Former Moes textile factory complex, currently serving as a hospital, Choroszcz
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Former Moes textile factory complex, currently serving as a hospital



A well-preserved former factory complex erected on the site of an earlier, 18th-century palace and manor farm complex of the Branicki family, its overall function being maintained and expanded upon to keep up with the changing times. The palace now served as the residence of the factory owner, while the former grange was replaced by a factory accompanied by a housing estate designed to provide accommodation for its workers. The two-tone brick décor and eclectic detailing are all clear nods to the 19th-century industrial architecture of the city of Łódź.


The construction of the textile factory in Choroszcz is linked to the activities of Chrystian August Moes, a manufacturer form Zgierz, who decided to move his enterprise to the eastern regions of the country due to the establishment of customs duties for goods transported across the Polish-Russian border. In 1840, he first rented the Choroszcz manor, and then purchased it from Marianna Mostowska née Potocka and her son-in-law, Aleksander Komar - the heirs of the Branicki family. Moes initially constructed a pair of four-storey textile factory buildings here, although by 1845 the manufacturing plant already consisted of seven brick buildings and a single wooden one. The factory came equipped with 125 textile workshops and employed more than 1.5 thousand workers. A settlement designed to accompany the manufacturing plant started to take shape in the mid-19th century. A wooden Evangelical church and a school were erected to cater to the needs of German workers. In 1850, a devastating fire destroyed the main factory building; soon afterwards, however, the edifice was refurbished and put back into use. The factory kept developing, so that by 1860 it has become the largest industrial facility in the Białystok district in terms of both manufacturing output and the number of employees. The Moes family exported their goods deep into Russian territory using horse-drawn transportation; for that reason, they also established their own Mecklenburger horse breeding farm. In 1889, the factory comprised 11 brick buildings accompanied by the rapidly expanding housing estate; in 1892, a brick school and post office were completed. In the 1890s, the owner of the factory was Karol August Moes. In 1892, a new, brick stable for draft horses was erected. In 1912, the old, wooden church was demolished and superseded by a brick one. During the period immediately preceding World War I, the factory complex consisted of 20 manufacturing halls, 18 auxiliary structures, 11 residential buildings as well as a number of shops, a school, a church, a bakery and a post office. In 1915, the factory was closed down, with all the machinery being confiscated and transported away deep into the Russian territory. In 1929, the former factory site became a psychiatric hospital. In the years 1930-33, four factory buildings were adapted to serve the needs of the hospital, which remains in operation until the present day.


The former factory complex is located in the north-western part of town, south of the palace. The Horodnianka river and Sienkiewicza street serve as its western and eastern boundaries respectively.

The entire complex was designed in the eclectic style, with the two-tone brick façades being reminiscent of the fortified architecture of the medieval and Renaissance period.

The total surface of the complex is about 20 hectares.

The complex consists of the palace which served as the residence of the factory owner, the factory site proper as well as the housing estate. The site is divided by two intersecting roads: the street running along the north-south axis, between the palace and the town beyond, as well as the former road from Białystok to Ruszczany, which has since been transformed into what is now known as Brodowicza Square. The junction divides the factory site into four distinct parts. The palace which served as the Moes family residence is located north of the factory; it is surrounded by an extensive park. The former factory site occupies the north-western part of the estate; the surviving structures include the main factory building (erected after 1900), the former plush weaving workshop (erected after 1890), the engine room building, the scales building, the bath house (erected after 1900) and the watchman’s house. The north-eastern quarter of the site features a number of auxiliary buildings and storage facilities as well as farm buildings. These include the porter’s lodge, the water tower, the garages (erected after 1900), the greenhouse (third quarter of the 19th century) as well as the forge and stable (1892). The buildings of the former workers’ housing estate erected at the turn of the 20th century - the entrance gate, the school and several residential buildings - are located in the southern part of the complex. The factory buildings as well as the residential and auxiliary buildings all feature a two-tone brick structure; the use of two different colours of brick has made it possible to accentuate both architectural divisions of the façades and their decorative detailing.

The building is open to visitors.

compiled by Grażyna Rogala, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Białystok, 22-12-2014.


  • Dąbrowska A., Pałac w Choroszczy jako rezydencja fabrykanta (1840-1915), [in:] Biuletyn Konserwatorski Województwa Podlaskiego, Białystok 2000, issue 6, pp. 69-80.
  • Choroszcz. Studium historyczno-przestrzenne dawnego założenia fabrycznego Moesów, ob. szpitala dla nerwowo i psychicznie chorych, compiled by A. Walkiewicz, Białystok 1986, typescript PPKZ, collection of the Regional Monument Protection Office in Białystok.

General information

  • Type: factory
  • Chronology: 1840 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: pl. Z. Brodowicza 1, Choroszcz
  • Location: Voivodeship podlaskie, district białostocki, commune Choroszcz - miasto
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland


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