Palace and park complex, Czyżów Szlachecki
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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An example of Polish palace from the 1st half of the 18th century, formed in the period from the late 16th century until mid-17th century on the basis of Italian solutions, resembling palaces designed by Tylman van Gameren, with a late-Baroque sculpture decoration attributed to the Jesuit sculptor Thomas Huetter. The structure is of particular significance for the residential architecture of the region.

History

The palace was built on the ruins of a former estate at the intiative of Jan Aleksander Zaklika Czyżowski of the Topór coat of arms, probably in the 2nd half of the 20s of the 18th century. In years 1781-1820, the mansion was converted according to the design originating from before 1800, prepared by a Jesuit architect, priest Józef Karśnicki — in that time, a terrace was added at the front, and two annexes from the side of the garden. In years 1922-1923, architect Kazimierz Skórzewicz carried out a general renovation of the palace, changing its external appearance (dormers) and interior layout on the first floor and the attic (staircase with a colonnade, connecting the first floor with the attic). In the inter-war period, the palace was visited by Presidents of the Second Republic of Poland, e.g. Gabriel Narutowicz, of whom the last owner of Czyżewo, Józef Targowski was a close associate; for a period, Władysław Reymont lived and worked here, and the palace was visited by Leon Wyczółkowski and Władysław Skoczylas. During the World War II, the estate was heavily damaged. In 1970s, renovation works at the palace were started, and in the mid-90s, the palace and park complex was sold to a private owner who launched renovation and adaptation works to convert the structure into a hotel. In 2004, the portal and the sculpture décor of the eastern and western façade underwent maintenance works.

Description

The complex, located in the southern part of the town, was originally connected by a view corridor with the parish church situated on a hill by the road to Zawichost. From that side, there was an avenue leading to the entrance gate of the park.  The palace is situated on a slope of an artificial hill, with its front façade facing south-east. It is a late-Baroque structure, its interior's layout is arranged axially and symmetrically, with rooms arranged in an enfilade. The body is built on a rectangular floor plan, it is tripartite, two-bay in the central part, three-bay on the sides, with a twin-flight staircase leading to the representative piano nobile.  On the lower floor, there are vaulted utility rooms. On the first floor over the stairs, there is a square hall, beyond which there is a spacious, rectangular drawing room, whose entrance and porte-fenêtres oversee the garden. On the both sides of this representative part of the building, there are three apartments arranged in an enfilade. In the central section of the western part, there are stairs leading to the attic, and in the south-western corner, a square room covered with a groin vault, housing a chapel. The shape of the palace is compact, the building is two-storey from the front, where it is also separated by two two-storey corner extensions embracing the corners, between which there is an arcaded element supporting the terrace. From the back, the building has one storey with two short wings on the sides. The body is covered with a steep hip roof, and the corner extensions — with a bell-shaped tented roofs. The palace is made of brick. Inside, there are brick vaults and reconstructed wooden ceilings. The roof is covered with copper sheets; stairs, carpentry, and wood panelling were added later, as in the most part the reconstructed stucco and painting décor of the interior. Façades are divided by Tuscan pilasters defining bays, and feature a pattern of window openings, with abutments in the ending section and alternating forms. The two-storey front façade is the most impressive one. In the bottom section, it is framed by rusticated ground floors of the corner extensions, with the arcades of the terrace stretching between them. On the first floor, the axis is emphasised by faux avant-corps divided by pairs of pilasters, featuring a decorative portal. Over the central entrance on the ground floor, there is the Radwan coat of arms, and over the entrance from the terrace to the hall on the first floor, there is a triangular abutment framed by volutes. The entrance and abutment are embellished with sculptured, relief ornaments, panoplies, allegorical figures, cartouche with the Topór coat of arms in the culmination of the portal, and relief figures of Tatar and Cossack in the top section. Side façades are also architecturally elaborated, however fairly more modest, when it comes to sculptures.  In the drawing room, five entrance openings to the side apartments are preserved, embraced in wooden and profiled frames with supraportes, with mythological scenes painted en grisaille (currently repainted).

The monument is open. It may be visited upon prior arrangement with the owner.

Compiled by Leszek Polanowski, 06.12.2014.

Bibliography

  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, vol. III: Województwo kieleckie, fasc. 7: Powiat opatowski, oprac. zbiorowe, Warszawa 1959.
  • Daszewska M. K., Architektura pałacu w Czyżowie Szlacheckim (XVIII w.), Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki, vol. XXIII, fasc. 1-2, Warszawa 1978.
  • Sito J., Prace Tomasza Huttera w Ziemi Sandomierskiej, Zeszyty Sandomierskie no 14, 2001.
  • Ewidencja parku podworskiego w Czyżowie Szlacheckim, compiled by Styczyński St., Biuro Studiów i Projektów Lasów Państwowych w Łodzi, 1983.
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Pałac, compiled by Mras P., 1985, Archiwum Delegatury w Sandomierzu Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: po 1723 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Czyżów Szlachecki 17
  • Location: Voivodeship świętokrzyskie, district sandomierski, commune Zawichost - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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