Wieże wyciągowe i nadszybia kopalniane na Górnym Śląsku
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Agata Mucha

Wieże wyciągowe i nadszybia kopalniane na Górnym Śląsku

7

one day

śląskie

The “Hoym” Bituminous Coal Mine, currently known as the “Ignacy” Coal Mine
Rybnik

two hours

The existing complex of buildings had originally formed part of the largest bituminous coal mining facility in the Rybnik region. Its spatial layout has changed little from the moment of its construction. Today, the mining facility forms an excellent example of the interaction between man and his environment, bearing testimony to the historic methods of raw materials excavation. The facility is also a representative example of a complex of buildings associated with the mining industry, dating back to the late 19th and early 20th century. Due to the overall integrity of the complex and the completeness of the preserved machinery and equipment, the entire site retains an immense cultural and research value. It also forms part of the local cultural landscape, instantly defined by the towering headframes.

History

The “Ignacy” coal mine was originally founded in 1792, at the initiative of Kerl Georg von Hoym, the Prussian minister for the Silesian province. The first coal extraction took place in 1996, although it was only in 1816 when the entire site was allocated to the company for the purposes of conducting mining activities. In the 1830s, the “Hoym” mining facility was merged with the “Sylvester” coal mine, thus becoming known as the “Hoym Consolidated Mining Facility”. The commissioning of a 44-inch water extraction device in 1840, installed in the first, 46-metre-long “Thurnagel” water shaft was an important step forward for the facility. In October 1956, a railway line leading through Niewiadom was opened, with a direct connection to the mining facility being established two years later. In 1870, the Hoym Consolidated Mining Facility was merged with another coal mining site known as “Laura”. It was only in 1890, however, that Hugo Hohenlohe-Oehringen, the duke of Ujazd (Ujest), acquired the full legal title to the entire mining complex. In 1874, a new shaft known as “Grundmann” was sunk, its total depth reaching 150 metres. During the years that followed, a complex of industrial and office buildings was erected around the “Graf Reden” shaft. In the year 1900, a new shaft building, steel headframe, electrical switching station buildings and winding engine hall were erected around the disused “Oppurg” shaft. Two years later, a new, steam-powered winding engine called “Wilhelmshütte’’ was assembled. As large coal mining monopolies began to expand even further, the relatively small Consolidated Hoym-Laura Mining Facility was incorporated into the Czerniec (Schwarzau) Coal Mining Association. It was during that period that a new boiler house was erected near the “Opperung” shaft, equipped with three water-tube boilers and an 80-metre chimney. In 1923, the “Grundmann” shaft received a new pit railway based on the so-called endless chain system was constructed alongside the “Grundmann” shaft. A new boiler house was also erected nearby, featuring a chimney with a total height of 90 metres. After Poland regained its independence, the new government decided to move away from the German nomenclature used throughout the mining facility, and so, in 1936, the facility became the “Ignacy” coal mine, named after the erstwhile president of the Republic of Poland, while the “Grundmann”, “Vera” and “Oppurg” shafts were renamed as “Kościuszko”, “Weronika” and “Głowacki”. The subsequent extension and alteration works involved the establishment of a narrow-gauge railway line in 1937, connecting the “Kościuszko” and “Głowacki” mining shafts, the opening of a new, diagonal hoist, the construction of a transformer station, air compressor station, cooling tower, mechanical workshop and a lamp room. In January 1968, by disposition of the Ministry of Mining and Energy, the “Ignacy” coal mine was merged with the neighbouring “Rydułtowy” bituminous coal mining facility due to the gradual depletion of the coal deposits beneath the “Ignacy” mine. The works performed during the period in question involved mostly the redesigning the existing tunnels, filling in the disused mining shafts and reducing the mining departments. Towards the end of the 1990s, the process of demolition of further structures has begun, including the “Marian” shaft building and the old bathhouse.

Description

The buildings forming part of the historic “Ignacy” coal mine form a complex situated in the Niewiadom district, in the south-western part of Rybnik, on Mościckiego street. The preserved buildings form a unique complex of the oldest bituminous coal mining facility in the Rybnik region, with very few changes made to their overall appearance from the moment of their construction. The constituent parts of the complex are as follows:

1. The shaft-top building of the “Głowacki” shaft (formerly known as the “Opperung” shaft), accompanied by a headframe from 1892, initially conceived as a free-standing headframe structure. The building is inextricably linked to the steel headframe from 1902. Designed on a square floor plan, the two-storey building covered with a gable roof takes the form of a cuboid tower-like structure.

2. The winding engine building of the “Głowacki” shaft from 1892, containing a steam-driven winding engine from the year 1900. The machinery hall building is a single-storey brick structure designed on a rectangular floor plan, covered with a gable roof. The Wilhelmshutte winding engine, manufactured in the year 1900, is powered by a two-cylinder reciprocating piston high-pressure steam engine.

3. The shaft-top building of the “Kościuszko” shaft (formerly known as the “Grundmann” shaft) from 1921, accompanied by a headframe; designed on a roughly rectangular plan, the building features a symmetrical silhouette consisting of a single-storey and a two-storey section. The riveted steel headframe with a single diagonal support was erected during the same year.

4. The winding engine house of the “Kościuszko” shaft from 1920, containing the steam-driven winding engine - a single-storey building with a basement, erected on a rectangular floor plan and covered with a gable roof. The two-cylinder reciprocating piston high-pressure steam engine was manufactured in 1920 at the Linke Hoffmann Werke Breslau factory.

5. The compressor building (formerly serving as the power station), located in the vicinity of the “Głowacki” shaft engine house, erected on a roughly rectangular floor plan and featuring a decorative façade lined with ceramic brick and adorned with lesenes and a dentilled cornice. Inside, the building houses the original piston compressor from 1923, manufactured by the Linke Hoffmann Werke Breslau company, as well as the piston compressor from 1944 manufactured by Ingersoll Rand from Canada.

The buildings forming part of the complex are made predominantly of brick. The only exception is the “Kościuszko” shaft building featuring a steel frame with brick infills. Most of the buildings are covered with flattened gable roofs clad with roofing felt, based on a steel roof truss. The flooring inside the buildings is made of ceramic tiles, terrazzo or cement. The two surviving headframes - the “Kościuszko” and the “Głowacki” headframe - are both steel structures with a single diagonal support.

The building is open to visitors all year round and can be viewed upon prior telephone appointment.

compiled by Agata Mucha, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 25-06-2014.

Bibliography

  • Markiewka E., Kalendarium Kopalni ,,Ignacy’’ (Hoym) 1792-1967, with supplements to 2008, Rybnik 2009, pp. 1-26.
  • Smołka M. Z., Dziele kopalni ,,Ignacy’’ (,,Hoym’’) 1792-2001, Katowice 2001, pp. 33-138.
  • Adamczyk A., Kopalnia Węgla Kamiennego Hoym Ignacy 1792-1967-2011, Warsaw 2011.
  • Szlak zabytków techniki województwa śląskiego, Bożek G. (ed.), Katowice 2006, pp. 67-68.

transport time to the next site

2h 18 min

46 min

The Maciej shaft complex
Zabrze

one hour

A representative example of ground facilities accompanying an early 20th-century mining shaft serving both as an excavation and bleeder shaft, serving as a perfect illustration of the technological issues related to vertical mining transportation as well as water drainage and ventilation of underground mining facilities. In addition, the complex, enjoying the status of a regional landmark, is also a valuable ensemble of utility buildings, designed to satisfy the objectives and requirements associated with their industrial function; the buildings are also structures of a special artistic value due to the incorporation of historicist themes in their design and décor. Their almost perfectly complete, authentic appearance, layout and nature of the entire complex, coupled with the minimum amount of alterations made to the oldest part of the site, warrants the inclusion of this complex among the most valuable examples of industrial monuments associated with bituminous coal mining in the entire region.

History

The complex of buildings accompanying the Maciej shaft (formerly known as the West shaft) forms an integral part of the Concordia bituminous coal mining facility, which began its operations back in 1841. The mining facility, owned by count Łazarz Henckel von Donnersmarck, initially obtained coal from the deposits located on the Concordia mining site; later on, the range of its operations was extended to include the Amalia mining site, the exploitation of which lasted intermittently from the 18th century onwards and which was acquired by the Donnersmarck family in 1826, as well as the Michael mining site. Coal extraction was initially effected by means of three mining shafts: the Julia shaft (255 m), the Karl shaft (67 m) and the Concordia shaft, which was deepened to 575 metres in the early 20th century. The coal extracted at the mining facility was then forwarded for processing to the Concordia coking plant or used at the local ironworks. In 1873, the mining facility and the aforementioned processing plant were acquired by the company known as Donnersmarckhütte A.G. The rising demand for coal as well as the efforts made by the company to increase its output led to a flurry of investments, including the acquisition of new mining sites and the sinking of additional shafts, allowing deeper deposits to be reached. As a result, by 1916 the following mining sites were being exploited by the Concordia mining facility: Borsig II, Ludwik II, Ludwik III, Emma II, Mont Avon II, Johan August, Królowa Wiktoria (Queen Victoria) and Belfort; these were all accessed through a number of newly sunken shafts: Schmidt (transport shaft, 141 m), Wetter (ventilation shaft, 87 m), Guido (30 m), Grenz (33 m), Michael (60 m), Rodon (60 m) and the deepened Concordia shaft (575 m) and the West (Zachodni) shaft (198 m), which would later become known as the Maciej shaft. After all those investments were completed, the Concordia mining facility was considered to be one of the most modern and deepest mines in all of Upper Silesia. The final shaft to be excavated in the years 1905-1915 - the West (Zachodni) shaft, which would later become known as the Maciej shaft, was situated at the western edge of the Belfort mining site. The sinking of this shaft was necessitated by the need to explore new ways of providing water drainage and ventilation of the latest parts of the underground section of the mining facility as well as the need to connect the Belfort mining site with the primary coal extraction shafts. Once the drilling was complete, a complex of technological, auxiliary and social facilities was erected in the years 1922-1928 in the vicinity of the shaft, before the exploitation of the Belfort mining site began. The complex included the existing hoist house with headframe, machinery hall and weighing house as well as a warehouse, the cart weighing building as well as the deferrisation plant and the accompanying motive power depot. The mining carts would turn around inside the chamber on the uppermost storey of the building, with an additional outside hoist positioned on the western side thereof. The machinery hall was built to contain an electrical winding engine. The power converter room was situated in the northern part of the building, while the northern and southern annexes contained the switching station and transformer, ensuring the optimum power supply for the winding engine and ventilator, the latter being situated in the neighbouring building. As the mining operations gradually moved towards the west, the shaft - in addition to its ventilation and water drainage functions - was also used for transportation and extraction purposes, resulting in the accumulation of a mine dump behind the facility. At the same time, in 1942, a tailings pond was formed near the hoist house; there, the waste would be loaded onto narrow-gauge railway wagons and transported to the spoil tip located in the north-eastern part of the facility. Once the Maciejowice coal deposits were depleted and the coal extraction ground to a halt, the Zachodni shaft, known as the Maciej shaft by then, formed part of the consolidated Rokitnica mining facility (later renamed as the Pstrowski mine) and served exclusively as a ventilation, transportation and water drainage shaft. In the year 1990, the shaft and the accompanying structures, which were scheduled for closure, were purchased by a company known as Demex, which transformed the former mining shaft into a deep water well. The lower section of the bleeder shaft, about 198 metres deep, was partially filled in with earth.

Description

The Maciej shaft complex is situated in the Maciejów district, in the western part of the city of Zabrze. The complex is positioned along two axes in a relatively small area which stretches on the eastern side of Srebrna street. The middle section of the complex is made up of several buildings erected in the 1920s, the largest of them being the hoist house with headframe, which is accompanied by the relatively small weighing house, a machinery hall positioned further out back as well as a number of other buildings which are left beyond the scope of the inscription into the register of monuments, including the deferrisation plant building located north of the hoist house, the ventilation plant as well as the storage facility positioned next to the machinery hall. In addition, the entire complex is supplemented in functional terms by a number of post-war structures - the switching station building in the southern part of the site, the new ventilator building adjoining the northern side of the hoist house as well as the water conditioning station located in the northern part of the site. The largest and most important structure among the entire historic ensemble is the hoist house accompanied by the headframe to the east, the latter being inextricably linked to the former. The hoist house itself is a three-storey building based on a steel frame with brick infills, designed on a roughly rectangular floor plan and covered with a gable roof, with a brick annex on its north-eastern side. Inside, the dispatcher’s workstation is positioned on the uppermost storey, where most of the machinery is also located. The headframe, linked structurally and functionally to the hoist house, is a steel lattice structure bound together using rivets, with a single diagonal support on the eastern side of the multi-storey, lattice tower equipped with a pair of sheave wheels positioned in parallel on a common platform. The former weighing house (currently serving as the porter’s lodge), positioned south of the hoist house, is a single-storey brick structure designed on a rectangular floor plan and covered with a flattened hip roof. The machinery hall, positioned east of the hoist house and headframe, is a two-storey brick structure covered with a gable roof, featuring a small entrance avant-corps on the southern side. Inside, the building is divided into the machine room and the switching station and power converter rooms. The most notable feature of the building’s interior is the authentic and fully functional equipment in the form of the electrical winding engine manufactured in 1924. East of the listed complex of buildings there is a mine dump where tailings transported from the shaft using a narrow-gauge railway are deposited. The spoil tip occupies an area the shape of which approximates that of a quadrangle. The resulting heap has a flattened top and relatively steep northern, eastern and western slopes. The spoil tip is made up mostly of rock material, including coal slate, sandstone and mudstone. At the present stage, the entire spoil tip is overgrown with self-sown vegetation of varying height. The species present on the site include ash, poplar, birch, maple, oak, black locust, hawthorn and whitebeam.

The site can be explored every day except for Mondays; for details, please visit the official website.

compiled by Agnieszka Olczyk, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 25-09-2014.

Bibliography

  • Barecki Z., Szyb Maciej kopalni Concordia. Historia i nowe oblicze, (http://www.szybmaciej.pl/index.php/historia)
  • Architectural monument record sheet. Zwałowisko skały płonnej ob. nieużytek poprzemysłowy [w Zabrzu] (Former gangue disposal site - brownfield land [in Zabrze]), prepared by Z. Barecki and his team, 2010, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office.
  • Architectural monument record sheet. Szyb „Zachodni” kopalni „Concordia”, ob. Szyb „Maciej” Przedsiębiorstwa Górniczego Demex Sp. z o.o. [w Zabrzu] (Western shaft of the Concordia mining facility, currently known as the “Maciej” shaft owned by the Demex Mining Company in [Zabrze]) prepared by Z. Barecki and his team, 2010, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office.
  • Architectural monument record sheet. Budynek nadszybowy z wieżą wyciągową i studnią głębinową „Maciej” [w Zabrzu] (Shaft-top building with headframe and deep well - the “Maciej” complex [in Zabrze]), prepared by Z. Barecki and his team, 2010, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office.
  • Architectural monument record sheet. Budynek maszynowni szybu „Maciej”, ob. obiekt ekspozycyjny i socjalny [w Zabrzu] (The machinery hall of the “Maciej” shaft [in Zabrze], currently serving as an exhibition facility and social space), prepared by Z. Barecki and his team, 2010, Archive of the Regional Monuments Protection Office.
  • Jaros J., Słownik historycznych kopalń węgla na ziemiach polskich, Katowice 1984, pp. 32-33

transport time to the next site

52 min

22 min

Headframe of the “Krystyna” shaft
Bytom

15 minuts

The structure is an example, unique on a regional scale, of a headframe of the tower type having an original, modernist character. It is also one of the two surviving structures of the former “Szombierki” Mine. It is regarded as a symbol of the city. The high architectural value, the preserved original form of the structure, and elements of the original equipment place the monument among the most valuable examples of technical and artistic achievements of the inter-war period.

History

The headframe of the “Krystyna” shaft (formerly: “Kaiser Wilhelm”) is a component of the infrastructure of the former KWK (Hard Coal Mine) “Szombierki” (formerly: “Hohenzollern”), whose history goes back to 1869, when it was established by Silesian industrial magnates from the Schaffgotsch family. In 1882, the shaft became part of the “Paulus-Hohenzollern” Mine and of the so-called “Hohenzollernschachte” region. Other shafts were also constructed in the 4th quarter of the 19th century, including the drainage shaft “Hohenzollern” (later “Ewa”), the extraction shaft “Kaiser Friedrich” (“Jadwiga”), the ventilation shaft “Gemander” (“Janina”), and the extraction shafts Sommer and Georg. In the division of Upper Silesia into German and Polish parts in the early 1920s, the “Hohenzollernschachte“ field region was included in the German part and turned into an independent “Hohenzollerngrube” Mine. As the “Kaiser Wilhelm” shaft, originally 171 m deep, was deepened to 510 m during works carried out in 1920 and 1928, the obsolete, tower headframe from the 19th century required modernisation. In 1928, the old headframe was replaced with a modernist tower headframe made of steel, having a post-and-beam construction and covered with brick façades without any decorations, resembling a mining hammer in shape. Two modern electrical hoisting machines produced by the companies Vereinigte Oberschlesische Hüttenwerke Werk Donnersmarckhütte Hindenburg and BBC Brown Boveri & Gie Mannheim, with 2,700 horsepower in 1928 and 3,263 horsepower from 1933, were installed in the top part of the structure, replacing the previously used steam engine machines. At that time, shaft-top buildings, including a new sorting plant, a patent-fuel plant, workshops, forging shop, warehouses, and a worker’s building, were also constructed in the immediate vicinity of the headframe.

The mine became state-owned in 1945 and was renamed KWK “Szombierki”, whereas the “Kaiser Wilhelm” shaft was renamed “Krystyna”. In the post-war period, the shaft was deepened to 840 m, but the structure and character of the headframe were not modified. The “Szombierki” Mine was merged with the KWK “Karol” in the 1970s and with the KWK “Centrum” in the 1990s; eventually, it was closed in 1997. As the mine stopped operating, the “Krystyna” shaft and its headframe were also decommissioned, and in 2001, the neighbouring shaft-top buildings from the 1920s were dismantled. On the initiative of the Silesian Voivodeship Conservator, the headframe of the “Krystina” shaft and its equipment, i.e. electrical hoisting machines, and the surrounding area, were entered into the register of immovable monuments of the Silesian Voivodeship in 2004.

Description

The headframe is located in the central part of the former “Szombierki” Mine complex, situated in a city district having the same name, to the south of the Bytom city centre. Several shaft-top buildings and the headframe of the “Ewa” shaft, located in the direct vicinity, have also been preserved.

The tower-type headframe is a modernist, post-and-beam, riveted structure made of steel, enclosed with a brick building on a rectangular floor plan on the outside. The shape of the external part, 56 m high, resembles a huge mining hammer, consisting of a tall “handle” surmounted by a wider “head”, separated by means of a reinforced concrete slab. The façades, faced with brick, are divided by means of vertical, axially-arranged rows of windows framed by brick lesenes; the window sections of the head part, protruding from the wall, resemble avant-corpses. The rectangular, double or triple window openings are decorated with metalwork dividing the windows into multiple sections. Inside, there are steel landings located at seven levels, communicated by means of straight-flight stairs, as well as remains of lifting mechanisms, i.e. a former multi-purpose mine lift, and a shaft of a former passenger lift. In the upper part of the “handle”, at a height of over 30 m, there are two so-called nip wheels, whereas at the head level, there are remains of two electrical hoisting machines.

The structure can only be visited from the outside.

compiled by Agnieszka Olczyk, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 24-09-2014.

Bibliography

  • Droń M., Dokumentacja konserwatorska wieży wyciągowej szybu Krystyna dawnej KWK Szombierki w Bytomiu przy ul. Zabrzańskiej 7, Bytom 2004, Archiwum WUOZ.
  • Tomala M., Prejs E., Rewaloryzacja szybu Krystyna w Bytomiu, „Archivolta” 2009, nr 2, s. 46-52.
  • Wiloch R., Dawna kopalnia węgla kamiennego „Szombierki” w Bytomiu - rys historyczny, [w:] Wiadomości konserwatorskie województwa śląskiego 5. Zabytki Przemysłu i techniki, red. M. Lachowska, Katowice 2013.
  • Zabytki Sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, red. S. Brzezicki, C. Nielsen, Warszawa 2006.

transport time to the next site

31 min

17 min

The headframes of the former “Polska” (Poland) mining facility
Świętochłowice

one hour

The headframes forming part of the “Polska” mining facility are one of the oldest surviving structures of their kind in Poland - a testimony to technological advancements in the field of coal mining. Today, these structures, towering above the surrounding landscape, present a considerable aesthetic value, especially since they are all that remains of the now-defunct “Polska” mining facility established by Gwidon Henckel von Donnersmarck, a Silesian industrial tycoon.

History

The process of coal extraction in the area located adjacent to the “Polska” mining facility began back in 1822, when count Karol Łazarz Henckel von Donnersmarck, the erstwhile owner of the city of Świętochłowice, began prospecting for coal deposits. The first coal mine, known as “Faust”, was established in 1827, followed by the “Florian” steelworks (formerly known as “Falva”), which began operations in 1828 and was powered by the coal from the accompanying mining facility. In 1873, count Gwidon Henckel von Donnersmarck decided that the coal mining fields known as “Gefӓll’’, “Bohlen’’, “Faustin’’ and “Hexerkessal’’ would be combined into a single site, which he named “Deutschland” in order to commemorate the unification of Germany. Later on, however, this name was, likewise symbolically, changed to “Polska” (“Poland”). On October 24, 1873, the Higher Mining Authority in Wrocław approved the consolidation of the aforementioned mining sites. The mining facility also extended its operations to the remaining fields owned by Gwidon himself or by the mining enterprise in which he had a majority stake, including the “Ottilie’’, “Heyduk’’, “Kleinigkeit’’, “Kalina’’, “Guttmannsdorf’’, “Hugo II’’ and “Gut Glück’’ mining sites. In the 1880s, the exploitation of new deposits located at the depth of 180 metres and 225 metres began owing to the sinking of shafts no. 1 and no. 2 respectively, with shaft no. 2 also being used for the purposes of extraction of coal from another, shallower deposit located 140 metres below the ground. In the 1880s and the 1890s, numerous investments and extension works took place, with shafts no. 1 and no. 2 being equipped with new winding engines, while the shaft no. 3, located inside the mining facility itself, taking over the extraction of coal from the deposits located at the depth of 140 metres. In addition, a sorting facility, a mine dump and a boiler house were added to the facility, as was a new route connecting the facility and the Upper Silesian narrow-gauge railway. Due to the rising demand for charcoal, in 1889 further investments were made. In 1889 and 1892, parts of the facility were engulfed by fire, with the shaft facilities accompanying shafts no. 1 and no. 2 being lost to the blaze.

In the 1890s, shaft no. 2 became equipped with the first electrical winding engine to be installed in Upper Silesia, with the electricity being supplied by the nearby power station which also formed part of the facility and which was subsequently extended in the years 1907-1910. In 1908, the old, steel headframes standing above the shafts no. 1 and 3 were replaced with new structures designed to accommodate electrical machinery. Following the Silesian plebiscite of 1922, the “Deutschland” mining facility found itself in the Polish part of Upper Silesia, its name being promptly changed to “Polska” (Poland). In the 1950s, the mining facility saw a significant growth, with a new coal layer at the depth of 510 metres now accessible. In addition, new backfilling systems were also installed. In 1972, the mining facility was merged with another facility known as “Prezydent” (President), located in Chorzów. Another major consolidation took place in 1995, when the facility was merged with the

Description

Nowy Wirek plant; it was at that point that it was decided that the “Polska” mining facility would be gradually wound down. In the year 2000, the facility was decommissioned.

The headframes of the “Polska” mining facility are situated in the western part of the historic complex, located in the centre of Świętochłowice at 16 Wojska Polskiego street, in the vicinity of the railway line and the “Florian” steelworks. The headframes towering above shafts no. 1 and no. 2 are the most valuable parts of the now-defunct infrastructure of the “Polska” mining facility, their structural components produced at the Wilhelmshütte manufacturing plant in Wałbrzych.

The headframe of shaft 1 was constructed in 1908 and is based on a steel frame with brick infills; the structure, designed on a square floor plan, features an overhanging two-axial top section designed to accommodate the winding engine, its overhanging section supported by steel diagonal braces. The load-bearing structure consists of four latticework posts linked by horizontal steel beams. The tower is topped with a barrel roof, its total height exceeding 29 metres. The tower still features the original winding engine, manufactured in 1908.

The headframe of shaft no. 2 was constructed in the years 1889-1891. It was likewise designed as a riveted steel structure, based on two pairs of diagonal supports and originally equipped with two winding engines. The load-bearing structure consists of four diagonal supports attached to sturdy foundations as well as two posts forming part of the guiding shaft, their spacing being approximately 3 x 5.4 metres. Originally, the tower came equipped with a barrel roof, its total height exceeding 23 metres.

No visitor access, revitalisation and adaptation works in progress; once the works are completed, the headframes and the surrounding area will serve as an educational and cultural centre.

compiled by Agata Mucha, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 21-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Record sheet of monuments of architecture, Deutschland (Niemcy), ob. kopalnia KWK ,,Polska’’- karta zespołu (The “Deutschland” mining facility, currently known as the “Polska” bituminous coal mining facility), prepared by E. Szady, Katowice 1990, Archive of the Monuments Protection Office in Katowice
  • Record sheet of monuments of architecture, Zespół KWK ,, Polska’’, wieża wyciągowa szybu I (The “Polska” bituminous coal mining facility - headframe of shaft no. 1), prepared by E. Szady, Katowice 1990, Archive of the Monuments Protection Office in Katowice
  • Record sheet of monuments of architecture, Zespół KWK ,, Polska’’, wieża wyciągowa szybu II (The “Polska” bituminous coal mining facility - headframe of shaft no. 2), prepared by E. Szady, Katowice 1990, Archive of the Monuments Protection Office in Katowice
  • Frużyński A., Kopalnie Węgla Kamiennego w Polsce, Łódź 2012, pp. 194-195
  • Jaros J., Z dziejów kopalni ,,Polska’’ w Świętochłowicach, [in:] Zaranie Śląskie, issue 1, W. Długoborski (ed.), Katowice 1961, pp. 107-118
  • Wybraniec P., Zabytki Architektury Przemysłowej w województwie Katowickim, Katowice 1989, p. 30

transport time to the next site

19 min

13 min

Headframe of the “Prezydent” shaf
Chorzów

30 minutes

The headframe of the “Prezydent” (“President”) shaft is highly valuable on a regional scale from historical and scientific points of view. It is one of the few reinforced concrete headframes constructed in Upper Silesia and the last surviving one. Additionally, the structure is an integral part of one of the oldest mines in the Silesian Voivodeship and an important element of the landscape, bearing testimony to the industrial history and tradition of the City of Chorzów.

History

Initially called ”Prinz Karl von Hessen’’, the mine ”Król’’ (“King”) was established on the initiative of Prussian fiscal authorities in 1791, which makes it one of the oldest mines in Upper Silesia. The first shaft, ,”Schuckamnn’’, 11 m deep, was launched in 1791; just like the next shaft, “Prinzessin’’, it was used to extract deposits from the shallow layers available under the ground. The first solutions making coal extraction more efficient were introduced as early as in 1797 in the form of a steam engine driving drainage pumps. The next modernisation stage took place in 1814, when the first steam hoisting machine was installed in the “Einsiedel” shaft. In the following years, the same solution was applied in other shafts: “Lyda’’, “Hedwig’’, “Blücher’’, and “Scharnhorst’’ (40 m deep), being the basis of the mine operation. In the early 1820s, underground horse-drawn transport was given up, and in 1821, a mining clerk called Buchbach introduced small, vertical shafts in which materials moved under gravity and whose construction involved the use of a braking mechanism. Thanks to the shafts, coal transport became faster. The 20th century brought the electrification of the plant. In 1908, the first electrically-driven hoisting machine was installed in the “Bahn II” shaft. Despite these and other improvements, in the late 1920, mining stopped being profitable in part of the plant; thus, investment activities were undertaken within Pole Wschodnie (Eastern Field), the area where the deposits were the most abundant. The main investment, implemented in the years 1929-1933, was the construction of the modern “Jacek III” shaft, 234 m deep. Following the division of the mine into a plant including the “Jacek III” shaft and the “Barbara-Wyzwolenie” (“Barbara-Liberation”) Mine, the whole complex was renamed “Prezydent Mościcki” on 17 February 1937. After World War II, the name was changed to KWK “Prezydent” (Hard Coal Mine “President”). In 1972, the “President” Mine was combined with the “Polska” Mine in Świętochłowice under the joint name KWK “Polska” (“Poland”). In 1993, the mine stopped extracting, and three years later buildings neighbouring the “President” shaft, an engine room and a sorting plant, were dismantled.

Description

The headframe of the “Prezydent” shaft is located in the centre of Chorzów, at Kościuszki Street, in the former eastern field of the “Król” Mine.

The structure, bearing modernist features, was designed by the architect Ryszard Heileman from Katowice. It is a reinforced concrete structure with one back-leg support and one pair of pulleys. The platform on which the rope pulleys rest is located at a height of 42 m. The pulleys are situated opposite each other at a distance of over 2 m. The mechanism is supported by a headframe and back-legs reinforced at the bottom by the introduction of spot footing at a distance of 21 m from the headframe axis. The headframe posts are connected by means of reinforced concrete beams at a dozen or so levels, starting from a height of 4.45 up to a height of approx. 40 m. The headframe is approx. 46 m high and the distance between the backlegs is approx. 15 m. Within the headframe, there is a metal staircase enabling tourists to access the structure.

The historical monument is freely accessible every day from 8 a.m. to 9 p.m. The “Prezydent” shaft is part of the Industrial Monument Route of the Silesian Voivodeship.

compiled by Agata Mucha, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 13-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta Ewidencyjna Zabytków Architektury i Budownictwa, Wieża wyciągowa szybu prezydent, oprac. E. Szady, Katowice 1990, Archiwum Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Katowicach
  • Frużyński A., Kopalnie Węgla Kamiennego w Polsce, Łódź 2012, s. 158-160
  • Jaros J., Historia górnictwa węglowego w Zagłębiu Górnośląskim w latach 1914-1945, Katowice 1969
  • Jaros J., Historia kopalni Król w Chorzowie, Katowice 1962
  • Kurek R., Dwa wieki chorzowskiego przemysłu. Zarys monograficzny: część 1, Chorzów 2007
  • Kurek R., Dwa wieki chorzowskiego przemysłu. Zarys monograficzny: część 2, Chorzów 2009
  • Wybraniec P., Zabytki architektury przemysłowej w województwie Katowickim, Katowice 1989, s. 9-10

transport time to the next site

28 min

14 min

The Bartosz shaft complex
Katowice

two hours

The Bartosz shaft complex presents a considerable historical value, primarily as an important industrial monument, its significance recognized on a national scale; today, it remains the most important and oldest shaft of the “Ferdynand” mining facility, its overall spatial layout surviving relatively unchanged. The manufacturing complex is a valuable relic of the 19th-century industry, featuring a number of surviving buildings as well as period machinery and equipment.

History

The “Ferdynand” mining facility was established in the Mysłowice fee-tail estate (known traditionally as an ordynacja in Polish), owned by Stanisław Mieroszewski. Built at the initiative of the retired rittmeister Ignacy Ferdinand von Beym, the mining facility commenced its operations back in 1823, when the exploitation of the relatively shallow deposits began. The main shaft, sunk in 1834, was originally known as “Beniamin” (its current name being “Bartosz”). The shaft was deepened on a number of occasions in the history of the mining facility. In 1840, the shaft was equipped with the first steam-powered water extraction pump, while in 1883 it was deepened substantially, reaching deposits located 300 metres below ground level. It was at that point that the shaft building was erected, subsequently redesigned in the years 1893-1895. Initially, the structure came equipped with a headframe with a single diagonal support. Further developments included the engine house - still equipped with the original steam engine from 1892 - and the power station (years 1893-1895). Despite the minor alterations introduced in the 1920s and the 1930s, the entire site has changed little throughout the years and can still serve as a perfect example of a 19th-century industrial complex. The mining facility itself changed name and ownership on several occasions; in 1839, Aleksander Mieroszewski sold the mining facility and a number of other properties to Franciszek Winckler. In 1889, Hubert von Thiele-Winckler established the Katowice Mining and Steel Industry Joint-stock Company, subsequently purchased by Fryderyk Flick, an entrepreneur from Rhineland, who merged the company with the “United Royal and Laura Steelworks Enterprise” and the “Batory Steelworks”. In 1945, the name of the facility was changed to “Katowice” - a direct consequence of its merger with the Katowice Coal Industry Union. In the 1980s, the facility formed part of the “Union of Bituminous Coal Mining Facilities in Katowice” and then of the “Katowice Mining Company”; in 1993, it became part of the Katowice Coal Mining Holding Company (KHW). In 1997, KHW adopted the decision on the merger of the “Katowice” and “Kleofas” mining facilities, which continued to operate as the “Katowice-Kleofas” mine until 1999, when the mining operations were discontinued and the liquidation of the enterprise began. Today, the former mining facility serves the needs of the Silesian Museum.

Description

The Bartosz mining shaft complex is situated in the Katowice city centre, on the site of the former Katowice mining facility. The area is bounded by the Dobrowolskiego, Nadgórników, Olimpijska and Roździeńskiego streets, with the structures themselves occupying the central part of the former mining facility which currently serves as the Silesian Museum.

The entire complex is a compact ensemble of structures comprising the oldest part of the entire facility, arranged on a roughly rectangular plan, with the machinery hall projecting towards the east. The individual buildings were designed as brick structures with historicist influences; today, the site is occupied by the following structures:

1. The shaft-top building with headframe - a two-storey structure with exposed brick façades, designed on a roughly rectangular plan, its compact body covered with a gable roof.

The façades are adorned with simple decorations in the form of subtle brick lesenes, with the south-western (gable-end) façade featuring a short avant-corps in the centre, incorporating a simple gateway; the windows are topped with segmental arches and framed with decorative surrounds. The riveted steel headframe with a single diagonal support is situated in the central section of the shaft-top assembly.

2. The machinery hall - a two-storey building with exposed brick façades, designed on a rectangular floor plan, its compact silhouette covered with a gable roof. The façades are partitioned with subtle lesenes and topped with a dentilled cornice. The south-western and north-eastern façades feature the most elaborate decorative scheme in the form of much more pronounced lesenes topped with pinnacles, accompanied by intriguing decorations of the gables, separated from the rest of the structure by a stepped cornice and divided into three distinct sections by elaborate pinnacles. Inside, the building features a segmental ceiling as well as period fixtures and fittings in the form of a steam-powered winding engine and gantry crane.

3. The power station building - a predominantly two-storey building with exposed brick façades, designed on a roughly rectangular plan; its silhouette consists of several clustered sections, with the main body being covered with a low-pitched shed roof. The building is characterised by an intriguing, elaborate decorative scheme of its façades, comprising numerous lesenes, cornices and avant-corps. The gables are crowned with bartisan-like pinnacles, with simple crenellated parapets adorning the tallest, central section of the structure.

The buildings can be viewed from the outside; the site currently serves as the new headquarters of the Silesian Museum.

compiled by Agata Mucha, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Katowice, 10-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Frużyński A., Kopalnie Węgla Kamiennego w Polsce, Łódź 2012, pp. 158-160
  • Jaros J., Historia górnictwa węglowego w Zagłębiu Górnośląskim w latach 1914-1945, Katowice 1969
  • Wybraniec P., Zabytki architektury przemysłowej w województwie Katowickim, Katowice 1989, pp. 15-16

transport time to the next site

22 min

9 min

Zespół zabudowy Szybu ,,Pułaski’’
Katowice

15 minuts

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