Palace complex, Chylin
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The palace complex in Chylin is considered to be the most beautiful and impressive residence in the Turecki powiat (district). It is still possible to identify the compositional links between the palace and the landscape park. The complex is an excellent example of a successful conversion — in terms of both form and function — of a simple residence into a high-class 20th-century complex in beautiful surroundings.

History

Chylin was first mentioned in written records in the late Middle Ages. The existing country residence was shaped during the late 19th and the early 20th century. Based on a map of Chylin dating back to 1834, it is possible to reconstruct the original layout of the complex, with a large yard surrounded by outbuildings adjoining the mansion on the east side and a formal garden spreading to the west of the mansion. The residence was the property of the Kożuchowski family until 1864, when it was taken over by Russian authorities as a punishment for the involvement of its owner, Ignacy Kożuchowski, in the January Uprising; it was subsequently sold to the Łaszczyński family. The new owners moved the farm buildings to the north of the palace, building e.g. a granary, which has survived to this day. The individual paterres of the original formal garden have been preserved even though the new owners started to make plans for a new landscape park. During the first months of 1910, Ludwik Pułaski, the owner of the nearby villages of Piorunów and Grzymiszew, bought Chylin from Antonina Łaszczyńska. It took him two years to build a new palace, completed in 1912. The English landscape park, which survives to this day, although its original layout is no longer very apparent, was also most likely created at that time.

In 1939, the Pułaski family were relocated to the General Governorate by the Germans. In 1944, their property was confiscated pursuant to a decree of the Polish Committee of National Liberation. The palace was adapted to serve as a primary school. It also contained offices of the Brudzyń Combine State Agricultural Holding, which managed the production of agricultural goods in the farm. The heirs of the former owners are currently seeking the restitution of their property.

Description

The palace, farm, and park complex in Chylin is situated on the north side of the road leading to Władysławowo. The central point of the complex is the palace, with a representational forecourt located to the east, the landscape park to the west, and the farm to the north. The landscape park, shaped during the second half of the 19th century and in the early 20th century, occupies the southern and eastern parts of the complex. The granary is located north of the palace, inside a manor farm complex dating back to the second half of the 19th century.

The palace has a rectangular floor plan. It is a two-storeyed brick building with a tall gable roof covered with roof tiles. Stylistically, the building draws on the aesthetics of the Polish classicism of the late 18th century and early 19th century. Its notable elements include a portico with two pairs of columns adorning the nine-axis east façade. The giant order colonnade, topped with Ionic capitals, is crowned with a triangular pediment incorporating a cartouche with the Ślepowron coat of arms of the Pułaski family and the initials “JLP”, which stand for Janina and Ludwik Pułaski. Annexes housing staircases project out of the south and north façades and the west façade features a short avant-corps with a balcony.

The landscape park spreads to the west and south of the palace. An impressive forecourt enclosing a decorative lawn (of which little has survived) used to lead into the park; it was created on the site of the former large courtyard on the east side of the palace. The main part of the park is arranged around a winding axis formed by the slightly sinuous main path leading to a large meadow in front of the east façade of the palace. On the south side of the meadow, there is a small hill; until 2006, there was a decorative, classicist vase on a plinth on it. The hill was surrounded by small decorative lawns — a formal addition to the landscape garden, perhaps serving as a reminder of the earlier, French-style design. When the Pułaski family were reshaping the park, its area was substantially extended towards the east and the north, with lines of hornbeam trees along the boundaries. One of the two ponds that already existed in the 1830s and survived until the 20th century was enlarged and a third pond was dug. The park boasts a great variety of trees, including impressive oaks, hornbeams, ashes, spruces, pines, larches, maples, elms, birches, poplars, and chestnut trees.

The granary, built in the 2nd half of the 19th century, is located north of the palace, with its gable facing the palace. It is part of a manor farm which was moved there by the Łaszczyński family. The building is made of brick and covered with plaster; it has large buttresses at the corners. It is topped with a gable roof.

compiled by Tomasz Łuczak, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Poznan, 13-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Górzyński M., Zabytki miasta Turku i powiatu tureckiego, t. 2, cz. 1: Rezydencje powiatu tureckiego, Turek 2009, s. 99-120.

General information

  • Type: palace
  • Chronology: 1912 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Chylin
  • Location: Voivodeship wielkopolskie, district turecki, commune Władysławów
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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