Frederick William Fort (Rondel Fort, Montalembert’s Tower), Kędzierzyn-Koźle
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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Frederick William Fort (Rondel Fort, Montalembert’s Tower)

Kędzierzyn-Koźle

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Built between 1805 and 1829, Montalembert’s Tower marked one of the stages of the development of Koźle Fortress. It was one of the outermost points of defence according to the design of the French marquis and originator of a polygonal fortification system - Marc Rene de Montalembert - who was of the opinion that the growing importance of artillery requires your own canons to be moved to the fore, thus preventing the enemy from shelling the core of your fortress. Hence the one of its names of the tower - Montalembert’s Tower.

History

Frederick William Fort, also known as Montalembert’s Tower, was built as one of the last and furthest outposts comprising the Koźle Fortress defensive complex. Its construction started in 1805 (the date is imprinted on the tower façade), but the ongoing warfare caused the project to be delayed until 1829.

In the early 20th century (after the liquidation of Koźle Fortress), the tower was converted into a brewery. The buildings standing in its yard were also raised in that period. In 1945 the tower burned down and has been gradually falling into ruin ever since.

Description

Frederick William Fort was built at present-day Portowa Street as part of the right-bank fortification of the fortress (right bank of the Odra River). It spread as far as the village of Kłodnica and the first two locks of the Kłodnica Canal.

It was designed as a four-storey brick building with a brick on a circular plan, with a roofless courtyard in the middle. Its outer circumference is 33.9 m (internal 15.6 m). Originally, two circular staircases and two single-storey shelters adjoined the walls on the courtyard side.

The façades were divided into 28 equal bays with portholes with brick surrounds, in the form of a rectangle in the lower levels and terminated by semicircles in the uppermost section. Between the portholes of the first and second level, there are rectangular some ventilation openings. The entry gate is topped with a basket arch. The internal façade was smoothly plastered with a line of arcade cornice above the windows of the second level - today, a straight line is visible that reminds of that past form.

The interior of the tower, besides the barrel vaults supported on brick arches in the ground level are today devoid of partition walls and ceilings. Only consoles have been preserved at the level of the first floor that used to support the wooden ceilings.

Today the fort is unused.

The structure is in a confined area.

Compiled by Aleksandra Ziółkowska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 15-07-2015.

Bibliography

  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, t. VII: Województwo opolskie, z. 5: Powiat kozielski, red. T. Chrzanowski, M. Kornecki, Warszawa 1965, s. 30-31.
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytku architektury - Fort Fryderyka Wilhelma (Baszta Montealemberta, Maklakon, Fort Rondel) Koźle, oprac. M. Małachowicz, Arch. WUOZ w Opolu
  • http://www.kedzierzynkozle.pl/portal/index.php?t=200&id=23158

General information

  • Type: defensive architecture
  • Chronology: 1805-1829
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Portowa , Kędzierzyn-Koźle
  • Location: Voivodeship opolskie, district kędzierzyńsko-kozielski, commune Kędzierzyn-Koźle
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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