Castle ruins - Zabytek.pl
woj. małopolskie, pow. brzeski, gm. Czchów-miasto
The castle relics are located on the hill called Baszta, situated in the southern part of the town, on the left bank of the river Dunajec. The fortified structure was erected at the end of a rocky promontory separated from the auxiliary facilities by a deep depression, probably a moat cut in rock. The visible castle relics have been preserved in the form of a durable ruin. The main section of the fortified complex is constituted by a cylindrical tower erected from well-worked sandstones. Its upper section, constituted by an upward extension from the more recent times, is octagonal in shape. In addition, the peripheral walls were recreated, running along the hill edge, with a fortified gate tower adjoining them from the north. Also relics of the walls of residential buildings, adjoining the peripheral walls, are exhibited.
Research results show that the castle was built at the turn of the 13th and 14th century, and was probably founded by Wenceslaus II. The earliest reference of the castle originates from 1356, and mentions burgrabia (“burgrave”) of Czchów, Imram. The stronghold certainly protected the customs chamber located here. In addition to military functions, the castle was also used as an administration and judicial centre. It is very probably that monarch stayed in the castle, as their presence in Czchów is certified by written soures. In the end of the 14th century, the castle and town was leased to the family of Melsztyński who remained the owners until the early 16th century. In 1527, Seweryn Boner became the lessee of Czchów, and in 1563, the town and castle were taken over by Anna Sieniawska, wife of Spytko Jordan from Zakliczyn. It is very probable that already in the 16th century the fortified complex ceased to be used as such, as the survey from 1564 does not mention it.
In the light of results of archaeological and architectural research, the oldest element of the castle, dated back to the turn of the 13th and 14th century, was the cylindrical tower built in the south-western part of the promontory plateau. Its diameter at the level of foundation is 12.5 m, and it was 20 m high before it was extended upwards. The free-standing tower was probably circumscribed by a wooden fence. At the second stage of construction, which took place in the 14th century, four ells (2.4 m) thick peripheral walls were built, running along the edges of the hill and drawing an elongated polygon with its outline. The entrance to the castle led from the north-west through the gate gorge or a small fortified tower, adjoining the peripheral walls. As part of the third stage, which also dates back to the 14th century, the single-bay house partitioned into two rooms, with basements was built, which filled the north-eastern curtain wall of the castle. From the south it was adjoined by a hallway built on a rectangular floor plan, probably also used as a staircase. Entrance to the basement section led from the yard through a Gothic stone portal, discovered during research. At the next stage, dating back to the 15th century, the entryway to the castle was converted - a fortified gate tower was erected, using the elements of the former structure. At the turn of the 15th and 16th century, an elongated wing with stone floor at the ground floor level was added to the residential building from the south. In addition, a small annex was built by the tower, whose walls adjoined the internal face of the peripheral walls. It is not known when the tower was extended upwards by the octagonal section. This top storey probably featured embrasures whose traces were discovered during architectural research.
The site is accessible all year round.
compiled by Stanisław Kołodziejski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Krakow, 25.10.2014.
- Kajzer L., Kołodziejski S., Salm J, Leksykon zamków w Polsce, Warszawa 2001, s. s. 137-138.
- Szpunar A., Zamek w Czchowie, pow. Brzeski, woj. małopolskie, [w:] Polonia Minor Medii Aevi. Studia ofiarowane Panu Profesorowi Andrzejowi Żakiemu w osiemdziesiątą rocznicę urodzin. pod red. Z. Woźniaka i J. Garncarskiego, Kraków-Krosno 2003, s. 497-515.
- Szpunar A., Zamek w Czchowie pow. brzeski, woj. małopolskie, „Rocznik Tarnowski”, 2003/2004/9, s. 5-28.
- Szpunar A., Zamek w Czchowie, stan badań i źródeł archeologicznych oraz próba odtworzenia wyglądu budowli, [w:] Późne średniowiecze w Karpatach polskich, Krosno 2007, s. 269-286.
- Szpunar A., Glinianowicz M., Uzbrojenie późnośredniowieczne z zamku w Czchowie, woj. małopolskie, „Acta Militaria Mediaevalia”, t. II, 2006 s. 137-188.
Protection: Register of monuments, Monuments records
Inspire id: PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_N_12_BL.45417, PL.1.9.ZIPOZ.NID_E_12_BL.41056