Hillfort, Grodzisko
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
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The ring fort in Grodzisko is one of the best-preserved medieval wooden and earthen fortified structures in the Silesian province. The historical monument incorporates easily discernible remnants of revetments as well as well-preserved cultural layers containing both moveable and immoveable archaeological artefacts, including parts of wooden structures. The site remains an invaluable source of information on the region’s history.

Location and description

Remnants of the medieval hillfort are located at the right (southern) bank of the Czarna Oksza river. The complex was erected right next to the river, in a waterlogged area north of its course, which was chosen precisely due to its inaccessible nature so that potential attackers would not be able to reach the hillfort easily. The hillfort itself is a lowland ring fort designed on a circular plan. It needs to be emphasised that it is the best-preserved site of its kind in the Silesian province, comprising two earthen ramparts separated by a dry moat, with the inner rampart forming a circular ring, while the outer rampart was designed on a horseshoe-shaped plan, opening towards the north, where the river lies; this design allowed the waters of the river to be easily routed into the moat. The hillfort is relatively small, its total surface being about 1 hectare, while the entire complex is about 120 metres in diameter. The diameter of the inner yard is about 55-60 metres, resulting in a total space of slightly more than 0.2 hectares.

Various archaeological surveys (A. Krauss in the mid-1950s and W. Błaszczyk in 1966) and excavations (R. Solski in 2014) have been conducted on the site. In the course of the surveys performed, both moveable and immoveable archaeological artefacts have been unearthed, allowing for the chronology of the site to be determined with a greater degree of precision.

History

The hillfort is believed to originate from the early Middle Ages, remaining in use until the late Middle Ages, i.e. between the (late?) 13th century and the 15th century. Numerous traces of burnt material found in the course of archaeological excavations seem to prove that the destruction of the complex was swift and sudden and that it involved a major fire. It should also perhaps be added at this stage that isolated fragments of pottery from the era of Roman influences have been unearthed on the site, serving as evidence of the fact that the area must have seen human habitation at a much earlier date. It is believed that the hillfort was the residence of Kłobuck-based courtiers bearing the title of łowczy (master of the hunt), operating in the Cracow region and first mentioned in written sources in 1257.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The site is accessible all year round. It forms part of the “Zamczysko” (“Burgstall”) nature reserve, formed in 1953 in order to afford protection to the pedunculate oaks which grow on the site. Artefacts recovered during the archaeological excavations can be admired at the Częstochowa Museum.

compiled by Michał Bugaj, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 14-05-2015.

Bibliography

  • Błaszczyk W. 1969. Sprawozdanie z przeprowadzonych prac wykopaliskowych na średniowiecznym obiekcie obronnym w Grodzisku pow. Kłobuck, [w:] Badania archeologiczne na Górnym Śląsku w 1966 roku (red. R. Jamka). Katowice, 91-94.
  • Gedl M., Ginter B., Godłowski K. 1970. Pradzieje i wczesne średniowiecze dorzecza Liswarty. Katowice, cz. I. 64-66.
  • Laberschek J. 1998. W czasach piastowskich i jagiellońskich, [w:] Kłobuck. Dzieje miasta i gminy (do 1939) (red. F. Kiryk). Kraków.
  • Solski R. 2015. Wyniki ratowniczych badań wykopaliskowych na średniowiecznym obiekcie obronnym w Grodzisku, gm. Wręczyca Wielka, [w:] Badania archeologiczne na Górnym Śląsku i ziemiach pogranicznych w latach 2013-2014 (red. G. lanc-Zagaja). Katowice.
  • Szmit Z. 1935. Grodzisko pod Kłobuckiem, Wiadomości Archeologiczne 13, 171, 172, tabl. 46.

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: XIII-XV w. n.e.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Grodzisko
  • Location: Voivodeship śląskie, district kłobucki, commune Wręczyca Wielka
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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