Hillfort, Klwów
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
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The hill fort is a remnant of a fortified seat of the owners of Klwów existing in the same place in the period from the Middle Ages to the First World War. It is an important component of the settlement network which was developing since the period before the charter was granted.

Location and description

The hill fort is situated to the north of the village buildings, on the eastern bank of the pond into which the Sławna stream flows. Originally, the fortified settlement was built in the stream valley on a natural sand hill.

The hill fort was partly destroyed by irrigation and farming. The eastern part of the structure with the dimensions of its base of 32 m x 20 m and approx. 2.2 m in height, which is equal to around a half of the original complex. The preserved section of the mound indicates that the structure was tetragon-shaped in plan with rounded corners and measured 32 m by 40 m. The upper plan was significantly smaller; its reconstructed version measures around 18 m by 20 m. In the past the structure was surrounded by a moat and an outer rampart.

History

The town of Klwów (founded in 1413) and previous settlements in this area developed due to its advantageous location near important trade routes running from Greater Poland to Radom (Klwów is mentioned in documents 1454-1455) and further to Lithuania and from Toruń to Lviv. Large herds of slaughter cattle (a few thousands head of cattle per year) were chased away from Russian Lands to Silesia towards Greater Poland, and from there to Western Europe.

The hill fort is situated to the north of the village buildings, on the eastern bank of the pond into which the Sławna stream flows. Originally, the fortified settlement was built in the stream valley on a natural sand hill.

The first mention of the village can be found in written sources of 1338. The seat of the owners was erected by Krzesław from the Duninowie (Łabędzie) family or his sons Wszebór and Borzywój. The manor house featuring wattle-and-daub walls was probably built by Stanisław Boglewski in the late 15th century and used throughout the next century. The origins of the brick manor house, probably dating back to the two first decades of the 17th century, can be linked to the Kurdwanowscy family. The manor house is situated on a mound, surrounded by waterlogged meadows, and can be identified on the plan of the Wola Klwowska farmstead dating from 1875, authored by Władysław Jasiński. The manor farm complex was probably destroyed during the First World War.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The inventory of the hill fort in Klwów was drawn up in 1949. Studios for Conservation of Cultural PropertyArcheological surveys were conducted by archaeologists from the Studios for Conservation of Cultural Property (Pracownie Konserwacji Zabytków) in Łódź. Excavations took place in the western part of the mound. Archeological investigations also involved drilling of a series of exploration wells along the north-south line, which have cut the embankment and the valley of a stream. The investigations revealed the existence of a 8-10-metre-wide moat surrounding the fort and outer ramparts which are no longer visible.

Z. Lechowicz made a re-interpretation of the results of investigations carried out in the 1970s based on the historic material collected (fragments of ceramic vessels, stove tiles, bottle glass) and historical sources. He identified three phases of the fortified complex in Klwów. The researcher considered the remains of wooden building (it is not known whether it was a single-storey or tower building) as the oldest usable level. Investigations of the oldest building level revealed only ceramics which were reminiscent of the Early Middle Ages. The collection of the oldest finds also included fragments of ceramic vessels dating back to the 13th/14th -15th centuries. The small fortified settlement classified into the first phase was destroyed in a fire. Younger relics of the buildings can be categorised into two settlement levels separated by two layers of pavement. The older layer is a remnant of wattle-and-daub buildings built on stone foundations. The wall filling was made of both brick, as evidenced by numerous rubble, and clay; pudding remained as a remnant after parts of the walls were destroyed. The younger layer of masonry buildings includes relics of a brick building built on stone foundations. It can be linked to the fragment of a portal stored in a local school. The results of archeological investigations, unfortunately, do not provide a basis for the reconstruction of the shape and division of both inner buildings. Monuments linked to the younger life cycles of the buildings (fragments of glazed vessels and stove tiles) date back to the 16th - 17th centuries. The complex also includes the so-called stove profiles from the 18th century. The youngest groups of finds consists of fragments of stone bowls and bottle glass. They date back to the late 18th century and the early 19th century and the next century. Researchers managed to correlate the identified phases with the data from historical sources (see ‘History of the site’).

The hill fort is located in the area of land being private property, approx. 120 m to the east of a cemetery and approx. 70 m to the south of the local road. The monument is visible from the road.

Compiled by Agnieszka Oniszczuk, National Heritage Board of Poland, 23.06.2015 r.

Bibliography

  • Ćwiertak E., Wyniki weryfikacji grodzisk w oparciu o badania na terenie województwa radomskiego, ”Biuletyn Kwartalny Radomskiego Towarzystwa Naukowego” 1979, vol. 16, issue 1-2, pp. 189-196.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, vol. 3, Województwo kieleckie, issue 8, Powiat opoczyński, compiled by Helena Kozakiewiczowa, Warsaw 1958, p. 15.
  • Lechowicz Z., Klwów w optyce archeologii historycznej - stan badań i potencjał poznawczy, [in:] Dariusz Kupisz (ed.), Dzieje Klwowa i parafii klwowskiej do roku 1918, Radom 2015, pp. 255-307.
  • Nierychlewska A., Budownictwo obronne powiatu radomskiego w okresie od XIII do XVIII wieku, Radom 2002, pp. 157-160.
  • Słownik geograficzny Królestwa Polskiego i innych krajów słowiańskich. T. 4, Warsaw 1880-1914, pp. 171-172, http://dir.icm.edu.pl/pl/Slownik_geograficzny/Tom_IV [access: 22.06.2015]

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: XIV w. - pocz. XV w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Klwów
  • Location: Voivodeship mazowieckie, district przysuski, commune Klwów
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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