St Adalbert parish church complex, Bieliny
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

St Adalbert parish church complex

Bieliny

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The church complex in Bieliny, consisting of a church, a bell tower and a fence with gates, is an example of an 18th-century church complex belonging to one of the oldest parishes in this region. The church is distinctive for its valuable interior with wall paintings of Baroque provenance.

History

The parish in Bieliny was founded around the mid 13th century. The present temple is most probably the fourth church in this town. Its construction began in the 1750s after the previous temple burned down in 1756. We have no information concerning the date of completion of the church construction. Wall paintings that decorate the church were attributed to Stanisław Stroński of Lvov and, according to most recent studies, another Lvov-based painter, Gabriel Sławiński also participated in the creative process. Probably in the first half of the 19th century the existing church fence and a bell tower were erected. In the 1880s the church interior was subject to restoration by a sculptor Ferdynand Majerski and a painter Teofil Kopystyński, under the guidance of an architect Zygmunt Hendel. The wall paintings were again subject to restoration works in the years 1972-1973, which were carried out by Adam Rachtan from Cracow.

Description

The complex is located in the central part of the village, in the area restricted by a slope of the San river valley in the west and a road in the east. The church is surrounded by a fence - a wall with a regular shape reminding of a square. It is located in the northern part of a fenced area. A bell tower is located in the eastern part of the southern section of the wall. South-west of the complex, there is a rectory, while rectory auxiliary facilities are located to the north-west.

The church was designed in the Baroque style. It is not oriented, as its chancel faces to the west; it has one nave. The rectangular nave is preceded in the west by a square vestibule. The second (probably secondary) vestibule was added to the southern wall of the church. The chancel part of the church is narrower than the nave and houses a rectangular chancel at the central point, behind which there is a sacristy. On the sides of the chancel and sacristy there are two corridors: the southern one links the sacristy with the chancel and pulpit; the northern one provides access to the treasury located on the storey above the sacristy. The church body consists of additive parts covered with gable roofs: a tall, short nave with a steeple located in the western part of the roof ridge, a chancel that is narrower from the nave but with equal height of walls as well as two low vestibules. The building is made of brick and stone. The front façade is divided into two distinct storeys. The lower storey is partitioned into three fields by four pilasters (a window along the axis, niches with sculptures of St Peter and Paul on the sides) that support simplified entablature. The upper storey is located on a low plinth, restricted by tall volutes, with a central part framed by pilasters and corresponding to the middle part of the lower storey in terms of width. The entire facade is crowned with a triangular tympanum. Other façades of the nave and chancel are articulated by pilasters supporting simplified entablature. Vestibules are embellished with corner pilasters and cornices under eaves. The east façade of the southern vestibule features a large arcaded niche housing a crucifix. Interior. The eastern part of the nave features a choir gallery on a wide, masonry arcade resting on two corner staircases. Side walls of the nave are partitioned by three massive pillars decorated with corner pilasters that support fragmented entablature. The rood arch wall is decorated in a similar way. The nave and the chancel are covered with a barrel vault with lunettes. The southern vestibule, topped with a barrel vault, serves as a small chapel. Barrel vaults also surmount the sacristy and a pair of corridors. Door woodwork with decoratively crafted locks has survived almost in full. The sacristy is linked to the northern corridor by an opening wardrobe. The church walls (except for sacristy, northern corridor and treasury) are covered with wall paintings. The most valuable trompe l'œil paintings, coming from the Late Baroque, embellish the interior of the nave and the chancel (Gabriel Sławiński, second half of the 18th century) - among others, an impressive scene on the entire vault of the nave and painted reredos. The church fittings are mostly of the Baroque style as well. The main altar comes from the 2nd half of the 18th century (painted by I. Fries from Innsbruck around 1881), same as side altars, pulpit and baptismal font with a fitting. The pipe organ casing was crafted by Aleksander Żebrowski from Lvov in 1889. The nave interior features epitaphs of Elżbieta Zamoyska nee Wiśniowiecka (died in 1770), Count Józef Wandalin Mniszech (died in 1797), Count Alfons-Robert Wandalin Mniszech and Count Aleksander Wandalin Mniszech (died in 1891).

The screen-type, architectural bell tower is made of brick. Initially, it served as a gate belfry. Currently, the arcade of the gate is walled up in the south. It has a two-storey structure. The lower part with a gate arcade is flanked by buttresses. The upper storey is partitioned by a cornice. The second storey consists of two low arcades with hung bells. The entire structure is crowned with a pronounced cornice and a convex gable.

The fence consists of a brick wall with two gateways and a small wicket gate. The main gateway is located along the church axis. The gate opening terminates in a pointed arch, while the gate’s gable has a form of volutes. The two-winged gate is made of wood; its wings are planked and include a herringbone pattern, decorated with metal studs. There is a decorative wooden lintel with a carved, stylised motif of a flower. The second gate, located in the south-western corner, is arranged similarly as the main gate, although without any decorations. The small wicket gate is located in the northern section of the wall. Several niches are positioned irregularly along the external side of the wall. Contemporary utility buildings abut on the western section of the wall.

The building is available all year round; sightseeing upon prior telephone appointment.

compiled by Bartosz Podubny, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 29-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa, tzw. karta biała, Bieliny, Kościół parafialny p.w. św. Wojciecha, oprac. tekstu Cz. Kiełboń, 1991 r. (Archiwum WUOZ Delegatura w Tarnobrzegu)
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa, tzw. karta biała, Bieliny, Dzwonnica z murem ogrodzeniowym, oprac. tekstu Cz. Kiełboń, 1991 r. (Archiwum WUOZ Delegatura w Tarnobrzegu)
  • Gajewski B., Bieliny wieś nad Sanem, Stalowa Wola 1991
  • Kowalski W., Uposażenie parafii archidiakonatu sandomierskiego w XV-XVIII wieku, Kielce 1998
  • Rocznik Diecezji Sandomierskiej 2010, Kida K. (red.), Sandomierz 2012
  • M. Szyndlarewicz, Gabriel Sławiński - malarz fresków i obrazów [w:] Między Wrocławiem a Lwowem. Sztuka na Śląsku, w Małopolsce i na Rusi Koronnej w czasach nowożytnych, red. A. Betlej, K. Brzeziny-Scheuerer, P. Goszczanowski, Wrocław 2011

General information

  • Type: church
  • Chronology: 1756 – 1 poł. XX w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Bieliny
  • Location: Voivodeship podkarpackie, district niżański, commune Ulanów - obszar wiejski
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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