Ruins of the Danków fortress - Zabytek.pl
woj. śląskie, pow. kłobucki, gm. Lipie-gmina wiejska
The fortress in Danków is the only structure of this type in Poland. It is characterised by an untypical layout of bastions, constructed on a nearly rectangular plan. The layout of fortifications was based on a treatise by Errard — it is a direct reference to one of the described layouts, the minor differences being merely a result of the different sizes of the structures. The fortress was the seat of the Warszycki family for many years. The funder of the bastion fortifications was Stanislaus III Warszycki, Castellan of Kraków, who made a significant contribution during the war with Sweden: not only did he defend Danków, but also recaptured Pilica and Krzepice and sent material aid for the purposes of the defence of Jasna Góra.
Written records mention the castle in Danków for the first time in the 15th century. According to the descriptions, it was situated on a flat yard which, due to a steadily rising slope located 1.5 km away from the castle itself, lay 30 m higher than the courtyard. A church was constructed in close proximity to the castle, according to some sources as early as in 1550. The church underwent major alterations in the years 1630-1650 and has survived to this day. According to local legends, the church tower was made of a former castle tower, however, as no research on this issue has been conducted, the information has not been confirmed. Starting from the 17th century, Danków was the seat of the Warszycki family, and it is believed that the first owner was Andrzej Warszycki, Voivode of Podlaskie Voivodeship. The castle underwent major alterations in 1632, when it was governed by Stanislaus III Warszycki; the bastion fortifications were built then. Following the death of Stanislaus III, the Warszycki family kept the castle for a short time, and at the beginning of the 18th century, the estate was taken over by the Pociej family, and then the Wessel family. Due to the loss of its major strategic and defensive importance, starting from 1823, the structure was falling into ruin; its shape of an elongated quadrangle with two gates remained fairly discernible. Nearly 30 years later, no trace was left of the castle structure — the stone walls were dismantled by the locals. One of the unfavourable changes was the formation of another entrance passage in the structure of the west bastion in the 2nd half of the 20th century. The first works aimed at protecting and preserving the site were carried out in the 1970s. Detailed archaeological and architectural research was conducted within the defensive fortifications. The walls were protected with brick siding on the south, west, and east sides (the last being the waterfront).
The ruins of the fortress are situated on the left bank of the River Liswarta, in the eastern part of the village. The castle has not survived to this day, however, the ruins of a castellan’s wife’s house, the ramparts, the church, and the ruins of the gate on the Krzepice side, located in curtain wall I-II, are still there. One of the unfavourable changes that affected the site was the formation of another entrance passage in the structure of bastion III in the 20th century. The bastion fortifications have the shape of an elongated quadrangle approximating a trapezium. The fortifications include two hornwork systems, formed by four demi-bastions (the shorter sides) resembling tenaille bastions. Two demi-bastions, irregular in shape, were also constructed at the waterfront, and one bastion was built into each of the longer sides. The earth ramparts are reinforced with stone buttresses and their faces lean at an angle of 82o. The first of the two original entrance passages is the two-storeyed Krzepica Gate, located on the south side and constructed on the plan of an elongated rectangle. It was made of brick and stone and had its top part reconstructed in the front. It resembles the gates in Zbaraż and Łańcut. The other entrance is situated below the rampart. It is a tunnel, running diagonally for defensive reasons, which leads to the church. Some researchers indicate the possibility of there being a third entrance, a water wicket gate located in bastion V, however, it has never been confirmed.
The ruins of the fortress are freely accessible.
compiled by Agata Mucha, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 29-07-2014.
- Gruszecki A., Bastionowe zamki w Małopolsce, Warszawa 1962, s. 155-169.
- Holewiński M., Bastionowy zamek kasztelana Stanisława Warszyckiego w Dankowie. Stan obecny i problematyka konserwatorska, [w:] Fortyfikacje nowożytne w Polsce-badania, realizacje, projekty. Zagospodarowanie do współczesnych funkcji, red. L. Narębski, Toruń 2013, s. 51-63.
- Kajzer L., Kołodziejski S., Salm J., Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Warszawa 2007, s. 151.
- Karta Ewidencyjna Zabytków Architektury i Budownictwa. Założenie obronne Danków, oprac. S. Zaleski, 1999.
- Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, t. VI woj. Katowickie, red. I. Rajduch-Samkowa, J. Samka, z. 7 pow. kłobucki, inwent. T. Małkowska-Holcerowa, J. Mańskowska-Jurczkowa, Warszawa 1963, s.6-7, fig.1.
Protection: Register of monuments, Monuments records
Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_N_24_ZE.31032, PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_E_24_ZE.29719