Hillfort, Białogórze
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl
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Hillfort and barrow cemetery (site no. 2/2/78-10 and 3/3/78-10) are an example of an early medieval settlement and sepulchral complex.

Location and description

The complex is located in the area known as the Iser Highlands (Pogórze Izerskie). The hillfort is situated about 300 metres north of the eastern edge of the Białogórze village, on a hill which rises to the height of 270 metres above sea level.

The hillfort is oval in shape, its external dimensions being 40 x 32 metres. The height of the rampart measured from the side of the inner yard and from the outside of the fort is between 1 and 2.7 metres and 1 - 3 metres respectively. A natural depression in the surrounding terrain with the length of approx. 100 metres is locat-ed between the hillfort and the burial ground. It is believed that this depression might have in fact formed a natural boundary between the cemetery and the fortified complex.

History

Researchers still disagree as to the actual age of the Białogórze hillfort. According to Krzyszt-of Jaworski, the fortified complex remained in use between the 8th and the 10th/11th century.

The settlement and sepulchral complex is located in an area which, during the earlu Middle Ages, had been occupied by the Slavic tribe known as Besunzane (Bieżuńczanie), referenced in the Bavarian Geographer. The members of the tribe inhabited a small territory near Zgor-zelec, on both sides of the Lusatian Neisse. According to Halina Śledzik-Kamińska, the hill-fort which formed the centre of the life of this tribe was Niedów, which became a Bohemian hillfort during the 10th century. Krzysztof Jaworski believes that the Białogórze hillfort might have taken over the role of the local residential and military centre at that point.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The hillfort in Białogórze was known to researchers as far back as the 19th century, with the first, amateur excavations being performed there in years 1932-33 as well as during the inter-war period. From 1967 onwards, surface surveys (including the survey within the framework of the Archaeological Picture of Poland project in 1985) as well as inspections by monument protection services were being carried out on the site. In 1960 and 1965, site surveys were performed on the site of the former hillfort; these surveys were co-organised by the Archaeo-logical Monuments Protection Officer.

No information has been published so far about the defensive structures of the Białogórze hillfort or about the layout of the inner courtyard. The only thing we know is that a dozen-odd fragments of ceramic vessels and a single spearhead have been discovered on the site.

The historic monument is accessible to visitors. The archaeological site is marked with an ap-propriate information plaque and forms part of a local tourist route.

Compiled by Donata Trenkler, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Wrocław, 22-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Archaeological Picture of Poland, area 78-10, sheet 1/1.
  • Grodziska wczesnośredniowieczne - karta stanowiska [typescript in Archive of the province Monuments Protection Office in Wrocław].
  • Bena W., Polskie Górne Łużyce. Przyroda-Historia-Zabytki, Zgorzelec 2005;
  • Jaworski K., Grody w Sudetach (VIII-X w.), Wrocław 2005;

General information

  • Type: hillfort
  • Chronology: VIII-X/XI w.
  • Form of protection: register of monuments
  • Address: Białogórze
  • Location: Voivodeship dolnośląskie, district zgorzelecki, commune Zgorzelec
  • Source: National Heritage Board of Poland

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