The so-called New Workers’ Colony complex in Bytom, Bytom
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

The so-called New Workers’ Colony complex in Bytom

Bytom

photo

The complex is an example of a well-preserved, sponsored worker’s colony from the 1st quarter of the 20th century, intended to be inhabited by the workers of the nearby “Julia” Steelworks and the “Countess Johanna” mine. Consisting of two separate residential building groups, constructed in the years 1907-1922, the complex is an important example of the harmonious integration of residential structures into the urban fabric. It emphasises the industrial character of Bobrek.

History

The Bobrek district, being an integral part of the city of Bytom since 1951, dates back to the Middle Ages. The first written records regarding the linear village, founded in the 13th or 14th century under the German law, come from 1369 and concern the division of Bytom between Duke Konrad II of Oleśnica and Duke Przemysław I of Cieszyn. It was an agricultural and mining settlement almost from the very beginning, although its rapid industrialisation was stimulated by the establishment of zinc-works (no longer extant) in 1844. The next plants established in the village were: the “Julia” Steelworks, established by Schlesische Bergwerks und Hutten Aktien Gesellschaft Vulkan in 1856, and the mineshafts “Hrabina Joanna” (Countess Joanna) and “Hrabia Jan Ulryk” (Count Jan Ulryk), founded half a century later by Joanna and Ulryk Schaffgotsch and being part of the “Paulus-Hohenzollern” Mine. Over years, the high level of industrialisation in the region and the resultant increased inflow of workers resulted in the development of construction sponsorship. The first workers’ colony was founded as early as in the 1850s. Currently, the oldest complex is the group of buildings along Stalowa, Ludwika Pasteura, and Konrada Piecucha Streets. The 17 residential buildings, constructed in the years 1888-1889, are accompanied by a number of various additional facilities,

including a casino, a hospital, a wooden Evangelical chapel, and a small park. The New Workers’ Colony in Bobrek was created in several stages in the years 1907-1922. The complex consists of two separate groups of buildings. The first group, comprising 60 residential buildings and adjoining directly the present premises of KWK Bobrek (“the Bobrek Hard Coal Mine”), was referred to as the “Julia” Steelworks Worker’s Colony. The other group was built in the years 1909-1912 as an investment of the “Hrabina Johanna” Mine (Countess Joanna Mine). The buildings were constructed in two stages. At stage one (c. 1909), 42 residential buildings were constructed; at stage two (completed in 1912), the group was enlarged by another 10 buildings. Two tenement houses from the end of the 19th century, situated at 54 Konstytucji Street and 2 Baczyńskiego Street, were also incorporated into the colony.

Description

The so-called New Workers' Colony complex is located in the southern part of Bytom, in the Bobrek district. The site comprises two groups of residential buildings constructed in two stages in the years 1907-1922 and intended for the workers of the nearby industrial plants. The first complex, situated farthest to the north, is defined by Czajkowskiego, Konstytucji, Żwirowa, and Stalmacha Streets. The colony is bordered on three sites by degraded post-industrial areas, with the exception of the southern part, adjoining directly the other group of buildings in the form of four separate sections stretching along Piotra Czajkowskiego, Wytrwałych, Konstytucji, and Zabrzańskiej Streets and Plac na Bobrku (“Bobrek Square”).

The compact complex has a clear spatial layout: it resembles a rectangle with cut-off corners in shape. Defined by Baczyńskiego, Zabrzańska, Żwirowa, Stalmacha, and Konstytucji Streets, it covers an area of nearly 10 ha. The colony was not very varied in terms of the functions which it performed: it consisted predominantly of residential buildings and associated facilities, accompanied by small gardens which have not survived to this day. The northern part of the colony, due to the layout of the net of streets and the location of the residential buildings, resembles a chessboard. It is made up of two-storeyed residential buildings with lofts. Their design is predominantly historicist with Modernist influences; they are topped with various types of roofs and decorated with different architectural details. The distinctive elements adorning the façades of many buildings are avant-corpses and plastered panels, standing out against the background of brick walls. The southern part is divided into four sections. The residential buildings are located around inner yards which were originally enclosed with wooden fencing. The buildings, designed in the historicist style with modernist elements, have three variants of the residential room layout. They are two-storeyed, rectangular structures made of brick, in most cases having a loft, featuring various types of roof covering and decorative details. The prominent feature is the decorative half-timbering in the gables, distinguishing the buildings from other structures of the complex whose common feature is brick decoration.

Privately owned. The colony complex can only be visited from the outside.

compiled by Agata Mucha, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 21-10-2015.

Bibliography

  • Frużyński A., Kopalnie węgla kamiennego w Polsce, Łódź 2012, s.115
  • Sulimowska-Ociepka A., Osiedle patronackie Bobrek w Bytomiu na Górnym Śląsku, [w:]Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki, T. 54, z. 1, Warszawa 2009, s. 57-65
  • Historyczne Osiedla Robotnicze, red. G. Bożek, Katowice 2005, s. 6
  • Zabytki sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, red. S. Brzezicki, Ch. Nielsen, G. Grajewski, D. Popp, Warszawa 2006, s. 181-182
  • Studium Historyczno-Urbanistyczne Zabytkowego Osiedla Nowej Kolonii Robotniczej w Bytomiu-Bobrku, oprac. TOnZ Oddział Wojewódzki z siedzibą w Bytomiu, Bytom 1993 (przechowywane w AZ WUOZ w Katowicach, sygn. 5609)
  • Studium Historyczno-Urbanistyczne Zabytkowego Osiedla Robotniczego Kolonia Bobrek, oprac. TOnZ Oddział Wojewódzki z siedzibą w Bytomiu, Bytom 1993 (przechowywane w AZ WUOZ w Katowicach, sygn. 5609)

General information

  • Type: spatial layout
  • Chronology: 1. poł. XX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Baczyńskiego, Czajkowskiego, Jachymczaka, Konstytucji, Olszewskiego, Stalmacha, Wytrwałych, Zabrzańska, Żwirowa, Plac na Bobrku , Bytom
  • Location: Voivodeship śląskie, district Bytom, commune Bytom
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

Licence:

report issue with this site

Geoportal Map

Google Map

See also in this area