Wiślica – najsławniejsze miasto Królestwa Polskiego (urbs famosissima in regno Lechitarum).
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Nina Glińska

Wiślica – najsławniejsze miasto Królestwa Polskiego (urbs famosissima in regno Lechitarum).

9

several hours

świętokrzyskie

Regia archaeological and architectural reserve
Wiślica

15 minuts

The reserve includes an early medieval hill fort, complex of relics of the Romanesque representative ducal seat, unique because of its double layout (two palas buildings and two accompanying rotundas) and the remains of Gothic town walls dating from the times of Casimir the Great.

Location and description

The reserve is located in the north-western part of Wiślica, at a short distance from the Market Square. It is a dry and relative flat area, elevated high above the river valley and the remaining part of the town island. The area serves both defensive and representative purposes. The name “regia” was used by Długosz to refer to the highest area of land in the town, which is royal property.

The oldest component of the site are the relics of the fortified settlement in the form of two successive phases of wooden and earthen fortifications and a moat. The older rampart was erected as an earthen sconce, while the younger one was built using the sandwich structure, reinforced by a palisade on the outside. Surveys revealed traces of scarce buildings located within the fortified settlement in the form of traces of six buildings. Furthermore, a treasure was found consisting of five decorative raspberry ear cuffs.

Remnants of the Romanesque architecture including two palas buildings and two adjacent rotundas are, however, of the greatest importance.

Building no. 1 (Palas I) was a rectangular bipartite building with a smaller room to the western and a larger one to the east, erected using the opus emplectum technique (two-sided face of the wall of dimension stone, the space between them filled with crushed stone mixed with mortar). The building probably adjoined two rooms to the south: at the eastern corner and perhaps at the western corner. Results of older surveys show that the building was also fitted with arcades supported by pillars and piers. Verification works have not proved their existence.

Building no. 2 (Conch Rotunda) was located 2.5 m east of Palas I. It was most probably a seven-conch rotunda, which consisted perhaps of two storeys, with conches in the crypt. The foundation walls were built in a narrow excavation, of crushed rock gravel and limestone, bonded with a large amount of lime mortar. Initially, scientists divided the occupancy period into two phases, which were not confirmed by verification surveys. The existence of a western gallery was also ruled out.

Building no. 3 (Palas II) was a longitudinal bipartite building set at an angle with the northern wing of the complex (Palas I and conch rotunda). The floor plan of the building did not have the shape of an ideal rectangle, but it was bent at the height of the partition wall indicating the larger southern room and smaller northern room. The foundation walls were made of marlstone bonded with gypsum mortar.

Building no. 4 (Rotunda with apse) was a central structure with a polygonal apse, oriented north-east, adjoining to Palas II to the south. The foundations of the northern part of the nave were built of crushed rock gravel in the herringbone pattern, and the layer of stone separate individual rectangles. Perhaps it was a double-phase structure.

History

Initially, there was a fortified settlement in the area of Regia. The first ramparts were built at the turn of the 10th/11th centuries, and the ones in the 12th century. The latest findings revealed that the construction of Romanesque buildings goes back to the second half of the 12th century and should be associated with the activities of Casimir the Just. Later history of this area is not fully known. The problem of cemeteries in this area is not clear. It seems that the most recent graves probably from the 13th century were built in the relics of Romanesque buildings; therefore, they mark the moment in which the buildings no longer existed. It is unknown when they were destroyed, under what circumstances and why a cemetery was located in their remains. Wiślica suffered during the Tatar invasion in 1241 and perhaps during successive periods in 1259-1260 and 1287. During the reign of Casimir the Great, the town was surrounded by walls, a network of streets underwent alterations, a market square was established, and a collegiate church and perhaps a castle, traces of which have not yet been discovered during archaeological surveys, were erected. At that time, the old fortified settlement in regia was located within the town walls; however, it has no relics from the 14th century. Construction activity began there again in the 16th century and partially destroyed the remnants of the Romanesque architecture. At present, the relics of the fortified settlement are completely invisible under modern private properties.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Archaeological surveys were conducted in 1961-1968 under the direction of Z. Wartołowska from the Team for Research on Polish Middle Ages established by the University of Warsaw and the Warsaw University of Technology; and then in 1994-1998 under the supervision of W. Gliński within the framework of the research programme “1,000th anniversary of the Congress of Gniezno”.

The historic material obtained from the research is in the collections of the Institute of Archaeology of the University of Warsaw, and of the Regional Office for the Protection of Monuments in Kielce. Raspberry ear cuffs can be viewed at the Museum of the History of Kielce.

compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 11-09-2014.

Bibliography

  • Rozpędowski J., Ze studiów nad palatiami w Polsce, “Biuletyn Historii Sztuki”, 1962, vol. 24, issue 3-4, pp. 244-250
  • Tomaszewski A., Kolegiata wiślicka. Konferencja zamykająca badania wykopaliskowe, Kielce 1965, pp. 49-50
  • Żaki A., Archeologia Małopolski wczesnośredniowiecznej, Wrocław 1974, p. 155
  • Świechowski Z., Architektura romańska w Polsce, Warsaw 1982, p. 11
  • Żurowska K., Z problematyki genezy układu palatiów wczesnopiastowskich [in:] Studia nad architekturą wczesnopiastowską, “Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego”, vol. DCXLII, “Prace z Historii Sztuki”, vol. 17 Warsaw - Cracow, 1983, pp. 107-164
  • Wartołowska Z., Dzieje Wiślicy [in:] S.K. Kozłowski i J. Kolendo (ed.), Dzieje archeologii na Uniwersytecie Warszawskim, Warsaw, 1993, pp. 273-288
  • Żurowska K., Dom biskupi [in:] Żurowska K. (ed.) U progu chrześcijaństwa w Polsce. Ostrów Lednicki, Cracow, 1993, pp. 168-192
  • Pianowski Z., Sedes regniprincipales. Wawel i inne rezydencje piastowskie do połowy XIII wieku na tle europejskim, Cracow 1994
  • Kajzer L., Wstęp do archeologii historycznej w Polsce, Łódź, 1996, p. 119
  • Gliński W., Wiślica plemienna czy wczesnopaństwowa? [in:]CivitatesPrincipales. Wybrane ośrodki władzy w Plscewczesnośrednowiecznej. Katalog wystawy., Gniezno 1998, pp. 77-81
  • Gliński W., Koj J., Z nowszych badań nad wczesnośredniowieczną Wiślicą, “Slavia Antiqua”, vol. 40, 1998, pp. 119-149
  • Rodzińska-Chorąży T., Zespół architektoniczny na regii w Wiślicy. Próba analizy dostępnych danych [in:] Kóčka-Krenz H., Łoziński W. (ed.) Kraje słowiańskie w wiekach średnich. Profanum i sacrum, Poznań 1998, pp. 561-572
  • Gliński W., Zespół palatialny w Wiślicy w świetle badań archeologicznych [in:] A. Buko, Z. Świechowski (ed.), Osadnictwo i architektura ziem polskich w dobie zjazdu gnieźnieńskiego, Warsaw, 2000, pp. 257-267
  • Rodzińska-Chorąży T., Zespoły rezydencjonalne i kościoły centralne na ziemiach polskich do połowy XII w., Cracow 2009

kościół parafialny pw. Narodzenia Najświętszej Marii Panny
Wiślica

30 minutes

Relikty tzw. I i II kościoła romańskiego
Wiślica

30 minutes

Vicars’ House, so-called Długosz House, currently the Regional Museum and clergy house
Wiślica

30 minutes

The vicars’ house in Wiślica from 1464-1467 is one of the earliest buildings without a single-bay layout and with a corridor in Poland. It also belongs to the group of the best preserved buildings founded by Father Jan Długosz (died 1480). The iconography of the polychrome inside the buildings, dating from around 1467, does not have analogies in the Polish wall painting.

History

The first common house of the vicars of Wiślica was built by Jan of Tarnów (died 1409), castellan of Kraków. Before the mid-15th century the building was destroyed in a fire. In the 1450s, Fr. Jan Długosz, curate of Wiślica, decided to build a new more impressive structure on the site occupied by the previous house. To this end, he acquired two additional plots of land (the purchase of the last one was approved by the town council in 1463). The vicars’ house was erected probably by bricklayers of Kraków in 1464-1467. In 1467, Długosz transferred the property to the local clergy. In 1468, Jan Lutek, Bishop of Kraków, approved the donation. In the 1780s-1790s, part of the building was occupied by the administration of the Wiślica district. The inspection carried out in 1792 showed that the building required repairs, which were made between 1820 and 1837. In 1866, the building was at risk of collapse. In 1873, it underwent renovation. In 1915, the Austrian troops seriously damaged the building. In 1919, damage was repaired and the building underwent restoration, which involved the reconstruction of portals, among others. In 1930, the interior layout of the house, stone portals and window surrounds were reconstructed based on a design by Adolf Szyszko-Bohusz. In 1945, the building again suffered serious damage as a result of warfare. Only in the 1960s, it underwent the necessary repairs combined with architectural surveys. The surveys allowed to determine the original interior layout of the structure and revealed Gothic portals and figure polychromy. In 1995-1996, its roof and western gable were secured and reinforced. In 1999, part of the building was allocated for museum use. Between 2000 and 2012, the façades, stonework, wall paintings and wooden ceilings underwent conservation, maintenance and restoration.

Description

The Długosz House is part of the collegiate church complex situated in the centre of the village. It occupies the south-western part of that complex. The Gothic building is a multi-storey structure with a basement, built on a floor plan in the shape of an elongated rectangle, with a slope in the south-western corner. It has a tripartite layout of rooms, almost the same on all storeys. It consists of a pass-through hallway, with stairs within the walls, framed by a corridor to the west with a group of cells on the sides, and two rooms to the east (ground floor — kitchen). The former refectory is located on the upper storey over the hallway. The building was erected of brick in a Gothic (Polish) patter and stone, and the interior was partly plastered. The building is covered with gable roof. Brick façades facing the east and west are topped by triangular gables with blind windows (the central one features the Wieniawa coat of arms) and adorned with decorations in the form of rhombuses made of vitrified bricks and corner limestone ashlars. They were separated by uni- or bipartite windows with rectangular surrounds and topped with step-like endings (reconstructed parts). Entrance to the building and passages between the rooms are emphasised by Gothic portals (reconstructed parts). Only two basements of the building are covered with barrel vaults, the other are topped with ceilings (mainly made of wood; coffered ceiling over the hallway). The north-western room on the ground floor is covered with a painted ceiling with ornamental and heraldic decorations, and the southern wall is covered with a painting depicting the Christ the Martyr in a sarcophagus in the centre, framed on the sides by the depictions of a kneeing canon (Jan Długosz?) with St. Helena (?) and a group of soldiers together with Pontius Pilate and Procula (?) on a balcony. The museum part of the building is used to exhibit monuments from the collegiate church and excavations works in Wiślica.

The site is open to visitors. The building can be viewed during the working hours of the Regional Museum in Wiślica.

compiled by Łukasz Piotr Młynarski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 30-09-2014.

Bibliography

  • Adamczyk A., Prace remontowo-konserwatorskie i budowlane w granicach województwa świętokrzyskiego i dawnego kieleckiego, [in:] Prace konserwatorskie w latach 1990-2000. Dziesięć lat Służby Ochrony Zabytków w Kielcach, A. Piasecka (ed.), Kielce 2001, p. 36.
  • Adamczyk A., Modras J., Polanowski L., Prace przy zabytkach architektury sakralnej i zabudowie miejskiej, [in:] Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, J. Cedro (ed.), Kielce 2014, p. 27-28.
  • Buczek A., Mecenat artystyczny Jana Długosza w dziedzinie architektury, [in:] Dlugossiana. Studia historyczne w pięćsetlecie śmierci Jana Długosza, Cracow 1980, pp. 108-140.
  • Dettloff P., Odbudowa i restauracja zabytków architektury w Polsce w latach 1918-1930. Teoria i praktyka, Kraków 2006, pp. 288-289.
  • Łoza S., Architekci i budowniczowie w Polsce, Warsaw 2014, pp. 172, 176.
  • Kardyś P., Dom Długosza w Wiślicy, “Między Wisłą a Pilicą. Studia i materiały historyczne”, Wojciechowska, L. Michalska Bracha (eds.), vol. 7: 2006, pp. 9-30.
  • Kardyś P., Wiślica w średniowieczu i w okresie wczesno nowożytnym. Studia z dziejów miasta, Kielce 2006, pp. 136-137.
  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, vol. 3: Województwo kieleckie, J. Z. Łoziński, B. Wolff (eds.), issue 9: Powiat pińczowski, prepared by K. Kutrzebianka, J. Z. Łoziński, B. Wolff, Warsaw 1961, pp. 101-102.
  • Kornecki M., Małkiewiczówna H., Małopolska, [in:] J. Domasłowski, A. Karłowska-Kamzowa, M. Kornecki, H. Małkiewiczówna, Gotyckie malarstwo ścienne w Polsce, Poznań 1984, pp. 54, 210.
  • Kazimierza Stronczyńskiego opisy i widoki zabytków w Królestwie Polskim (1844-1855), vol. II: Gubernia Radomska, prepared by K. Guttmejer, Warsaw 2010, pp. 135, 331.
  • Klinger E., Gotycka polichromia Domu Długosza w Wiślicy, “Roczniki Humanistyczne” 2005, vol. LIII, issue 4 - Historia Sztuki, pp. 67-96.
  • Małkiewiczówna H., Wiślica. Dom Wikariuszy, [in:] Malarstwo gotyckie w Polsce, vol. II: Katalog zabytków, A.S. Labuda, K. Secomska (eds.), Warsaw 2004, p. 107.
  • Milczarek-Kopysz E., Włodarek A., Wiślica. Dom Długosza, [in:] Architektura gotycka w Polsce, T. Mroczko, M. Arszyński (eds.), vol. 2: Katalog Zabytków, A. Włodarek (ed.), Warsaw 1995, p. 257.
  • Miłobędzki A., Zarys dziejów architektury w Polsce, Warsaw 1978, p. 114.
  • Piasecka A., Prace remontowo konserwatorskie przy zespole kolegiaty w Wiślicy w latach 1915-1995, [in:] Wiślica. Nowe badania i interpretacje, A. Grzybkowski (ed.), Warsaw 1997, pp. 164-174.
  • Piasecka A., Wybrane przykłady prac konserwatorskich przy zabytkach ruchomych, [in:] Prace konserwatorskie w latach 1990-2000. Dziesięć lat Służby Ochrony Zabytków w Kielcach, A. Piasecka (ed.), Kielce 2001, pp. 96-97.
  • Rożek M., Fundacje artystyczne Jana Długosza, [in:] Jan Długosz. W pięćsetną rocznicę śmierci. Materiały z sesji (Sandomierz 24-25 maja 1980 r.), F. Kiryk (ed.), Olsztyn 1983, pp. 75-95.
  • Smoleńska J., Działalność budowlana Jana Długosza, “Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki” 1969, issue. 3-4, pp. 161-179.
  • Wojtasik Z., Prace konserwatorskie przy zabytkach ruchomych- prowadzone pod od 1990 roku do połowy 2000 pod nadzorem Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków i Wojewódzkiego Oddziału Służby Ochrony Zabytków w Kielcach, [in:] Prace konserwatorskie w latach 1990-2000. Dziesięć lat Służby Ochrony Zabytków w Kielcach, A. Piasecka (ed.), Kielce 2001, p. 75.
  • Wojtasik Z., J. Zub., Konserwacja tzw. zabytków ruchomych, [w:] Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, J. Cedro (ed.), Kielce 2014, p. 126.

Dzwonnica kościoła kolegiackiego pw. św. Trójcy i NMP, ob. pw. Narodzenia NMP
Wiślica

15 minuts

Remnants of St Nicholas Church, the area of Solny Square
Wiślica

15 minuts

Early medieval settlement with the remains of a Romanesque temple is the oldest urban layout in Wiślica. The value of this place is difficult to determine, apart from the legend that goes with it. The remains of a circular bowl discovered under the church, in conjunction with the mysterious Pannonian Legend about a pagan prince “sitting in Wiśle” and forced to baptism, and combined with a deep conviction that Wiślica was the capital of the state of Vistulans allowed the researchers to regard the exposed structure as a baptismal pool in which the local people were baptized in the 9th century in the Slavic rite. And although very little is left today of those findings, the place still arouses intense emotion and controversy.

Location and description

St Nicholas Church was located in the heart of Wiślica, east of today’s Market Square, approximately 25 m east of today’s collegiate church, on a slight slope leaning towards the south-east.

History

The oldest settlement operated from the 10th/11th until the mid-11th century. The bowl covers its relics, which means it dates back to the 11th century. However, there are serious doubts as to whether this structure was originally in the shape of a circular bowl. The church, contrary to the earlier opinions on its early chronology dating back to the 1st half of the 10th century, was founded at the turn of the 11th century. It is commonly believed to be the temple dedicated to St Nicholas mentioned by the medieval chronicler Jan Długosz. It bordered on a graveyard and surrounded by a settlement, probably of commercial character, whose remnants were unearthed north and south of the church. The building was demolished in the late 13th century by Bishop Muskata and rebuilt, most probably, as a wooden temple. In 1325 the church was mentioned in the accounts of papal tax collectors, in 1326 in the papal tithe, and in the years 1325-1327 in the accounts of the Apostolic Camera. After the temple was pulled down, a new cemetery was set up which operated until the 14th century when a road was built in the former cemetery grounds.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The research was conducted in the years 1955-1968 by Włodzimierz Antoniewicz and Zofia Wartołowska. In 1979 Jerzy Gula Dorota Górna and Joanna Kalaga performed the drilling of the bowl. In 2000 some follow verification testing took place supervised by J. Kalaga. The remains of the settlement are preserved as a cultural layer and several relics. The alleged baptismal bowl is placed over them, to the north of the church and beneath its foundations. It was a semicircular recess of irregular form made of aggregate mixed with the soil. No south part of the bowl was found inside the church. To the north of the bowl, a trapezoid “podium” was discovered made of fine and white aggregate. St Nicholas Church has been reconstructed as a small, single-nave building with a semicircular and slightly elongated apse. A rectangular room adjoins the church from the south where two tombs were found under stone panels and two earth burials. Two of them were female burials. Around the church, a churchyard was discovered composed of 115 inhumation graves, mostly without equipment, including eight double burials. Several graves were covered by panels, one of them revealed a denarius of Duke Bolesław the Brave from ca. 1058-1076. One of the graves was a sarcophagus. Two phases of the functioning of the cemetery were distinguished: contemporary with the church and after its demolition. Also some fragments of seven log structures were discovered which are the remains of the settlement with St Nicholas Church at the centre.

The site is accessible to visitors during the museum opening hours (www.muzeum.wislica.pl).

Compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 25.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Adamczyk A., Modras J., Polanowski L., Prace przy zabytkach architektury sakralnej i zabudowie miejskiej [w:] Cedro J. i inni (oprac.) Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, Kielce 2014, s. 28.
  • Florek M., Przychodni A., Ochrona zabytków archeologicznych [w:] Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, Kielce 2014, s. 200.
  • Kalaga J., Przyczynek do sporu o Wiślicę, „Z Otchłani Wieków”, 1981, t. 47, z. 3, s. 143 - 145.
  • Kalaga J., Wczesnośredniowieczne osadnictwo przy ul. Batalionów Chłopskich w Wiślicy, „Światowit”, 1986, t. 36, s. 131 - 174.
  • Kalaga J., Gliński W., Tak zwana misa chrzcielna w Wiślicy w świetle nowych badań archeologicznych [w:] Kościół katolicki w Małopolsce, Kielce 2001, s. 37-49.
  • Kalaga J., Gliński W., Wiślicka „misa chrzcielna” w świetle nowych badań archeologicznych, Dzieje Podkarpacia, t. V Początki chrześcijaństwa w Małopolsce, Krosno 2001, s. 161-170.
  • Leśny J., Uwagi o podstawach chronologicznych misy chrzcielnej w Wiślicy, „Slavia Antiqua”, 1976, t. 23, s. 207-208
  • Tomaszewski A., Kolegiata wiślicka. Konferencja zamykająca badania wykopaliskowe., 1965.
  • Tomaszewski A., Misy, ale czy chrzcielne? [w:] I Międzynarodowy Kongres Archeologii Słowiańskiej, 1970, t. III, s. 345 - 347.
  • Urbańczyk P., Czy istnieją archeologiczne ślady masowych chrztów ludności wczesnopolskiej?, Kwartalnik Historyczny, 1995, t. 102, z. 1, s. 3-18.
  • Wartołowska Z., Wyniki dotychczasowych badań w Wiślicy, „Sprawozdania Zespołu do Badań nad Polskim Średniowieczem Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego i Politechniki Warszawskiej” pt. I Konferencja Naukowa w Warszawie 23 i  24 marca 1960. Referaty i dyskusje, 1962, s. 15-20.
  • Wartołowska Z., Wyniki badań prowadzonych w 1961 roku, „Sprawozdania Zespołu do Badań nad Polskim Średniowieczem Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego i Politechniki Warszawskiej” pt. III Konferencja Naukowa w dniach 13 - 14 kwietnia 1962. Sprawozdania z działalność, 1962.
  • Wartołowska Z., Dzieje Wiślicy w świetle odkryć archeologicznych, „Sprawozdania Zespołu do Badań nad Polskim Średniowieczem Uniwersytetu Warszawskiego i Politechniki Warszawskiej” pt. V Konferencja Naukowa w Busku Zdroju i Wiślicy 19 - 20 maja 1966. Referaty, 1966, s. 37-52.
  • Żurowska K., Kościół św. Mikołaja w Wiślicy na tle romańskich jednonawowych budowli sakralnych, [w:] Grzybkowski A. (red.) Wiślica. Nowe badania i interpretacje, Warszawa 1997, s. 57-60.

kościół, świątynia, kaplica
Wiślica

15 minuts

kościół, świątynia, kaplica
Wiślica

15 minuts

Hillfort
Wiślica

15 minuts

In the early Middle Ages (10th - 13th century) Wiślica was one of the most important administrative centres of Małopolska. They were two settlement here, each of which was able to play the role mentioned above, though the discussed settlement was perhaps of a military nature with a permanently stationed military garrison. The oldest rampart with the outer wall made of the so-called dry wall (built from gypsum shale joined with clay) is the only such structure in Małopolska. In Poland, there are but a few examples of use of this technique, all in Lower Silesia. Yet, it was a common way of making ramparts and embankments in Bohemia, Moravia and Slovakia.

Location and description

The hill fort lies in an overgrown oxbow of the Nida River, about 410 m south-east of Wiślica. The settlement is well preserved and visible; it has a triangular shape with rounded corners. The preserved rampart is 3.8 m high. The traces of the moat are visible. The complex is a single module of the area of approximately 1 ha.

History

The hill fort was probably erected at the turn of the 10th century. It probably marked the beginning of the Piast rule in Małopolska. The motte was destroyed during a fire, possibly during the siege of Wiślica by the Ruthenian and Polovts tribes in 1135, although it is uncertain which of the forts in Wiślica (i.e. the hill fort, the settlement in the meadows or the one in regia - on the headland of the town island) was attacked. At the turn of the 13th century, probably during the Czech reign in the Małopolska region, a stone wall was erected in connection with the attempts of Władysław the Short to seize Wiślica. The are no signs of use of the hill fort afterwards. During WWI, the hill was the Russian army artillery position. After WWI, the local population rebuilding their houses used the stone from the defensive wall of the fort, which was sold by one of the local construction entrepreneurs. The site also suffered through agricultural activity carried out for several years until 1929, that is, the date of creating a reserve of the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw.

Condition and results of archaeological research

The first information along with a sketch was provided in 1821 by Henryk Potocki. In 1948 the engineer Karol Jastrzębski performed land surveying and drew up a contour plan. In the years 1955-1968, Włodzimierz Antoniewicz and Zofia Wartołowska conducted research; it was resumed between 1996 and 1998 by Waldemar Gliński. The first rampart was built as an earthen structure finished with dry wall. Later, a timber-and-earth structure was added outside. A wooden bridge led to the gate from the west. Inside, more 20 half-earth lodges were discovered, mostly built as pillar structures, and a dozen of other buildings, including outbuildings, a well and a tank.The wall was built of partly dimensioned stone and single Romanesque bossages (one bears a sign resembling the Greek letter π or λ). Some of most interesting items are a horn knife or sickle holder with the representations of six female busts, probably water sprites, typical of pagan beliefs. Also a treasure was found of coins hidden at the turn of the 11th century in a small vessel, inside a cloth bag, and a treasure of gold and silver coins and silver items, probably hidden during the Polish-Swedish War.

The historic material is in the collections of the Institute of Archaeology, Warsaw University, and of the Voivodeship Office for the Protection of Monuments in Kielce.

Compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 02.10.2014.

Bibliography

  • Antoniewicz W., Skarb w Wiślicy, „Dawna Kultura”, 1954, t.1, s. 85-91.
  • Antoniewicz W., Znaczenie odkryć w Wiślicy, „Silesia Antiqua”, 1968, t. 10, s. 105-115.
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