Defensive manor house, Czaniec
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The structure, being an example of an early Baroque defensive residence of a high architectural value, with its preserved, characteristic form enclosed with a retaining wall with bastions at the corners, is unique on a regional scale. The manor house has preserved to this day its original residential function, rich architectural details, and precious stuccowork inside the manor house chapel (whose interior has survived in the best condition), including the coat of arms of Drzewic Stokowski, the first owner of the estate in the 16th century, integrated into the stucco decorations.

History

The early Baroque defensive manor house in Czaniec was created in the 1st half of the 17th century as a result of the extension of a 16th century defensive residence — the present south wing of the structure — owned by Drzewic Stokowski. The surviving parts of the original shape of the manor house are the defensive wall and the corner bastions of the south terrace. In the 1st half of the 17th century, the structure was transformed into a manor house and garden complex, and the manor house itself was constructed on a quadrilateral plan with an inner courtyard. The next major alterations were made in the 2nd half of the 18th century, when the owner of the estate was Franciszek Szwarcenberg-Czerny. It was probably then that the outer pier-arcade walkways were walled up, an avant-corps was built onto the east façade, and a mansard roof was constructed. In the 1930s, the defensive terrace underwent major modifications, and buttresses were built onto the west façade and in the corners. After World War II, the structure served a residential function (with a number of families living in it), which resulted in modifications to the internal layout. Due to its poor technical condition, the occupants were made to leave in the 1980s and the structure started to go into ruin (the roof and parts of the ceilings partially collapsed). In the 1990s, the complex was bought by a private investor, who started carrying out renovation works in a manner incompatible with the rules of protection of historical monuments. The roof trusses were replaced, part of the wooden ceilings and original vaults were replaced with ceilings of reinforced concrete, and the plaster was removed. The works were stopped for financial reasons and for the next decade, the unprotected building was gradually falling into decay. In the years 2009-2011, the structure underwent full-scale renovations, comprising construction and maintenance elements, which restored its original residential function.

Description

The complex occupies a large parcel of land enclosed with a fence, located in the northern part of the village, at 2 Długa Street. The manor house is situated in the western part of the parcel. In front of the manor house, there is a garden whose design emphasises the Baroque character of the building and the axial layout of the complex. The garden is divided into a number of sections.

The early Baroque defensive manor house was constructed on a rectangular floor plan. It consists of three wings and a pier-arcade gallery, enclosing the structure from the east. The two-storeyed building is made of stone and covered with plaster. It has buttresses at the corners and on the west façade. It also features an inner courtyard characteristic of Mediterranean architecture. The structure is covered with a sheet mansard roof. The manor house is surrounded by a retaining wall with three bastions located in the north-east, south-west, and south-east corners. The bastion in the south-east corner has three embrasures. One of the characteristic elements of the design is the avant-corps located on the axis of the east façade, with rich architectural details around the entrance gate, framed by pilasters and surmounted by a triangular pediment. Other distinctive features include the pier gallery and the pier-arcade gallery of the inner courtyard. The façades have subtle decorative details in the form of plaster window casings and inter-storey cornices on the west façade. The entrances from the gallery to rooms on the first floor and nearby the entrance to the chapel are embellished with stone portals. As the design has been modified multiple times, the only original elements left are the sail vaults in two rooms in the south-west corner and the cellars with barrel vaults. Another notable feature is the interior of the manor house chapel with the original cloister vault adorned with rich Baroque stucco decorations which were renovated and partially restored.

Privately owned. The structure can be viewed from the outside.

compiled by Agata Mucha, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 13-04-2015.

Bibliography

  • Dokumentacja konserwatorska określająca stan zachowania zabytkowego dworu w Czańcu, możliwości jego adaptacji i zagospodarowania z uwzględnieniem historycznej funkcji i wartości zabytku, oprac. Szpakowicz J., Bielsko-Biała 2008 (przechowywana w AZ WUOZ delegatura w Bieslku-Białej, sygn. 1007)
  • Karta Ewidencyjna Zabytków Architektury i Urbanistyki. Dwór, oprac. W. Marchlewski, Bielsko-Biała 1985 (przechowywana w AZ WUOZ delegatura w Bielsku-Białej)
  • Projekt adaptacji na rezydencję zabytkowego dworu obronnego w Czańcu, oprac. Nowak T., Bielsko-Biała 2009 (przechowywana w AZ WUOZ delegatura w Bielsku-Białej, sygn. 8164)
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, t. I woj. Krakowskie, red. J. Szablowski, z. 1 pow. Bialski, Warszawa 1951, s. 8, fig. 18.

General information

  • Type: manor house
  • Chronology: 1. poł. XVII w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Długa 2, Czaniec
  • Location: Voivodeship śląskie, district bielski, commune Porąbka
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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