Village as a rural and architectural complex, Chochołów
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Village as a rural and architectural complex

Chochołów

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The village is the region’s only example of the well preserved traditional wooden architectural substance.

History

The village is located upon the Czarny Dunajec River, in the Skalne Podhale, at the foot of the Tatra Mountains and on the Spisko-Gubałowskie Upland. The surroundings are distinguished by a variety of landscapes: agricultural, agro-forest and of the rocky ridge of the Tatra Mountains, protected as part of Tatra National Park. The highland village was founded in the 16th century in the "wild grounds" by Bartłomiej Chochołowski (appointed by King Stefan Batory hereditary village head). It left its imprint on the Polish history in February 1864 when it became home to the insurgents in a patriotic uprising of highlanders guided by Jan Kanty Andrusikiewicz and the Rev. Józef Leopold Kmietowicz. It sparked the so-called Kraków Insurrection against the Austrian authorities. The residents Chochołów also pursued a modern and effective economic policy consisting in the purchase of land through public tenders. As a result, at the end of the 19th century, there were no larger landowners’ property in the area, which was rare in the villages across Małopolska. During WW2, Chochołów was a centre of the local guerrilla movement and actively supported the underground messengers crossing the mountains (their role was to uphold communication and smuggle people between the Natzi occupied countries of Central Europe).

Description

The village, as no other in the region, has retained its traditional architectural substance. The original layout of the village and almost 50 households are officially registered as historical monuments. Chochołów is an example of linear settlement, with the houses’ narrower side facing the road and the front facing the south, with farm buildings set deep within narrow plots. The Chochołów households reveal rich utility functions with barns, sheds and granaries. The houses - typical examples of the Tatra region - have a log structure topped with tall, couple, gablet roofs with shingles and boast rich decorative details and wooden doors with fastening plugs and carved decorations of crossbeams. The Chochołów houses are famous for the quality of raw material used for construction. Among them, a cottage built by the carpenter Koisa of a single fir tree deserves particular attention. The oldest houses go back to the first quarter of the 19th century, although the cottage of Bafia [Chochołów no. 75], today housing the Chochołów Uprising Museum, has a crossbeam with the engraved date of 1798. Interesting is also the household of the Blaszyńskis [Chochołów no. 4]. Another noteworthy structure the the “organist house”, traditionally associated with Jan Kanty Andrusikiewicz. Chochołów was known for its dyeing and woodcarving industry and the production of musical instruments. It was also home to many masons and potters. It is also known for its embroidery and plaiting handicraft. Many traces of these rural "industries" can be found in the collections of ethnographic items and the historical tradition of individual families. Ethnographic and historical exhibitions are located in the local Chochołów Uprising Museum and the Regional Chamber. A local monument of sacred architecture is the stone parish church of St Hyacinth built between 1853 and 1866 as a neo-Gothic temple, using "German” motifs and designed by the renowned architect Feliks Księżarski (1820-1884). The temple was built at the site of the former wooden church of the 17th/18th century. The interior is decorated with wall painting of 1870 by the Kraków painter Walery Eliasz-Radzikowski (1841-1905). The temple boasts, among others, two religious paintings painted by Radzikowski’s father, Wojciech Eliasz (1814-1904), and the painting of the Holy Trinity of the 2nd half of the 16th century.

The village is accessible all year round.

Compiled by Olga Dyba, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kraków, 07.07.2014.

Bibliography

  • Krajobraz kulturowy Polski. Województwo małopolskie, Kraków-Warszawa 2001 (współautor Dyba O.).
  • Gotkiewicz M., O dawnych chatach i płóciennikach w Chochołowie. „Wierchy” t. 41, 1972, s. 258-260.
  • Chochołów - żywy skansen Podtatrza. „Podtatrze” nr 3, 1977, s. 16-17.
  • Rutkowski T., Problemy rewaloryzacji zabudowy wiejskiej na przykładzi wsi Chochołów. „Człowiek i Środowisko” 1980, nr ½, s. 163-188.
  • Kracik J. Ks., „Byleby mieli księdza”. Zanim Chochołów stał się parafią. Nasza Przeszłość t. 70, 1988, s. 273-280.
  • Szmygin B., Krajobraz polskiej wsi - nasz fin du siecle. „Spotkania z zabytkami” 1998, nr 2, s. 4-8.
  • Moździerz Z., Krajobraz „kulturowy” Tatr polskich i jego ochrona, (w:) Krajobrazy. Księga Pamiątkowa w 70. rocznicę urodzin Profesora Janusza Bogdanowskiego, Kraków, 2000, s. 181-198.
  • Krasnowolski B., Leksykon zabytków architektury Małopolski. Warszawa 2013.

General information

  • Type: spatial layout
  • Chronology: XVI w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Chochołów
  • Location: Voivodeship małopolskie, district nowotarski, commune Czarny Dunajec
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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