Brewery, currently disused, Biskupiec
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Brewery, currently disused

Biskupiec

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An example of the 19th-century post-industrial architecture - before 1945, breweries such as this one were common in the territory of Warmińsko-Mazurskie voivodeship. The only brewery in the region with well-preserved, original period fittings used during the production of beer - a feature which makes it unique on a nationwide scale.

History

The brewery was probably erected by St. Wollmann in 1882. In 1885-1945 it belonged to the Daum family, owners of numerous beer wholesale outlets and breweries in Szczytno and Olsztyn as well as a malt-house in Malbork. The brewery was systematically extended and modernised; for example in 1892 (when a boiler room was built), in 1912/13 (with works continued following the end of World War I) as well as during the 1930s. The facility was used for the purposes of the production of beer, lemonade and mineral water. During the interwar period, the brewery employed more than 100 staff members, while the production volume was approx. 45 000 hl of beer. The brewery was one of the most modern and well-equipped plants of its kind in all of Eastern Prussia. In 1945, the brewery was partially destroyed. After the end of the war, the plant was brought under state control and a malt house began operations on the site. The brewery, following the necessary renovation works (1955-1957), resumed production on 7 November 1957, with the production volume reaching 12 400 hl of beer; in 1966 it increased to 52 800 hl (with 80 staff members employed at the time). In 1962 the brewery was transformed into an experimental plant and in 1970 a branch of the Department of Beer and Malt of the Fermentation Industry Institute in Warsaw was established there for the purpose of performing experiments related to the functioning of the beer and malt industry. As a result, the brewery also became a research centre. During this period, along with the breweries in Olsztyn, Kętrzyn, Szczytno and Braniewo, it formed a part of Olsztyn Beer Plant. From the beginning of the 1990s these breweries formed the state-owned company known as “Jurand” Warmia-Mazury Breweries which were privatised in 1995. In the Biskupiec brewery, beer was brewed using traditional methods. It was the first plant in Poland which started production of beer in kegs i.e. special, aluminium barrels intended to ensure that the beer remained fit for consumption for a longer period of time. The brewery was closed in April 1998. In 2003, the brewery, along with the building of the lagering facility and the preserved historic fittings were entered into the register of historic buildings. Currently the brewery belongs to a private person and is only partially used (tobacco wholesale outlet).

Description

The free-standing brewery building is situated in Warszawska street leading from the south-west towards the old town between the Dymer river and Piwna street. In the vicinity of the brewery there is a lagering facility whose southern facade adjoins a modern residential building. The historic complex of the brewery consists of two historic buildings: the multi-purpose production building (the brewery) and the lagering facility, both structures being connected connected by means of an underground passageway. Both buildings are brick structures with basements, their walls covered with plaster. The brewery building was constructed on a rectangular floor plan; it is a three-storey structure with four-storey avant-corps at its edges. The avant-corps are covered with tented roofs. The other sections of the building feature shed roofs as well as mansard roofs clad with roof tiles above the western annexes. The southern and eastern facades are partitioned with pilasters and feature three short avant-corps. The northern facade features a metal frame with brick infills and was built during the 1930s. The surviving original window joinery in the brewery also originates from that period. The main production building of the brewery, including the boiler room, the brewing vessel and malt-house, consists of three sections which reflect the subsequent stages of extension of the structure (from south to north). The oldest of these sections is situated in the south-eastern part of the structure and features a characteristic chimney of the malt drying chamber (the boiler room was added in 1892). Inside the building the storeys have different heights, adapted to the needs of the manufacturing process of the individual departments of the brewery; they were also transformed in the course of ongoing modernisation of the plant. The architectural solutions applied (ceilings, floors etc.) are typical of industrial buildings from the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries. Inside the brewery, original historic fittings have been preserved and subsequently entered into the register of historic buildings; these include the equipment of the two-level malt drying chamber equipped with nets (including the shafts for the raising agent), wooden malt silos, concrete silos for barley, three barley steeping vessels by Burkhard&Ziesler from Chemnitz as well as brewhouse equipment: two brewing kettles, a brewing tub, fragment of malting filter - all by Maschinenfabrik F. Weigel Nachf. Aktiengeselschaft Neise-Neuland, two steam kettles in the boiler room: one from 1912, manufactured in Königsberg, and one from 1936, manufactured by the Schichau plant from Elbląg. The fermentation facility equipment (fermentation vats) have also survived to the present day. In addition, two historic water intakes (wells) and modern garages are also located on the site. Following the entry into the register of historic buildings, a historic copper cooling tray with a capacity of 82-85 hl, used for cooling down hot beer wort, was stolen from the brewery. It was one of the last devices of this type not just in Poland, but in Europe as well.

Private property. The structure accessible from the outside. It may be visited after prior consultation with the structure’s owner.

Compiled by Adam Płoski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Olsztyn, 5.07.2014.

 

Bibliography

  • Płoski A., I w Biskupcu piwo warzono, [w:] Warmińsko-Mazurski Biuletyn Konserwatorski, Rocznik V, Olsztyn 2003, p. 114-125.
     

General information

  • Type: industrial architecture
  • Chronology: 1882
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Warszawska , Biskupiec
  • Location: Voivodeship warmińsko-mazurskie, district olsztyński, commune Biskupiec - miasto
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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