Barrow burial ground, Kleczanów
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

Barrow burial ground

Kleczanów

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It is the best preserved and one of the largest barrow-type cemetery in the Małopolska region. It is one of the three type-sites in the area of Sandomierz, yet the only that exists physically. It is a valuable part of the cultural landscape of the Sandomierz region.

Location and description

The cemetery is located in the wood west of the village of Kleczanów, on the west side of the Sandomierz-Opatów road. The early medieval barrow cemetery in Kleczanów has 37 well-preserved mounds of different size and morphology. They form four clusters in the area of ​​approx. 2 hectares. They were formed of the earth from the immediate surroundings by raking up an even layer around the mound or by forming a crescent-shaped recess on the south edge of the mound (mound ditch). They were on a circular or elliptical plan. Originally, they were 4-10 m in diameter and from 1.2/1.5 to 2.5 m high. No extra internal or top barrow structures have been uncovered inside. The most common type of burial were probably crematory graves (the skeletal remains burnt at the stake were placed in a container on top of the mound); also a dispersed crematory burial was discovered (the burnt remains were scattered all over the mound). Due to the relatively small amount of burned bones found, it can be assumed that those were partial burials, i.e. the deceased were cremated but their remains were only partially buried on the mound. The unearthed pieces of pottery are probably the remains of funeral rites or other rituals related to the worship the dead, part of which were probably feast. Near one of the barrows, a pile of stones was discovered along with the remains of a hearth, which could also be linked to the said rituals. An interesting fact is that the meadow among the mounds, not far from the main road, is a traditional venue of the celebration of Pentecost by the local residents, part of which is a procession of the parishioners to the woods. Perhaps, this tradition alludes to the past pagan rites commemorating the dead.

History

The oldest mound in Kleczanów was probably made by the people of the Corded Ware culture (ca. 2,800-2,300 BC) and the other three by the representatives of the Trzciniec culture (ca. 1,700-1,100 BC). The barrows were later incorporated into an early medieval burial ground of the 8th-10th century (perhaps the 2nd half of the 9th century).

Condition and results of archaeological research

The burial ground was discovered by Marek Florek during the AZP research project (Archaeological Image of Poland) in 1990. In the years 1990-1992, Marek Florek and Józef Ścibor conducted a comprehensive examination of the area: they drew up a contour plan of the site, developed a descriptive and photographic documentation and performed excavations on five mounds. In September 1992, Józef Ścibor and Andrzej Buko carried out the drilling on further mounds (9). In 2011 Barbara Bargieł and Marek Florek conducted excavations at the site to investigate one more barrow.

The site is accessible to visitors. Indicated by a roadside sign.

Compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 29.04.2015.

Bibliography

  • Bargieł B., Florek M., Badania kopców 34 i 35 na cmentarzysku kurhanowym w Kleczanowie, gm. Obrazów (stan. 6), „Sprawozdania z badań terenowych Katedry Archeologii UMCS w 1991 r.”, Lublin 1991, s. 36-39.
  • Florek M., Cmentarzysko kurhanowe w Kleczanowie k. Sandomierza (w:) Ogólnopolski Zjazd Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego. Przewodnik wycieczkowy, Lublin, 1994, s. 24-27.
  • Florek M., Ścibior J., Wczesnośredniowieczne cmentarzysko kurhanowe w Kleczanowie k. Sandomierza, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne”, t. 45, 1993, s. 181-212.
  • Florek M., Ścibior J., Cmentarzysko kurhanowe w lasku kleczanowskim (stanowisko 6) [w:] Kleczanów. Badania rozpoznawcze 1989-1992, A. Buko (red.), Warszawa 1997, s. 245-300.
  • Ścibior J., Badania terenowe Działu Archeologii w latach 1979-1990, „Pamiętnik Sandomierski”, t. 1, 1993, s. 163-188 (183-185).
  • Ścibor J., Trzy sezony badań wczesnośredniowiecznego cmentarzyska kurhanowego w Kleczanowie [w:] V Konferencja Sprawozdawcza. Badania archeologiczne w Polsce środkowo - wschodniej w 1992 r., Sandomierz, s. 32-33.
  • Wiśniewski J., Dekanat Sandomierski, Radom, 1915, s. 40-41.

General information

  • Type: Barrow
  • Chronology: VIII-X w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Kleczanów
  • Location: Voivodeship świętokrzyskie, district sandomierski, commune Obrazów
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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