Post mill, Czołna
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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One of the few surviving post mills in the Lublin region. Windmills of this type had once formed a distinctive feature of the surrounding landscape in all of the Puławy district.

History

The windmill was erected somewhere around the year 1900 by P. Mazurek. Back in its day, it was a typical post mill, following a design which remained popular all across the Puławy district. After World War I, the windmill was acquired by Bolesław Kosowski. Alteration works are believed to have taken place in 1920; in 1947, the entire structure was moved to its current location - originally, the post mill stood some 100 metres towards the east. It was also at that point that small, circular openings were cut in the side walls, designed to house small fans used for determining the direction of the wind. The windmill remained in use until 1961, when it was fitted with an electric motor; later on, in 1976, the building changed ownership once again, with the new owner converting it from a mill to a summer home. In the course of renovation works, the windmill received new, non-functional sails; three braces were removed from the windmill trestle, with the entire structure being positioned on new foundations and no longer having the capacity to rotate. Some original fixtures and fittings of the windmill, however, have fortunately been preserved.

Description

The windmill is located approximately 400 metres to the north from the village of Czołna, on the northern side of the road towards Wola Czołnowska. It occupies the central section of a square piece of land surrounded by a wooden picket fence.

It is set on a rectangular, almost square floor plan. The three-storey building is cuboid in shape, covered with a gable roof. The interior layout has been rearranged after 1976 when the windmill was converted into a residential building. The individual storeys are accessible by means of single-flight stairs. The windmill is a post and frame structure positioned on a brick foundation; originally, the windmill was mounted on horizontal longitudinal beams known as podjazdy and a traverse beam called mącznica, resting upon a central king post reinforced from below by a set of braces (quarter bars) attached to a trestle consisting of two cross-trees in a cruciform arrangement. The building features a purlin roof truss. The gable roof features a jerkin head on the sail side and is clad with wood shingles. Inside, the individual storeys are accessible by means of wooden single-flight stairs. The façades are covered with board and batten siding arranged in a vertical layout. The front façade features an entrance on the ground floor level as well as stairs leading up to a porch positioned one storey above, on the first floor. The shaft with two sails (down by two compared to the original layout) projects out of the rear façade.

Private property. The building may be visited from the outside.

compiled by Anna Sikora-Terlecka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 06-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Record sheet, windmill (post mill), compiled by Petera Janina, Czołna 1996, Archive of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Warsaw, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office in Lublin.

General information

  • Type: windmill
  • Chronology: 1900
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Czołna
  • Location: Voivodeship lubelskie, district puławski, commune Baranów
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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