Palace and park complex, currently: School Group, Czacz
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Palace and park complex, currently: School Group

Czacz

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The palace complex in Czacz is one of the most beautiful complexes representing classical palace architecture in Greater Poland.

History

Czacz was mentioned in written records for the first time in 1301. In the Middle Ages, the village was owned by the Szaszor-Opal family and then the Ramsz family of Opole. From 1402, it belonged to the Czacki family of the Świnka coat of arms and then, successively, to the Gajewskis, the Szołdrskis, and the Żółtkowskis of the Ogończyk coat of arms.

The palace complex was laid out on a site where there used to be a nobility manor house in c. 1500. Wojciech Gajewski, starosta [head] of Rogoźno, the contemporary owner of Czacz, built a palace there in c. 1650. Its designer was the renowned Italian architect Krzysztof Banadura Senior, who also designed a local church. The palace was a two-storeyed building with two towers and two monumental external flights of steps leading to a loggia on the first floor. The building burnt down in 1709. The palace was reconstructed and modified in the late 18th and early 19th century, which was an initiative by Wiktor Szołdrski. Two side residential outbuildings were built then, connected with the residence by means of characteristic, quarter-circular, one-storeyed galleries covered with flat roofs. There were two gates between the outbuildings and the galleries. In 1835, the owners of the estate were the Żółtowski family and the palace was managed by Marceli Żółtowski, who modified the palace again in the years 1848-1851. The present corps de logis featuring a portico with columns in the centre comes from that period. Another storey (or semi-storey) was added, a basement was built, and a small terrace was constructed at the first-floor level, over the main entrance. On the south side, there was a cour d’honneur, accessed by a driveway. In the years 1911-1912, Jan Żółtowski modified the palace based on a design by Marian Andrzejewski, an architect from Poznań, giving it the appearance that it has now. The interior layout of the building was modified then. The mansard roof was covered with roof tiles and the façades also received new covering. The existing galleries were widened and corridors were added, running along their whole length. The last owner of Czacz was Jan Żółtowski. After he returned from displacement to the General Governorate, he died on 23 July 1946 and was buried in Czacz. After the war, the palace was used for various purposes. In 1992, a school was moved to the palace following renovations lasting for several years and classes started on 1 September. The school opening ceremony took place on 25 November 1992. In 2004, after long renovation works, the east outbuilding was adapted for use by the school. The exterior walls were redecorated in 2015.

Description

Czacz is located on the edge of a vast lowland area, to the south of Kościan. An important road runs there — highway A5 from Poznań to Wrocław, which divides the village into an eastern and western part. The palace and park complex is situated in the central part of the village, on the east side of the road connecting Wrocław and Poznań. The corps de logis, the galleries, and the residential outbuildings were modified in the early 20th century; they were modelled on residences in Rogalin, Śmiełów, and Pawłowice. The palace is made up of a corps de logis connected by means of two semi-circular galleries with two residential outbuildings, located on its both sides and framing a large cour d’honneur. The palace has three storeys and a basement. It has a rectangular floor plan and a two-bay layout. It is topped with a mansard roof with roof tiles. The north and south façades have nine axes and pseudo-avant-corpses at the corners. The south façade is divided by means of Ionic pilasters in the giant order, with shafts covered with plaster with decorative horizontal lines and with capitals adorned with coats of arms of the Żółkowski family. On the ground floor, on the central axis, there are small doors leading to a drawing room, with a small balcony above, framed by double pilasters above which there is a triangular pediment with the Ogończyk coat of arms of the Żółtowski family. The north façade of the palace has more subtle decoration; the central part is only adorned with lesenes. There is a terrace in front of the main entrance. The one-storeyed galleries, having plastered walls resting on a brick wall base, are divided by means of Ionic columns supporting an entablature. The galleries communicate with the former residential outbuildings by gates; only the east gate, leading to the main entrance, enables vehicle access. On the west and east sides, there are identical, classical, one-storeyed outbuildings with half-hip roofs. Built on a rectangular floor plan, they have plastered brick walls resting on cobblestone bases. They both have five axes and they are decorated identically. The plaster is decorated with horizontal and vertical lines. On the central axis of each of the outbuildings, there is a door in a segmental-arched niche supported by two columns. Above the entrance, there is a wall dormer with a semi-circular window and a triangular pediment. The palace is located on a small hill in the northern part of the landscape park surrounding the palace. The park, which replaced gardens, used to have an area of 19.20 ha, of which 0.7 ha was covered with water. The park was transformed as the palace was modified.During World War II, the park was devastated. In the late 1970s, it was traversed by a ring road. Currently, it consists of three parts: northern (the main one), southern, and western. The southern part is traversed by the road to Poznań. The core part of the complex has the shape of an irregular quadrangle. It is the oldest part of the park, still bearing traces of the original Baroque regular layout. Currently, the park is used as a schoolyard. There are sports grounds and a playground there. There is also a former ice house in the park; it was used for storing food.

The park is open to the public; the palace houses the School Group in Czacz: the Nursery School, the Primary School of the Polish Nobel Laureates, and the Secondary School of the Polish Nobel Laureates.

compiled by Beata Marzęta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 22-10-2015.

Bibliography

  • Barokowe dwory i pałace w Wielkopolsce, Poznań 2006 s. 28-39
  • Dawne Budownictwo Folwarczne - Majątki Wielkopolskie - Tom V - Powiat Kościański, s. 39-42
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, t. V: Województwo poznańskie, z. 10: Powiat kościański, oprac. T. Ruszczyńska, A. Sławska, Warszawa 1980, s. 18-23
  • Libicki M., Libicki P., Dwory i pałace wiejskie w Wielkopolsce, Poznań 2003, s.63-64.
  • Pawicki Jan, Czacz, Witryna Śmigielska, maj 2012
  • Zgodziński B., Województwo leszczyńskie, Poznań 1989, str. 146-148

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1650 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Parkowa 2, Czacz
  • Location: Voivodeship wielkopolskie, district kościański, commune Śmigiel - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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