the grange and park lead through gates with cylindrical posts made of brick, topped with small pyramids surmounted by stone spheres (first half of the 19th century). A semi-detached house designed for four families of servants or farm-hands, dating back to ca. 1863, is located west of the palace, on the western side of the Przepałkowo-Włościbórz road.

The park

The hill where the palace stands provides a commanding view of the surrounding park, with a total surface area of 15 hectares. The courtyard is surrounded from the west and the south by a highly diverse stand of trees. The extensive park stretches to the south, east and north of the palace; inside the park there is a trio of ponds, with the largest of them situated in the eastern part of the park, while the two smaller ones lie to the south-east. The roads towards Wałdowo, Włościbórz and Przepałkowo serve as the northern, western and southern boundaries of the park respectively. The longest, eastern boundary of the complex runs alongside a swathe of arable fields. Inside the park there is a great diversity of tree species, including eight oaks which have been here for more than 300 years as well as a number of similarly ancient lime trees, which indicates that the park complex may in fact trace its roots back to the late 17th/early 18th century. The current layout of the park is reminiscent of the similar designs from the early 19th century, transformed in the second half of the 19th century when the old manor house was being transformed into a new, Gothic Revival country home for the Komierowski family. At that point, the park was remodelled, taking advantage of the natural shape of the underlying terrain and water bodies. The water from an irrigation ditch flows into three ponds arranged in a cascade layout. In the south-eastern part of the park, between a pair of ponds, stands the church of St Michael the Archangel, erected in the years 1984-1986 for the funds provided by Andrzej Komierowski on the site of the now-vanished tomb chapel which was destroyed by the German forces in the early 1945. The species of trees present in the park include beech, oak, hornbeam, ash, sycamore, chestnut, maple, lime, poplar and willow. A number of oaks enjoy the status of natural monuments; an alley lines with hornbeam trees forms an important feature in the spatial layout of the park.

No visitor access to the building.

compiled by Krzysztof Bartowski, Historical Monument and National Heritage Documentation and Popularisation Department of the Kuyavian-Pomeranian Cultural Centre in Bydgoszcz, 10-12-2014 - 19-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Record sheet, Palace. Komierowo, compiled by Bartowski K., 2000, Archive of the Regional Office for the Protection of Historical Monuments in Bydgoszcz; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, vol. XI, issue 13, Warsaw 1970
  • Arszyński M, Rejmanowski M., Zabytki architektury i budownictwa w Polsce, issue 2: Województwo bydgoskie, Warsaw 1972, p. 55
  • Żmidziński F., Działalność szlacheckich rodów krajeńskich: Bnińskich i Komierowskich w okresie zaborów, (in:) Rocznik Nadnotecki, vol. 6, Nakło 1975, pp. 31-52
  • Roman Komierowski, (in:), Słownik historyków polskich. Warsaw 1994, p. 238.
  • Parucka K., Raczyńska-Mąkowska E., Katalog zabytków województwa bydgoskiego, Bydgoszcz 1997, p. 174.
  • Zabytki architektury i budownictwa w Polsce, Województwo bydgoskie 5, part 2, Warsaw 1997, p. 333
  • Żmidziński F., Działalność szlacheckich rodów krajeńskich: Bnińskich i Komierowskich w okresie zaborów, (in:) Rocznik Nadnotecki, vol. 6, Nakło 1975, pp. 31-52

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: ok. 1680 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Komierowo
  • Location: Voivodeship kujawsko-pomorskie, district sępoleński, commune Sępólno Krajeńskie - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

Licence:

report issue with this site

Geoportal Map

Google Map

See also in this area