Complex of the parish church of St. Mary Magdalene and St. Martha, Dobrowoda
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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Complex of the parish church of St. Mary Magdalene and St. Martha

Dobrowoda

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The church in Dobrowoda is one of the most valuable provincial Gothic churches in northern Lesser Poland. It stands out because of lavish stonework detail of 1524-1533, whose style combine Gothic and Renaissance forms.

History

In 1238, Dobrowoda was owned by bishops of Lubuskie, and later it went into the hands of bishops of Cracow. In 1345, bishop of Cracow Jan Grot established the local parish and provided it with necessary means. Probably just before that, construction of the first wooden church was completed (according to the hypothesis by Krystyna Białoskórska, the parish was established at the already existing brick and stone structure originating from the 2nd half of the 13th century). According to Jan Długosz, it was supposed to be a filial church of the church in Chotel Czerwony, which is not confirmed by contemporary historical research. In years 1367-1380, bishop of Cracow Florian Mokrski founded the current, stone and brick building. During the 20s of the 16th century, the church was thoroughly converted. It is suspected that inter alia the nave body was vaulted, and a tower with a staircase, chapel of the Holy Virgin Mary, and sacristy were built by the church during that period. The works were financed to a significant extent by bishop of Cracow Piotr Tomicki, which is evidenced by the coat of arms profile of the structure. In 1533, the said clergyman consecrated the church. In 1657, the church was burnt by the Transylvanian army. In 1664, it was already partly renovated. In the 50s-70s of the 18th century, its fittings were replaced by late-Baroque fittings. In 1783, technical condition of the church was defined as bad. In the next years, it was renovated. The present, wooden belfry was built in the end of the 18th century or in the 19th century. In the early 20th century, a neo-Gothic porch was built next to the church. In 2008, external plasterwork of the building was renovated, and in years 2010-2012, church's fittings underwent maintenance.

Description

A church complex located on a hill in the village centre occupies the central part of an oval square surrounded by a stone wall. It is comprised of a Gothic church situated in the centre and a free-standing belfry originating from the 19th century located to the south from it, by the walls. The oriented, single-nave church includes a three-bay nave — framed by buttresses and featuring a straight ending section — and a rectangular presbytery which is lower and narrower than the church's body. The northern wall of the presbytery is adjoined by a low, rectangular sacristy. By the nave, there are: in the west-southern corner, a semi-circular tower with staircase; from the south, a square porch; and from the north, a two-bay, rectangular chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary; all the foregoing structures are lower than the nave. The church is made of limestone ashlars and entirely plastered. It is covered with a gable roof (over the nave body — with a turret-steeple, and over the presbytery and porch) and a shed roof (over sacristy). Stone façades of the building, separated by horizontal cornices, are enriched with painted inscriptions and sculpture detail from the 16th century (the southern buttress of the nave features a relief "Christ Carrying the Cross"). The western façade is emphasised by corner buttresses and a triangular gable with three blind windows. The main entrance is accentuated by a stone portal from the 20s of the 16th century. Its supraporte features reliefs of the Łodzia coat of arms of bishop Tomicki, and two vases. The interior of the church is covered by double barrel vaulting (chapel), cross-rib vaulting (over the presbytery, with sculptured supports), and lierne vaulting (in the nave, with keystones featuring reliefs of coats of arms and initials). In the western section of the nave, there is a stone, three-bay choir gallery of the 20s of the 16th century, decorated with lavish stone and architectural detail (among other things, in the space below the choir gallery, there are sculptured keystones, and on the parapet, three reliefs of coats of arms with initials). Entrance to the sacristy is emphasised by a stone portal with escutcheons from the 20s of the 16th century. The church's interior fittings, mostly originating from the 17th-18th century, include, inter alia, the following interesting items: a late-Gothic, stone baptismal font from the 20s-30s of the 16th century, a stone epitaph of Jan Bobola (died 1605, attributed to the workshop of Pińczów), a "marble" grave slab of Jan Bobola (died 1605, attributed to the workshop of Chęciny), late-Baroque ambo and altars from the 50s-70s of the 18th century. A style-less, square-shaped belfry is a two-storey building with a starling.  It is made of wood, based on a post-and-frame structure, on a stone foundation. Its walls are clad from the outside, and it features a tented roof laid with wood shingles.

The historic building is accessible to visitors. It may be visited upon prior telephone appointment.

Compiled by Łukasz Piotr Młynarski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 08.10.2014.

Bibliography

  • Adamczyk A., Modras J., Polanowski L., Prace przy zabytkach architektury sakralnej i zabudowie miejskiej, [in:] Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, ed. J. Cedro, Kielce 2014, pp.24.
  • Białoskórska K., Kościół parafialny ŚŚ. Marii Magdaleny i Marty w Dobrowodzie. Nieznany zabytek małopolskiego budownictwa sakralnego z pierwszej połowy XIII wieku, „Rocznik Muzeum Narodowego w Warszawie” 1992, vol. XXXVI, pp. 119-135.
  • Burzawa W., Dobrowoda. Parafia pw. św. Marii Magdaleny, [in:] Diecezja kielecka. Miejsca-Historia-Tajemnice, ed. P. Tkaczyk, Kielce 2011, pp. 92-93.
  • Corpus inscriptionum Poloniae, vol. 1.: Województwo kieleckie, ed. J. Szymański, fasc. 3: Busko-Zdrój i region, compiled by U. Zgorzelska. Kielce 1980.
  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, vol. 3: Województwo kieleckie, ed. J. Z. Łoziński, B. Wolff, fasc. 1: Powiat buski, compiled by K. Kutrzebianka, Warszawa 1957, pp. 15-17.
  • Kuczyńska J, Średniowieczne chrzcielnice kamienne w Polsce, „Rocznik Historii Sztuki” 1984, vol. XIV, pp. 5-79.
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  • Kazimierza Strończyńskiego opisy i widoki zabytków w Królestwie Polskim (1844-1855), t. II: Gubernia Radomska, compiled by K. Guttmejer, Warszawa 2010, pp. 143, 337.
  • Wiśniewski J., Historyczny opis kościołów, miast, zabytków i pamiątek w stopnickiem, Marjówce 1929, reprint Kielce 2000, pp. 65-83, 351-354.
  • Wiśniewski E., Rozwój sieci parafialnej w prepozyturze wiślickiej w średniowieczu. Studium geograficzno-historyczne, Warszawa 1965, pp. 87-88, 125.
  • Wiśniewski E., Prepozytura wiślicka do schyłku XVIII wieku. Materiały do struktury organizacyjnej, Lublin 1976, pp. 179-181.
  • Wojtasik Z., Zub J., Konserwacja tzw. zabytków ruchomych, [in:] Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, ed. J. Cedro, Kielce 2014, pp. 122.  

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: 1367-1380 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Dobrowoda
  • Location: Voivodeship świętokrzyskie, district buski, commune Busko-Zdrój - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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