Tenement house, Bytom
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

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The building has a high artistic and architectural value on a regional scale. It is a superb example of Art Nouveau residential architecture, featuring perfectly preserved annex-buildings with rich stucco decorations on the façades. Additionally, the building is an important element of the south frontage line of the market square, being an example of urban architecture from the period of the most rapid development of the city.

History

Written records mentioned Bytom for the first time in 1123. In the 11th century, King Boleslav I the Brave built a fortified hillfort on Wzgórze Małgorzatka. The hillfort later served as the seat of a castellan. In 1254, the city was granted municipal rights based on the German town law. At that time, Bytom gained an urban layout characteristic of that period, with a rectangular market square in the centre surrounded by a regular network of streets. After the war, the market square became larger as a quarter of all buildings in the west frontage line were demolished; however, it has preserved its Medieval character to this day. According to the source materials, in 1859, the owner of the tenement house at 20 Rynek, being part of the south frontage line of the market square, was Isaac Persikaner. According to the construction documentation, currently stored in the archives of the City Hall, at that time, the building was characterised by a compact, two-storeyed structure with subtle decorations. In the years 1873-1888, the building was owned by Fryderika Persikaner, and in the years 1888-1892, it was the home of Gerson Fӓrber, a distiller. In 1892, the building was bought by an alcohol manufacturer, Leopold Wiener. The current tenement house was built in 1903, in the period of the most rapid development of the city, according to a design by the architect and building master Konrad Segnitz. The design was commissioned by Wiener, who owned the building until his death in 1907. In the next years, the tenement house was owned by: Cӓcilia Wiener (1907-1925), the company Ostwerke AG (1925-1929), Schulheiss-Patzenhofer (1930), and Franz Malek (1942). At present, the structure is the property of the city. Major works related to the modification of the tenement house include: the enlargement of the display window by Carl Mainke in 1913, alterations to the restaurant made by J. Swienty in 1925, and the construction of a shopping complex on the ground floor by the company Działoszyński & Bruck in 1930. In the recent years, full-scale renovations of the building were carried out both on the exterior and inside.

Description

The tenement house is located in the south frontage line of the market square in Bytom, at 20 Rynek. The building, comprising a representative (front) part and three annex-buildings, is a compact structure having a rectangular outline, surrounding an inner yard.

The Art Nouveau tenement house, designed by the building master Konrad Segnitz, consists of the main building and three annex-buildings, forming a compact quadrangle surrounding an inner yard. The brick structure, comprising four storeys and a loft, has the form of a complex of buildings having the same shape and size. The main (front) building and the back annex-building are rectangular in shape and have an enfiladed interior layout. The side annex-buildings have floor plans in the shape of an elongated rectangle; they have one suite of rooms arranged along a corridor. As for the exterior walls, the front façade is covered with red brick above the ground-floor level and the façades facing the inner yard are covered with glazed white brick. The front façade has four axes; the ground floor level underwent major alterations at some point. Particularly notable is the picturesquely-shaped gable, situated on the first and second axis (counting from the east). On the second, third, and fourth axes, there are balconies with decorations in the form of reliefs with simple plant motifs. The front facade also features bay windows surmounted by a balcony embellished with a relief panel, with pseudo-pilasters on the sides, and a loggia with plant-motif decorations, with an open-work structure at the top. On the front façade, there are numerous panels with animal motifs. The façades facing the yard have no decoration, the only exception being the segmental-arched window lintels. The arched ceilings in the cellars are made of bricks supported by steel flange beams.

In other rooms, the ceilings are made of wooden beams. Noteworthy interior elements include the stucco decoration of the ceilings and the terrazzo mosaic in the entrance hall, as well as the decorative forged balustrade in the staircase of the front building.

The building can be visited from the outside.

compiled by Agata Mucha, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 29-01-2015.

Bibliography

  • Karta Ewidencyjna Zabytków Architektury i Urbanistyki. Dom mieszkalny - Kamienica, oprac. M. Łabuz, 2004
  • A. Gano-Kotula, Architektura śródmieścia Bytomia, Gliwice 1995
  • J. Drabina, Bytomskie zabytki, Bytom 2000
  • J. Drabina, Historia Bytomia, Bytom 1994

General information

  • Type: tenement house
  • Chronology: 1903 r.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Rynek 20, Bytom
  • Location: Voivodeship śląskie, district Bytom, commune Bytom
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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