St Andrew the Apostle Parish Church complex, Golina
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St Andrew the Apostle Parish Church complex

Golina

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The parish church in Golina is an example of a wooden church which originally had a log structure and whose walls were reinforced with a timber frame, initially with no infill, on the outside. The church is an example of the so-called double wall structure which was also used in regions other than Greater Poland. Apart from its architectural value, it also has valuable interior fittings and remains a site of Marian devotions. Golina is also a place where a unique type of embroidery (known as snutki golińskie) was developed. By the church, there is a wooden bell tower and a graveyard containing the gravestones of the former owners of the village and of parish-priests working here in the 19th and 20th centuries.

History

The first church in Golina was most likely built in the 14th century. The present church was probably erected in the 2nd half of the 17th century; it replaced an earlier church building. Initially, it was a building made of oak logs, with a wooden sacristy on the north side. In 1739, the church, substantially dilapidated, underwent full-scale renovations financed by Jadwiga and Jakub Przyjemski. The windows in the north façade were enlarged, the north and south walls were reinforced with a timber frame (with no infill), and new structural beams and new roof truss were installed in the nave, with the crossbeam supporting the ceiling placed along the central axis of the nave. In the chancel, a wooden barrel vault was constructed on the newly installed roof truss and a new sacristy was built, with walls made of wooden logs. The interior was decorated with wall paintings. The date of the church restoration was inscribed on the exposed ceiling crossbeam. In 1866, another series of renovation works were carried out; they involved the replacement of some of the wooden elements and the construction of a porch on the west side of the church. In the years 1934-1935, the church underwent full-scale renovations owing to the efforts of Helena Moszczeńska and Golin parishioners. The walls were reinforced with brick buttresses, the southern section of the rood wall was reinforced with bricks, and the existing timber frame received brick infill. Wiktor Gosiniecki made new paintings on the interior walls. The most recent renovations took place after the year 2000, when some of the structural components of the walls and the roof truss were replaced; moreover, the roofs were covered with new wood shingles. During the 1960s, a group of monument conservation experts renovated the main altar, restoring its original colour scheme, and the paintings of St Benno, St Anthony, and St Joseph. In c. 1750, a wooden bell tower was erected in the immediate neighbourhood of the church. Since the very beginning, the church has been surrounded by a graveyard. The surviving headstones come from the 19th and the 20th centuries.

Description

Golina is a village located 6 kilometres south of Jarocin, by a road and and a railway line leading to Krotoszyn. The parish church of St Andrew the Apostle is located in the western part of the village, on a level ground. The church, oriented towards the east, has a log structure, partially overlaid with a timber frame on the outside and covered with weatherboards. The log structure of the walls is concealed on the outside. The church one nave, without any aisles. The nave is rectangular (nearly square) in shape and adjoined by a slightly narrower, rectangular chancel and a sacristy on the north side. A porch, flanked by two utility rooms, extends along the whole length of the west wall of the nave. One of the utility rooms houses a staircase leading into the music gallery. A brick chapel extends along the south wall of the nave, reinforced by buttresses. The nave, being the dominant part of the church, is taller than the chancel. The chancel and the nave have separate gable roofs. A low, polygonal steeple with a lantern adorns the roof near the east gable of the nave. The steeple is topped with a bulbous dome and a cross with a weathervane with the date “1866”. The sacristy and the west porch have mono-pitched roofs, whereas the brick annex has a flat roof. The church roofs are covered with wood shingles. A distinctive feature of the church is its two-layer wall structure. The roof truss are fixed to the wall head-piece with a single notch. The building has an oak log structure with double dovetailed joints, set on a massive ground plate. In the upper part of the log structure, there is a larch beam. The timber frame is divided into three levels, with individual fields defined by the timbers being rectangular or nearly square in shape; the struts are connected to the central horizontal beam, the head-piece, and the ground plate. In the east wall of the chancel, there are irregularly spaced vertical posts with irregularly arranged struts. The roof truss from 1739, completed and partially replaced during the 19th and 20th centuries, has a double-collar structure with slanted supporting posts and an irregular arrangement of trusses, some consisting of rafters, straining beams and posts, other incorporating only rafters and tie beams. The supporting posts are connected to the purlins and the head-piece and reinforced horizontally with braces.

The facades have a low, plastered plinth, slightly protruding from the walls. The timber-framed walls of the church have plastered brick infills, painted white using lime paint. The windows are placed irregularly; the entrance doors are located in the centre of the north and south walls. Long eaves and a crowning cornice run around the main body of the church; on the gable walls, the cornice passes into a small drainage skirt roof which emphasises the junction between the ground floor level and the gables. The gables are covered with vertically-placed weatherboards. The west façade of the porch and the sacristy walls feature vertical board and batten siding.

The interior of the chancel is covered with a false barrel vault supported by two pairs of piers, with crown moulding running right below; the nave has a beamed ceiling with wooden boards above the exposed beams. There are two inscriptions on the ceiling crossbeam — one in Latin, dated 1739 (on the south side), the other one in Polish, dated 1935 (on the north side). The exposed ceiling beams are profiled and chamfered. The basket arch between the nave and the chancel is flanked by two piers. The music gallery is supported by a pair of massive, fluted columns. The chancel contains Baroque paintings, complemented by later paintings (from 1934-1935) by Wiktor Gosienicki. Other wall paintings by this artist, depicting saints, adorn the walls of the nave.

The interior fittings of the church include a Baroque main altar from c. 1700, featuring sculptures of St Peter and St Paul, a 17th-century painting of the Virgin Mary adorned with a silver robe from 1826, and a painting of Our Lady of Solace from the 18th century. The Golina sanctuary is also a site of Marian worship, as shown by numerous offerings. The top section of the altar incorporates a painting of St Andrew and the side doors of the altar are adorned with paintings of St Michael, St Tobias, St Sebastian, and St Roch. The altars, the balusters, and the tabernacle are adorned with locally made, uniquely embroidered cloths and drapes. This local variety of embroidery is known as “snutki golińskie”. The tradition of making snutki golińskie in Golino and its vicinity was upheld by Helena Moszczeńska, who owned the Golin estate at the end of the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th century.

The church is surrounded by a graveyard having the shape of a rectangle with clipped eastern corners, enclosed with a fence made of wooden pickets stretching between brick posts, resting on a brick base. The cemetery can be accessed through a gate located to the north-west of the church and through a smaller gate to the south. The churchyard communicates with the rectory garden on the south-east side. A paved path encircles the church. To the south of the church, next to the fence, there is a wooden bell tower; its walls covered with weatherboards and its roof is covered with wood shingles. In the northern, western, and eastern parts of the graveyard, there are a number of old gravestones, including those of Stanisława Holska (who died in 1914) and of two parish-priests from Golina — Walenty Nowacki (1860) and Szczepan Toboła (1928). The remaining part of the cemetery is overgrown with grass and deciduous trees.

The church can be visited from the outside. The Holy Mass is held on Sunday — at 8:00, 10:00, and 11:30, and on weekdays — at 7:30 and 18:00. For a list of all church services, visit the website of the Parish of St Andrew the Apostle in Golino. The website also contains information about the church, the worship of Our Lady of Solace, and legends associated with this place.

compiled by Teresa Palacz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 29-09-2014.

Bibliography

  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, t. 5, z. 5: Powiat jarociński, Warszawa 1958.
  • W. Krassowski, Ze studiów nad detalami zabytkowych konstrukcji ciesielskich [w:] „Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki”, t. 5, z. 1, s. 3-25.
  • Jankowski A., Kościoły drewniane o zdwojonej konstrukcji ścian w Wielkopolsce, Bydgoszcz 2009, s. 206-209.
  • Maluśkiewicz P., Kościoły drewniane w Wielkopolsce, , Poznań 2004.

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: 2 poł. XVII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Golina
  • Location: Voivodeship wielkopolskie, district jarociński, commune Jarocin - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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