Palace complex, Grębów
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
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The complex, consisting of a palace, an orangery, a fence with a gate and a park, represents an example of a palace complex with a high value on the regional scale. It is distinctive for its interesting palace and gate architecture in the Gothic Revival style as well as an immensely picturesque park with ponds.

History

The palace in Grębów was erected in the 1830s upon the initiative of Jan Roch Dolański, following his takeover of the property in 1835. The building was constructed in three phases: in the 1840s the main body of the palace, i.e. a rectangular corpus with towers equipped with corner extensions, was erected, in the second half of the 19th century a standalone outbuilding was erected in the immediate vicinity of the palace, a little to the south, and only in the inter-war period were those two structures braced by a connector and the outbuilding was expanded by annexes. In 1885 the palace was reconstructed to the design of architect Tadeusz Stryjeński, who bestowed the building with Gothic Revival features. During the reconstruction a portico with a terrace on the first floor at the front and a garden-facing terrace were added; moreover, an entrance gate was replaced with a new structure featuring a pronounced Gothic Revival corpus. Most probably, an orangery located on the southern side of a large pond dates back to this period. Landscape gardens were planned at the turn of the 18th and 19th century. The Dolański family were the owners of the palace complex until the outbreak of World War II. Currently, the palace, park and several utility features are used by a Special School and Education Centre; other utility buildings are privately owned and perform their primary function as back facilities of the multi-hectare agricultural holding.

Description

The palace complex is located in the south-eastern part of the village, at a considerable distance from the compact development layout. The complex is restricted in the east and north by local roads and on other sides by utility buildings and arable fields.

The palace is situated in the central area of the complex and its front faces to the east; it has a long porte-cochère leading from the gate through the front part of the park. The palace body consists of several blocks: a one-storey, cuboidal corpus set on a rectangular floor plan, with a basement extending underneath and covered with an envelope roof; two-storey annexes on two sides, covered with gable roofs and accentuated by four towers with corner extensions, covered with pyramid tent roofs. An extreme component part, located in the south, is a one-storey outbuilding covered with a hip roof, linked to the palace by means of a one-storey connector topped with a gable roof. A roofed porte-cochère with a terrace and a stone balustrade on the first floor was added to the palace’s front; the garden side includes a monumental terrace with two flights of ceremonial stairs arranged on an ellipsis lowering on both sides. All component parts are made of brick and their roofs are covered with interlocking sheet metal. The palace obtained a Gothic Revival style during the reconstruction through crowning the corpus and towers with roofs in the form of towers with machicolations. The front façade of the palace has one storey, five axes in the corpus and features single-axis towers and double-axis parts between them; the garden façade was planned in a similar way, while the north façade has five axes. Rectangular windows on the second storey are much larger than those on the first storey; some of them terminate in a semi-circle and their shape is accentuated by a strip of cornice. A gloomy, monumental character of the building results from sculptured machicolations that support roofs as well as stone balustrades of front and garden terraces. The outbuilding with a connector and an annex were more modestly shaped: façades, including four-axis front and three-axis garden façades, are decorated only with a simple, inter-storey cornice, a frieze composed of square panels and window headers on the second storey. In asymmetric, irregular interiors, internal woodwork and architectural detail has been partially preserved (e.g. fireplace, capitals of pilasters and a sculpture of horse heads in the fireplace room).

The orangery was built at a considerable distance from the palace, on the other side of a picturesque pond with an island, on a plan approximating that of a rectangle. The literature describes it as presenting a Gothic Revival style with one storey added. Currently, it is hard to find any stylistic features in the degraded ruin that features walls made of bricks without any plasterwork or roofs.

The entrance gate was built in the Gothic Revival style, homogenous with the palace, during the reconstruction of the latter. The gate with a centrally positioned semi-circular passage was crowned with full entablature including a motif of apertures and was covered with a hip roof. One arcade of the bridge stretches over the channel. The bridge has a balustrade in the form of a profiled plinth terminating on the park’s side in pylons that frame the passage with decorative, simplified detail forms of the main gate. The building is made of brick.

The landscape park was planned on a single level, on a flat terrain. The area includes preserved specimens of native and foreign old tree stands, such as London planetree, northern red oak, Weymouth pine, as well as a large pond with an island and a smaller pond with a water channel. A small bridge decorated with four vases, formerly linking the park with a vegetable garden, has been preserved in the western part of the park.

Access to the historic building is limited. The park is available after obtaining a permit; buildings are inaccessible.

compiled by Mieczysław Kuś, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 12-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Polakowski S. Pozostałości założeń dworskich województwa podkarpackiego, Krosno 2012, s. 501-503
  • Libicki P., Dwory i pałace wiejskie w Małopolsce i na Podkarpaciu, Poznań 2012, s. 108-109
  • J. Piórecki, Ogrody i parki dworskie województwa podkarpackiego, Rzeszów 2008, s. 107-108
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Pałac, oprac.: J. Skrzypczak, 1995, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków Delegatury w Tarnobrzegu
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Brama wjazdowa w zespole pałacowym, oprac.: J. Skrzypczak, 1995, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków Delegatury w Tarnobrzegu

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: l. 30. XIX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Grębów
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district tarnobrzeski, commune Grębów
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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