Ufortyfikowane miasta województwa lubuskiego
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Krzysztof Słowiński

Ufortyfikowane miasta województwa lubuskiego

6

one day

lubuskie

baszta z fragmentem murów obronnych
Dobiegniew

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

18 min

Defensive walls
Strzelce Krajeńskie

30 minutes

The medieval complex of town fortifications in Strzelce Krajenskie is one of the best preserved monuments in the region since it features the original walls (almost the whole perimeter), impressive Mill Gate, Prison Tower and half-shell towers.

History

The town of Strzelce Krajeńskie was chartered between 1272 and 1290. Shortly after the town was chartered, it was surrounded by earthen ramparts with a double moat and stone defensive walls. This is mentioned in the records dating from 1290 which suggest that in the vicinity of the town walls a site was designated for the construction of a monastery occupied by the Order of St Augustine. The ring of stone fortifications enclosing the urban layout on a plan which approximates the shape of a circle was approx. 1.7 km in length. In addition to the Mill Gate and the Gorzów Gate, the fortifications included thirty-seven quadrangular half-shell towers designed to fire on the forefield. During the Late Middle Ages extensions in the form of necks and foregates were added to the gates. One of the fortified tower in the western section of the structure was extended upwards and converted to a prison. Later, a gateway was built into the adjacent wall; the prison began to be used as a gunpowder warehouse. The 18th century saw the start of works to partially level the town fortifications. In 1730 a drill ground was created at the Gorzów Gate; a few years later the site of the levelled ramparts and filled-in moat was used for gardens. Some of the fortified towers were demolished. Work started to rebuild the street adjoining the wall, extending along the inner perimeter of the fortifications. In 1821, a bastion building of the Gorzów Gate was demolished; around 1865 work started to demolish the half-shell towers and the upper fragments of walls; in 1866, the entire Gorzów Gate was pulled down. After the Second World War a fragment of the fortification on the east side was knocked down and the residential and utility buildings joined to the walls were demolished.

Description

The old town area is enclosed with defensive walls in Strzelce Krajeńskie, giving it the shape which approximates that of a circle. Within the area of the medieval town a historical transport network has been preserved with a centrally located market square, streets intersecting at right angles and a street extending in a ring shape parallel to the town fortifications. The walls measuring a total of 1,640 m in length are divided into straight segments of different length (from 27 to 56 m), separated by thirty-six lookouts. The eastern part of the walls features the Młyńska Gata, and the north-western part the Prison Tower. The fortifications run parallel to the street, which forms an outer ring around the old town. The space between the street and the walls is mainly occupied by modern buildings with gardens and urban green areas. The walls were built of rough and split fieldstones, which were arranged in 60-to-120-centimetre-thick layers, levelled with the use of stone outcrops and bonded with lime mortar. The interior was filled with rubble stone bonded with mortar. The walls are approx. 160 cm thick at the base. The highest preserved section is 850 cm in height.

The monument is available to visitors.

Compiled by Anna Jackiewicz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Zielona Góra, 25-09-2014 r.

Bibliography

  • Skaziński B., Lubuskie Carcassonne, Strzelce Krajeńskie 2009.

transport time to the next site

32 min

Defensive walls
Gorzów Wielkopolski

30 minutes

Surviving remains of medieval city fortifications.

History

The construction of the stone and brick fortifications commenced probably in the 1320s. They replaced earthen and wooden fortifications whose existence is evidenced by a document from 1257. In the document, it is said that there was a palisade with a gate in Gorzów at that time. The wooden and earthen fortifications were replaced by stone and brick ones over a period of a couple dozen years. The city walls were built from erratic stones, with bricks in the upper section. On the northern side, between Młyńska and Santocka gates, 21 fortified towers were erected which reinforced the defensive walls. The towers, of the half-shell type, projected ahead the face of the wall and opened towards the medieval town. The southern part of the fortifications, adjoining the Warta river, was without fortified towers. A single wall was used for defensive purposes, and additional protection was provided by the river. In the south-eastern part of the complex, there was an ordensburg with its own defensive system. The embrasures were located in the upper sections of the walls, and traffic at that level was possible through a wooden porch. From the city, access to the fortifications was facilitated by a street running along the walls. From the outside, access to the city was difficult due to the Warta river, local water courses, ponds, and a moat. The city could be accessed through three gates: Santocka Gate on the east, Młyńska Gate on the west, and Mostowa Gate on the south.

Over centuries, fortifications of Gorzów were many a time repaired and conserved, and had survived nearly in their entirety to the early 19th century. First, approx. in 1740, the tower of the Mostowa Gate was demolished, and then, at the turn of 1827 and 1828, Młyńska and Santocka gates were dismantled. Fragments of walls were dismantled over a period of at least couple dozen next years. A large part was still present in 1855.

Description

The fragment of the defensive walls with four half-shell towers, preserved until present, is located in Zabytkowa Street and is 130 m long. It is built of erratic boulders, and bricks in the upper section. The area of the former moat is currently a green area. No trace has survived of the castle erected by the Teutonic Order in the years 1443-1450. Already in 1454, the fortified structure was attacked by the dwellers of Gorzów who partially destroyed it. In the 17th century, remains of the castle with a cylindrical tower were still visible, while in the early 18th century, only fragments of the foundations remained. Later on, a school was built here and the foundations of the former Teutonic stronghold were probably completely dismantled.

The defensive walls are accessible all year round.

compiled by Krzysztof Garbacz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Zielona Góra, 7-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Garbacz K., Przewodnik po zabytkach województwa lubuskiego, t. 3: Powiaty: gorzowski - słubicki - sulęciński - międzyrzecki - strzelecko-drezdenecki, Zielona Góra 2013, s. 16, 25-26, fot. 4.
  • Skaziński B. (B.S.), Gorzów Wlkp., [w:] Zabytki północnej części województwa lubuskiego (red. J. Lewczuk, B. Skaziński), Gorzów Wlkp.-Zielona Góra 2004, s. 11-12.
  • Reißmann K. (oprac.), Die Kunstdenkmäler des Stadt- und Landkreises Landsberg (Warthe), Berlin 1937, s. 87.

transport time to the next site

48 min

Town fortifications
Ośno Lubuskie

30 minutes

Town fortifications in Ośno Lubuskie form an extremely valuable example of medieval defensive architecture. They belong to few such systems of that type in Poland, almost entirely preserved, i.e. in the form of nearly whole wall perimeter with twelve fortified towers.

History

The town walls were built in stages from approx. early 14th century, in the place of earthen ramparts with a wooden palisade. The walls are made of stone and have crenellations in the top section. They were more than 7 meters high and approx. 1350 m long. They included two gates - Sulecińska Gate (from the south-east) and Frankfurcka Gate (from the north-west), a number of wicket gates, twelve rectangular lookouts, as well as ramparts and moats stretching along the external outline of the walls. They were many times reinforced (among other things after 1477) and extended. In the 16th century, three cylindrical fortified towers were built of brick and the gates were extended by foregates and gorges. In the late 18th century, works to reduce the fortifications - damaged in war hostilities - began. First, moats were filled and foregates were dismantled. Then, in the 1870s, gates were demolished. At the turn of the 19th and 20th century, walking paths along the walls were delineated, and works aimed at reinforcing and renovating the surviving fortifications started.

Description

The town walls have survived along the entire perimeter of the old-town layout shaped as a flattened oval, with the driveways in the place of former gates and three openings which remained of the dismantled fortified towers. Two circular fortified towers have survived in the walls, as well as three rectangular shell towers with roofs, seven rectangular uncovered shell towers and four original wicket gates. The walls are made mostly of field stone, laid in the oldest part in layers bound by lime mortar, and in fortified towers and in the western section they are made of brick. The walls are up to 1 m wide and from 2 to 5 metres high. In the top section of the walls, there is a layer of bricks of concrete and ceramic tiles. The cylindrical towers (southern and north-eastern one) are approx. 14 m high and are covered with brick conical tented roofs. They were used as a prison. The shell towers are built on a rectangular floor plan and project approx. 1 m ahead of the wall line. Three roofed towers have survived (gable or hip roofs), 7 m high. Their upper sections are made of brick and pierced with embrasures and windows. Of other towers, only the ground floor sections have survived. In the place of the former ramparts, there are strolling paths with lines of old tree specimens.

The site is open to the public.

compiled by Marta Kłaczkowska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Zielona Góra, 25-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna, Mury miejskie, oprac. Nowakowski C., 1998 r, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków Oddział Delegatury w Gorzowie Wielkopolskim.
  • Kaczmarek-Dębska A., Ośno Lubuskie, [w:] Zabytki północnej części województwa lubuskiego, red. Lewczuk J., Skaziński B., Gorzów Wlkp. - Zielona Góra 2004, s. 136.
  • Kowalski S., Zabytki architektury województwa lubuskiego, Zielona Góra 2010, s. 278.
  • Garbacz K., Przewodnik po zabytkach województwa lubuskiego, Tom III, Zielona Góra 2013, s. 120.

transport time to the next site

1h 41 min

obwarowania miejskie, baszty i mury obronne
Kożuchów

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

30 min

obwarowania miejskie: mury, baszty, fosa
Żagań

30 minutes

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