Palace complex, Górzno
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The palace complex in Górzno near Ostrów Wielkopolski is one of the well preserved former nobility residences in Greater Poland. The palace was built in 1912 by the architect Kazimierz Ruciński. It is an example of a Neoclassical residence designed in the so-called national style, situated in a landscape park from the 2nd half of the 19th century. The interior design of the ballroom contains specific elements on the one hand referring to the nobility estate and on the other hand glorifying power. The park was probably designed by Adam Kubaszewski, the creator of the nearby park in Gołuchów.

History

Written records mention Górzno for the first time in 1403. In c. 1523, it became the property of the Wolicki family. In the years 1579-1722, it was owned by the Gronowski family. The next owners were Józef Małachowski and Fabian Moszyński; the latter founded a church in 1755. In the following years, the estate was leased or divided into several parts which belonged to different owners, including the Bereźnicki family. In c. 1776, for a short time, Górzno was owned by Franciszek Koźmiński of the Poraj coat of arms. Before 1877, the estate of Górzno became the property of Dr Józef Lipski of the Grabie coat of arms, the owner of Lewków and Bieganin. From 1890 until the late 1940s, the owner of Górzno was Kazimierz Lipski. In 1751, in Górzno, there was a manor house with an Italian garden and a chapel, possibly also a church. In 1869, the entire estate covered an area of 552 ha, and in 1938, the Górzno-Biniew estate had an area of 934 ha. The present form of the Neoclassical palace is a result of the extension of a 19th-century, one-storeyed manor house, carried out in 1912 for Kazimierz Lipski according to a design by Kazimierz Ruciński. The palace underwent full-scale renovations in the years 1993-2003. Currently, it houses a hotel and a restaurant. The landscape park surrounding the palace, covering an area of 13 ha, was established in the mid-19th century. It was extended after 1913; its southern part was reshaped in the inter-war period. On the north side, there are two entrance gates from the early 20th century.

Description

Górzno is a village located 12 km to the north of Ostrów Wielkopolski, by road no. 11, connecting Poznań and Katowice. The palace and park complex is situated on the south side of the road leading from road no. 11 towards a railway and village buildings. The complex spreads on both sides of a tributary of the Niewoda River. It neighbours a manor house complex in Biniew on the south-west side. Apart from the residential complex, the remains of a manor farm complex, located north of the palace complex, have survived to this day. The northern, eastern, and western boundaries of the complex are defined by roads. On the east side, the complex neighbours an area adjoining the wooden Church of St Matthew, dating from 1735, where graves of members of the Bereźnicki family are located. The church and the palace used to be connected by a path or road. The front façade of the Neoclassical palace in Górzno faces the north. The building, made of brick, has a compact structure; it has one storey and basements. It comprises a central part with two transverse wings, covered with hip roofs, and lower avant-corpses. In the centre of the front façade, there is a colonnaded portico with four Ionic columns in the giant order. The palace has a floor plan which approximates the shape of the capital letter “H”. The front façade is symmetrical; it has 11 axes, with a portico in the centre and one-axis side avant-corpses. The drawing room has the form of a semi-circular avant-corps with a door leading into the terrace, framed by two sets of steps enclosed with a balustrade. The side façades — east and west — also feature porticos with columns. The plastered façades of the palace are symmetrical, with decorative horizontal plaster divisions at the corners of the avant-corpses; they are adorned with pilasters, simple entablatures, and stepped cornices. The entrance hall is situated on the central axis of the building; on the east side, there is a drawing room, two storeys high, adorned with stucco decorations with national and patriotic motifs. The transverse wings have one bay each and the central part has a two-bay layout. The room next to the drawing room used to serve as a dining room for guests, neighbouring the dining room of the hosts. The elegant rooms on the ground floor, intended for the eyes of guests, feature the original plasterwork decorations of the walls and ceilings and the original door woodwork.

The landscape park, having an area of 13 ha, of which 3.3 ha is covered by ponds, was established in the 2nd half of the 19th century, enlarged in 1913, and reshaped in its southern part in the inter-war period; originally, the whole area of the park was enclosed with a fence. The park, polygonal in shape, is situated in a shallow hollow; the watercourse flowing through the hollow was used to form two picturesque ponds. The southern boundary of the park is lined with oaks; on the west side, the boundary is defined by an access road to Biniewo, lined with oaks and chestnut trees. The northern boundary is defined by a road separating the palace complex from the manor farm yard. On the east side, there is a road leading to the church. On the north side of the park, there are two gates having the form of pairs of Tuscan columns, each crowned with a section of an entablature, with double metal doors, most likely made after the palace was built. Paths paved with setts lead from the gates to the palace. In the past, the palace used to be surrounded by flower gardens, which have now been replaced with vast grassy meadows. Even in the inter-war period, there were still ruins to the east of the palace; they may have been the ruins of an outbuilding or an old manor house. The trees that are the most common in the park are pedunculate oaks, spruces, hornbeams, and ashes. There are also specimens of Kobushi magnolia, tulip tree, and Lawson cypress.

The historic monument can be visited by prior arrangement with the owner.

compiled by Teresa Palacz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 10-11-2015.

Bibliography

  • Skuratowicz J., Dwory i pałace w Wielkim Księstwie Poznańskim, Międzychód 1992 r.
  • Durczykiewicz L., Dwory polskie w Wielkim Księstwie Poznańskim, Czempiń 1912 r.
  • Małyszko S, Majątki Wielkopolskie, t. III pow. ostrowski, Szreniawa 1996, s. 59-63.
  • Katalog zabytków Sztuki, Ruszczyńska T., Sławska A. (red.), t. V, z. 16, pow. ostrowski s. 4-5, Warszawa 1956.
  • Rogalanka A., Sztuka regionu ostrowskiego. Wybrane zabytki i problemy (w:) Ostrów Wielkopolski. Dzieje miasta i regionu, Poznań 1990, s. 505-616.
  • Strzałko M., Pałace i dwory w dawnym woj. kaliskim, Warszawa 1994.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1912 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Górzno
  • Location: Voivodeship wielkopolskie, district ostrowski, commune Ostrów Wielkopolski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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