Castle, Gołańcz
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The remains of the castle in Gołańcz are a representative example of fortified architecture of Greater Poland. The castle was founded by knights. Due to its location on the shores of Smolary Lake, the castle has remained the dominant element of the townscape despite the passage of centuries.

History

The castle in Gołańcz, which was the seat of the Pałuk family, was most likely built in the 2nd half of the 14th century. The site was previously occupied by an older settlement, and later possibly also a fortified manor house of the Pałuks. The building was referred to as castrum for the first time in 1383; at that time, it belonged to Jakub Kusz. In the 1470s, the castle became the property of the Grudziński family, and in the early 17th century, it became the property of the Smoguleckis. It remained in good defensive condition until the mid-17th century. In 1656, it was seized by Swedish troops with the use of artillery and destroyed — the gatehouse was demolished then. The castle was rebuilt by the Smoguleckis, who modified the tower, giving it a residential rather than defensive character. In the 18th century, the castle was a residence of General F. Fleming. The next owners were the Przebendowskis and then the Mielczyńskis. In 1773, following the First Partition of Poland, it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia. It 1834, it was owned by the Czarnecki family, and it was probably abandoned at that time. The roof was completely renovated in the years 1910-1911. Between 1941 and 1944, excavations were conducted at the castle under the supervision of a German conservator-restorer called Johannes. After the war, conservation and preservation works were carried out in the years 1951-1953.

Description

The ruins of the castle are situated on the north-east shore of Smolary Lake, to the east of the town. It is believed that the castle was originally surrounded with low ramparts with a palisade on top. The free-standing residential building, having a rectangular floor plan (17 x 11 m), has brick walls resting on stone foundations. The castle has one storey, with basement rooms in some parts. The interior was divided into two rooms. Most likely, there were wooden hoardings at the top of the walls. The entrance was located in the north wall. It had the form of a pointed-arched portal made of profiled brick, set in a tall niche. Vertical grooves in which a portcullis was mounted can still be seen in the jambs. The niche was topped with a gable concealing a space from which projectiles could be shot, resting on cantilevers made of artificial stone projecting from the wall. The second stage of construction works, carried out in the late 15th century, covered the closest surroundings and was aimed at adjusting the castle to new war techniques. Defensive walls were built around the castle, with a round fortified tower at the north-west corner and a square gatehouse on the west side. The building retained that form until the mid-17th century. The gatehouse demolished by Swedish troops in 1656 was replaced with a new Baroque gate adorned with pilasters and a cornice. The actual residential building, having a rectangular floor plan, was probably extended upwards by two storeys with hoardings in the 15th century. There were two rooms on each of the two lower floors; the top floor contained one large room. There are remains of vaults at the ground floor level. The corners of the building are reinforced with buttresses; above, they are decorated with quoins. The irregular window openings are adorned with moulding surrounds. The castle has a hip roof covered with roof tiles. The walls are topped with a profiled cornice covered with plaster.

The castle is private property; it may be visited from the outside.

compiled by Beata Marzęta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 15-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Guerquin B., Zamki w Polsce, Warszawa 1974.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, t. 5, z. 27: Powiat wągrowiecki, Warszawa 1964.
  • Olejnik K., Grody i zamki w Wielkopolsce, Poznań 1993.

General information

  • Type: castle
  • Chronology: 2 poł. XIV w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Gołańcz
  • Location: Voivodeship wielkopolskie, district wągrowiecki, commune Gołańcz - miasto
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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