St Lawrence parish church complex, Dynów
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St Lawrence parish church complex

Dynów

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One of the most valuable complexes of sacred architecture ever built in the Subcarpathian region, consisting of a Late Baroque church, a Late Baroque bell tower, a Late Renaissance gate, a cemetery, a fence from the 19th century and old tree stands. It features lavish décor and fittings of the interior. It constitutes a dominating spatial and architectural feature of the northern part of Dynów.

History

The date the Roman Catholic parish was founded remains unknown. Documents from 1448 mention a local parish parson and the existence of a church in Dynów. Originally, it was made of wood. It was consecrated in 1462 as devoted to the Blessed Virgin Mary. It was founded by heiress to Dynów, Małgorzata nee Kmita. In the years 1604-1617 a new church was erected. It was oriented, made of brick, plastered and founded by Katarzyna Wapowska and her son, Jan Stanisław Wapowski. In 1657, the church was destroyed and devastated during the invasion of George Rakocsi. Rebuilt in 1663 by efforts of Stanisław Sarnowski, Bishop of Przemyśl. At that time, a gate was erected. In the late 18th century numerous works were conducted at the temple: upper part of the tower abutting on the church corpus from the west was demolished, the west façade was finished with a gable and a steeple turret was built. At that time a masonry bell tower was also erected. In the years 1891-1894 the church was restored under the guidance of architect Tomasz Pryliński. A sacristy adjoining the church in the north was reconstructed and a southern porch was added. Renovation works of the 17th-century gate were carried out. The church was circumscribed by a brick fence and chapels. In 1919 the bell tower was extended upwards. In the years 1924-1925 new roofs were installed over chapels, inspired by the previous, 17th-century ones. When the church was renovated in 1964 its interior and surroundings were restored. In the years 1999-2000 renovation works were conducted at the belfry, while in the 2001-2007 at the church façades and gates.

Description

The parish church complex in Dynów is located to the north-west of the market square. The church is oriented and constitutes a dominating architectural feature and a terminating vista of Mickiewicz Street. The church is surrounded by a fence, along which a bell tower is located on the south-western side of the church and a gate on the southern side.

The church consists of a single-nave corpus and a chancel. A four-bay nave, wider than a chancel, was erected on a rectangular floor plan. In the east the chancel terminates in a semi-hexagon. Two chapels on a square floor plan were situated symmetrically on both sides of the eastern bay of the nave. The following structures adjoin the nave: St Anthony chapel with a former treasury on the upper floor (in the north, in the corner between the nave and the chapel), a porch in the south and a lower part of the former tower in the west, erected on a floor plan similar to a square. A sacristy on a rectangular floor plan with a small vestibule added to its northern wall abuts on the three-bay chancel in the north. Inaccessible crypts extend under the church. Chancel and nave are topped with gable roofs, chapels are covered with hip roofs giving way to octagonal bulbous cupolas terminating in spires with crucifixes. A steeple turret on the eastern edge of the nave roof is hexagonal and features an openwork lantern.

The church is made of brick and plastered, except for stone buttresses on the western side. Roofs and cupolas are covered with sheet metal painted red.

Church façades feature two-stepped buttresses. A lower part of the former tower has survived on the west façade. Its corners are reinforced by massive, slanting, stone buttresses. The façade is crowned with a Late Baroque gable, probably from the late 18th century, with a corrugated edge, and is flanked by two statues from 1899 of: St Casimir and St Stephen. Windows in the façades are rectangular, terminating in flattened arches and surmounted by triangular, profiled pediments. The façades are circumscribed with a profiled crowning cornice.

The nave and chancel are covered with barrel vaults with lunette and Lublin-type stuccowork; chapels, porch and vestibule in the former tower are topped with barrel vaults and cross-barrel vaults. Walls of the nave are partitioned by pilasters supporting sections of entablature, crowned with winged angel busts. Door portals are made of stone and reflect a Renaissance style. The choir gallery rests on two quadrangular pillars and two semi-pillars with pilasters, connected by three arcades with a flattened arch. Three bays of sail vaults separated by arches are located beneath the choir gallery.

The most valuable elements of the interior fittings include Late Baroque altars - the main one and two side altars in chapels as well as a pulpit and a Rococo organ.

A bell tower - a tower made of brick and covered with plaster, set on a square floor plan and including two storeys. Rounded corners, terminating in pilasters supporting the entablature. Storeys are partitioned by a profiled cornice. The window openings are rectangular, topped with semicircular arches and framed by surrounds with a keystone. Over the upper storey’s cornice, along the axis of lower windows, each wall features an oculus beyond which there is semi-circularly bent crowning cornice. The bell tower is covered with a two-storey cupola clad with sheet metal.

Fence with a gate - The church is circumscribed by a wall with a gate and chapels made of quarry stone. The gate is located in the fence on the southern side, erected on a rectangular floor plan, made of brick, plastered and built in the style of a three-bay triumphal arch. It features three passages with semicircular arches; the central one is wider and taller. Walls are crowned with a cornice resting on corbels, partitioned by panels with semicircular arches (in a lower part of walls) and rectangular in the upper part. Panels are filled with stuccowork with floral motifs, putti heads and two hermas placed in lower panels on both sides of the central entrance. Two statues of angels positioned on pedestals are located on the sides of a taller middle part, along the axis of side passages.

A cemetery - a former church cemetery within the fenced area, currently it lacks traces of graves on the ground. The cemetery constitutes an immediate surrounding area of the church. The yard is cobbled with granite cubes; there is a lawn with old tree stands at the fence.

The historic monument is accessible.

compiled by Mieczysław Kuś, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 18-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna, Kościół paraf. p.w. Św. Wawrzyńca, oprac. Czerepiński A., Dynów 1959, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków Delegatura w Rzeszowie.
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Dzwonnica, oprac. Czerepiński A., Dynów 1959, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków Delegatura w Rzeszowie.
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Brama, oprac. Czerepiński A, Czerepińska J., Dynów 1959, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków Delegatura w Rzeszowie.
  • Studium wartości kulturowych miasta Dynowa, Charakterystyka zachowanej historycznej zabudowy, Zespół kościoła parafialnego oprac. Fortuna-Marek A., Rzeszów 2002 s. 46-47. Maszynopis w Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa Oddział Terenowy w Rzeszowie.
  • Podkarpacki Biuletyn Konserwatorski, t. II: Zespół kościoła parafialnego p.w. św. Wawrzyńca, oprac. Piękoś M., Przemyśl 2007, s. 75-76.
  • Podkarpacki Biuletyn Konserwatorski, t. III, cz. I: Zespół kościoła parafialnego p.w. św. Wawrzyńca, oprac. Nikiel M., Przemyśl 2011, s. 143-144.
  • Śnieżyńska-Stolotowa E., Stolot F., Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce. Tom XIII województwo rzeszowskie, zeszyt 2 powiat brzozowski, Warszawa 1974.

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: 1604-1617
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Dynów
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district rzeszowski, commune Dynów (gm. miejska)
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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