Palace complex, currently serving as the Stanisław Konarski Vocational School Complex in Opole Lubelskie – branch of the Horticultural Secondary Technical School, Kluczkowice
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Palace complex, currently serving as the Stanisław Konarski Vocational School Complex in Opole Lubelskie – branch of the Horticultural Secondary Technical School

Kluczkowice

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A palace and park complex of immense historical, architectural and landscape value for the entire region. The well-preserved palace, designed in the eclectic style by the architect Konstanty Wojciechowski and erected towards the end of the 19th century, started its life as the country home of the Kleniewski noble family, who enjoyed a great reputation throughout the ages. Inside, the palace features a unique library in the Zakopane style - inspired by the traditions of the highland Podhale region - designed by Stanisław Witkiewicz, the creator of the style himself. The palace is surrounded by a landscape park which blends seamlessly into the woodlands beyond.

History

The village of Kluczkowice (formerly known as Kliczkowice) was first mentioned in written sources back in the 15th century, being linked to the Opole Lubelskie domain. In 1871, the domain was purchased from the heirs to Kazimierz Wydrychiewicz by Franciszek Kleniewski and his sons, one of whom, Jan, settled in Kluczkowice, while his brother Władysław chose the nearby village of Niezdów. Jan Kleniewski, a well-educated nobleman, built a number of industrial facilities on his land (including the “Zagłoba” sugar plant in the village of Wrzelów as well as another sugar plant in Opole Lubelskie); in addition, he also funded the construction of a narrow-gauge railway. His wife, Maria Kleniewska née Jarocińska, became involved in welfare and educational activities, organising various courses and workshop for the local residents (including, for example, weaving and basket-weaving). Initially, the new owners probably resided in the former administrator’s house, with the new palace, designed by the Warsaw architect Konstanty Wojciechowski, beginning to take shape during the 1880s, with the works being completed in the early 20th century. Among its opulent interiors was the library designed by Stanisław Witkiewicz in his trademark Zakopane style and made by highlander craftsmen. The role of another architect - Kazimierz Skórewicz, who was commissioned by the Kleniewski family towards the end of the 1920s to design the church in Zagłoba - remains unclear, although it is believed that he might also have been involved with the palace in Kluczkowice. The school and the stable with the carriage house are believed to originate from the same period as the palace itself. The park and the utility garden were both designed in the 1870s by Edmund Jankowski, a pioneer among the Polish garden designers. When World War II came to an end, the palace complex became a horticultural school.

Description

The palace complex is located on the western side of the road leading from Opole Lubelskie to Józefów; it consists of the palace, the nearby school, the former stable and carriage house as well as an extensive park which flows seamlessly into the village woodlands towards the north-west. An escarpment and a number of ponds serve as the boundaries of the park towards the south and north respectively.

The Palace. The palace was designed in the eclectic style, incorporating mostly Classicist and Renaissance Revival forms. It was designed on a complex, irregular plan. The body of the palace consists of a number of different, mostly single-storey parts of varying height, with a dominant feature in the form of a three-storey tower designed on a square floor plan. An extensive complex of cellars can be found the palace. The interior layout is irregular in design and generally follows a two-bay layout. In the centre of the palace lies the hall (known as the dayroom) leading into the library beyond, flanked by the drawing room and the dining room. The southern wing of the palace was designed as the residential section. The palace is a brick building, its walls covered with plaster, with wooden ceilings inside. The individual sections of the building feature gable or hip roofs, while the tower is crowned with a four-sloped cupola topped with a spire. The cupola of the tower as well as the roof of the single-storey section of the main body of the palace feature oeil-de-boeuf dormer windows. The roofs are covered with sheet metal. The front (western) façade follows an asymmetrical layout and features more than a dozen vertical axes of symmetry; towards the north lies a two-axial avant-corps adjoined by an annex with a terrace on the first-floor level. In the middle section there is a three-axial pseudo-avant-corps topped with a triangular pediment and preceded by a pronounced portico consisting of both columns and rectangular pillars, supporting a terrace above; in the southern part of the palace stands the tower, its uppermost storey taking the form of a belvedere, its walls pierced with triple windows. The rear façade follows a highly imaginative design, with a middle avant-corps mirroring the one in the front; there is also an octagonal, single-storey avant-corps towards the south, topped with a decorative parapet wall and a small belvedere; a large section of the rear façade is preceded by a broad terrace. All façades feature lavish architectural detailing in the form of rusticated pilasters adorning the corners of the building, profiled string courses and crown cornices, decorative panels and window surrounds as well as balustrades which grace the terraces of the palace. Inside, the main attraction is the unique library interior, with its wooden ceiling, panelling as well as cupboards and fireplace surrounds adorned with woodcarved motifs typical for the highland Podhale region.

The school is located in the immediate vicinity of the palace. It is a single-storey building designed on a rectangular floor plan, with basement. The school is a brick structure, its walls covered with plaster, covered by a gable roof clad with sheet metal. The façades feature Classical architectural detailing in the form of cornices and window surrounds.

Stable with carriage house. The stable is a single-storey building with a perpendicular avant-corps. The building is made of limestone with ceramic brick detailing.

The original spatial layout of the landscape park has become partially obscured as the ages went by; an impressive formal lawn can still be admired in front of the palace, the other surviving features being the monumental oaks and other rare tree species. The southern part of the park is split by a ravine, with the north-western section of the park blending seamlessly into a natural oak and pine forest.

Limited access to the historic building. The complex serves as a school and regional museum.

compiled by Bożena Stanek-Lebioda, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 22-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Record sheet. The Kluczkowice manor house, compiled by Smoktunowicz M. P., 1979, Archive of the Regional Office for the Protection of Historical Monuments in Lublin, Zamość branch; Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw.
  • Kleniewska M., Wspomnienia, edited and compiled by Włodarczyk W., Wilków 2002, passim.
  • Soborska M., Szkice z dziejów Kluczkowic, Lublin 1998, pp. 159-167.
  • Trzewik M., Biblioteka projektu Stanisława Witkiewicza w pałacu Kleniewskich w Kluczkowicach, (in:) Ziemiaństwo na Lubelszczyźnie, compiled by Maliszewska R., Kozłówka 2001, pp. 167-175.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: koniec XIX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Kluczkowice
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district opolski, commune Opole Lubelskie - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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