Hillfort, Gęś
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
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The hillfort is one of the few surviving structures of its kind in the region, featuring a double system of ramparts which remain fairly well visible in the surrounding terrain. The site forms a valuable source of knowledge with respect to the early medieval hillforts of the Lublin region.

Location and description

The hillfort, locally known as “Wały” or “Horodek”, is situated approximately 2.5 kilometres towards the west from the village of Gęś, alongside a local road between Gęś and Czeberaki, in the valley of a small river known as Kanał Piskornica, on a small, sandy, forested hill, surrounded by waterlogged meadows towards the north and the west.

The site of the hillfort is approximately 1 hectare. The hillfort is oval in shape and has two circular earthen ramparts, separated from one another with a deep moat which has been preserved in a fairly good condition. The best-preserved section of the hillfort is the eastern part thereof - an area covered by a woodlot known locally as “Horodek”. Today, the site is completely excluded from all types of agricultural works. Having been abandoned for a long time, its visibility in the surrounding terrain has become somewhat limited due to the fact that trees and shrubs have continued to encroach upon the site over the years. In the western part of the hillfort there are numerous old excavations resulted from the local population taking advantage of the deposits of sand. No fresh traces of sand extraction have found to be present on the site, however. The site has suffered damage due to the intense growth of trees and shrubs whose roots continue to penetrate the ground beneath; in addition, the road cutting right across the site has also caused further damage.

History

Based on the results of archaeological studies, one may assume that the hillfort remained in use during the early Middle Ages, during the period between the late 11th/early 12th century and the end of the 13th century.

Archival sources contain no information on the hillfort. The first mention of the site in the literature on the subject was made in 1973 by Andrzej Hunicz.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The trial excavations on the site were performed back in 1973 by Andrzej Hunicz (Historical Monument Conservation Workshop in Lublin). In the course of the survey a total of 5 trial excavations were made: excavation no. 1 on the outer rampart and excavations no. 2-4 in the middle and western parts of the inner courtyard. The surveys have encountered substantial difficulties due to the high water table level (1.2 metres). Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the “Archaeological Picture of Poland” project were carried out by Jacek Kącki in 1983, with Bogdan Wetoszka being responsible for the preparation of the file on the hillfort.

In the course of the survey, the presence of earthen fortifications reinforced with marlstone has been confirmed through the examination of the excavation made on the outer rampart. The remaining excavations, made in the inner courtyard of the former hillfort, in an area which has suffered extensive damage due to the extraction of sand, have revealed a relatively shallow cultural layer containing a small amount of moveable artefacts. A mere few fragments of clay vessels dating back to the period between the 11th and the 12th/13th century have been unearthed in the course of research. This may suggest that the hillfort was only used as a refuge and was therefore only inhabited in times of imminent danger.

Unlimited access to the historic structure.

compiled by Ewa Prusicka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 14-09-2015.

Bibliography

  • Hunicz A., Gęś-Czeberaki, pow. Parczew, “Informator Archeologiczny. Badania za rok 1973”, 1974, p. 175
  • Żółkowski S., Materiały do badań nad osadnictwem pradziejowym i wczesnośredniowiecznym na obszarze dzisiejszego województwa bialskopodlaskiego. Biała Podlaska 1988, p. 42.
  • Bienia M., Grodziska wczesnośredniowieczne istniejące i domniemane na terenie dzisiejszego województwa bialskopodlaskiego, Biała Podlaska 1998, pp. 18-19.
  • Miśkiewicz M., W okresie wczesnego średniowiecza [in:] Północna Lubelszczyzna od pradziejów po okres nowożytny, Lublin 2003, p. 104

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: XI w. - XIII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Gęś
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district parczewski, commune Jabłoń
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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