Defensive walls, Gorzów Wielkopolski
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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Surviving remains of medieval city fortifications.

History

The construction of the stone and brick fortifications commenced probably in the 1320s. They replaced earthen and wooden fortifications whose existence is evidenced by a document from 1257. In the document, it is said that there was a palisade with a gate in Gorzów at that time. The wooden and earthen fortifications were replaced by stone and brick ones over a period of a couple dozen years. The city walls were built from erratic stones, with bricks in the upper section. On the northern side, between Młyńska and Santocka gates, 21 fortified towers were erected which reinforced the defensive walls. The towers, of the half-shell type, projected ahead the face of the wall and opened towards the medieval town. The southern part of the fortifications, adjoining the Warta river, was without fortified towers. A single wall was used for defensive purposes, and additional protection was provided by the river. In the south-eastern part of the complex, there was an ordensburg with its own defensive system. The embrasures were located in the upper sections of the walls, and traffic at that level was possible through a wooden porch. From the city, access to the fortifications was facilitated by a street running along the walls. From the outside, access to the city was difficult due to the Warta river, local water courses, ponds, and a moat. The city could be accessed through three gates: Santocka Gate on the east, Młyńska Gate on the west, and Mostowa Gate on the south.

Over centuries, fortifications of Gorzów were many a time repaired and conserved, and had survived nearly in their entirety to the early 19th century. First, approx. in 1740, the tower of the Mostowa Gate was demolished, and then, at the turn of 1827 and 1828, Młyńska and Santocka gates were dismantled. Fragments of walls were dismantled over a period of at least couple dozen next years. A large part was still present in 1855.

Description

The fragment of the defensive walls with four half-shell towers, preserved until present, is located in Zabytkowa Street and is 130 m long. It is built of erratic boulders, and bricks in the upper section. The area of the former moat is currently a green area. No trace has survived of the castle erected by the Teutonic Order in the years 1443-1450. Already in 1454, the fortified structure was attacked by the dwellers of Gorzów who partially destroyed it. In the 17th century, remains of the castle with a cylindrical tower were still visible, while in the early 18th century, only fragments of the foundations remained. Later on, a school was built here and the foundations of the former Teutonic stronghold were probably completely dismantled.

The defensive walls are accessible all year round.

compiled by Krzysztof Garbacz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Zielona Góra, 7-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Garbacz K., Przewodnik po zabytkach województwa lubuskiego, t. 3: Powiaty: gorzowski - słubicki - sulęciński - międzyrzecki - strzelecko-drezdenecki, Zielona Góra 2013, s. 16, 25-26, fot. 4.
  • Skaziński B. (B.S.), Gorzów Wlkp., [w:] Zabytki północnej części województwa lubuskiego (red. J. Lewczuk, B. Skaziński), Gorzów Wlkp.-Zielona Góra 2004, s. 11-12.
  • Reißmann K. (oprac.), Die Kunstdenkmäler des Stadt- und Landkreises Landsberg (Warthe), Berlin 1937, s. 87.

General information

  • Type: defensive wall
  • Chronology: 1443-1450
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Gorzów Wielkopolski
  • Location: Voivodeship lubuskie, district Gorzów Wielkopolski, commune Gorzów Wielkopolski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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