Najciekawsze obiekty sakralne wielokulturowej Łodzi
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Patrycja Podgarbi

Najciekawsze obiekty sakralne wielokulturowej Łodzi

7

one day

łódzkie

cmentarz żydowski
Łódź

two hours

Cmentarz Stary
Łódź

two hours

Kościół św. Józefa filia parafii Wniebowzięcia Najświętszej Marii Panny
Łódź

one hour

dzwonnica
Łódź

15 minuts

Orthodox church of St Alexander Nevsky
Łódź

one hour

An example of brick tserkva architecture in Łódź. The cupolas distinctive for the Orthodox Church are accentuated with gold coating and colourful decorative elements. The interior is lavishly decorated, with spectacular, splendorous fittings. The iconostasis, floors, stained glass windows, and wall painting elements reflect influences of Byzantine and Russian art. The tserkva comes from the years 1880-1884.

History

The multi-nationality and mutli-cultural Łódź from the turn of the 19th century and early 20th century abounded with churches and cemeteries of various denominations. Among the Catholics, Evangelicals, and Jews living in the city, rare Orthodox Christians belonged to the parish in Piotrków Trybunalski, existing since 1788. The population of Orthodox Christians changed in number when after 1862 the 37th Yekaterinburg Infantry Regiment arrived to the city. The idea of an Orthodox church do be built was also facilitated by the failed assassination of Tsar Alexander II. It was decided that the Tsar’s survival will be celebrated in 1879 by construction of a tserkva.

The construction committee comprising the most prominent industrialists of Łódź such as Karl Scheibler and Juliusz Heinzl, entrusted the design of an adequately spectacular building to the long-term architect of the city, Hilary Majewski. In 1880, the design submitted by him was approved by the authorities and the work was commenced. The location of the tserkva in the vicinity of a railway station additionally emphasised its symbolic meaning associated with the Russian control.

In 1884, a parish was created. The new Orthodox church of St Alexander Nevsky, capable of accommodating 900 faithful, was consecrated by archbishop of Chełm and Warsaw Leontios.

Description

A proportionally designed, small church is built on a central floor plan. The body is covered with a cupola, and there is a square three-storey tower on the west, topped with an onion-shaped dome. External walls are partitioned by door and window openings with semi-circular end sections, stepped cornices dividing individual storeys, and decorative friezes. The 1st storey of the tower is decorated in four corners with small pinnacles ending with miniatures of the dome topping the tower. Three decorative portals with entrances to the church (main entrance, leading through the tower, from the west), are accentuated with pairs of delicate columns with Corinthian capitals and tympanums with semi-circular end sections, filled with paintings presenting Marian topics.

In open-work, gilded decorative elements of the tower dome and colourful façade and architectural details, splendour and luxuriance of the Byzantine art mixed with Russian influences is clearly visible.

The tserkva’s interior is equally spectacular. The iconostasis designed by H. Majewski, made in Saint Petersburg by Canillo, an Italian artist, is worth particular attention. Also the artists who created the wall paintings were brought from Saint Petersburg. The piers are decorated with images of saint Metropolitans of Moscow, and the pendentives of the cupola ceiling shows the Four Evangelists. In the arcaded panels between the windows, there are images of Christ, Holy Mother, and St John the Baptist.

The stained glass windows were made by a company of Adolf Seiler from Wrocław.

The colourful floor in brown, blue and yellow was laid in the form of a geometric pattern surrounded by a frame.

The entrance internal tympanums feature paintings presenting scenes from the life of Christ. From the west, there is a painting of Christ Carrying the Cross, from the south - the Entombment of Christ, and from the north - the Lamentation of Christ.

The church area is fenced. From the east, the tserkva neighbours the Stanisław Moniuszko Park (once called Railway Park). The site was significantly depleted from the west due to widening of Kilińskiego Street.

In 1980-1984, the structure and covers of roofs and cupolas were replaced, and conversation works on the wall paintings were conducted.

In the last years, comprehensive, large-scale conservation works were carried out, covering interior and exterior of the building. On the basis of original designs by H. Majewski, original colours of individual elements were restored, as well as lavish decorative gildings of the church cupola and tower dome.

The tserkva is accessible upon prior arrangement with the parish priest.

compiled by Patrycja Podgarbi, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Łódź, 22-08-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bandurka M., Rosin R., Łódź 1423-1823-1973. Zarys dziejów i wybór dokumentów, Łódź 1974
  • Ginsbert A., Łódź. Studium monograficzne, Łódź 1962
  • Sokoł K., Sosna A., Cerkwie w centralnej Polsce 1815-1915, Białystok 2011
  • Stefański K., Architekt Józef Kaban, Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki, t. XXXV, 1990, z. 3-4
  • Stefański K., Architektura sakralna Łodzi w okresie przemysłowego rozwoju miasta 1821-1914, Łódź 1995
  • Stefański K., Jak zbudowano przemysłową Łódź. Architektura i urbanistyka miasta 1821-1914, Łódź 2001
  • Stefański K., Atlas architektury dawnej Łodzi do 1939 r., Łódź 2008, s. 104
  • Strzałkowski J., Architekci i budowniczowie w Łodzi do r. 1944, Łódź 1997
  • Szram A. (tekst), Wach A. (zdjęcia), Architektura przemysłowej Łodzi, Łódź 1974
  • Urbaniak A., Śladami starej Łodzi, t. I, Łódź 1988, t. II, Łódź 1993
  • www.ap.gov.pl zakładka Wirtualne wystawy: Łódź- miasto wielu wyznań, Bazylika archikatedralna św. Stanisława Kostki "katedra"- ul. Ks. Skorupki 9
  • www.ap.gov.pl zakładka Wirtualne wystawy: Świątynie w obiektywie Włodzimierza Pfeiffera

Evangelical-Augsburg church of St Matthew
Łódź

one hour

The form of the building is reminiscent of Romanesque architecture of Rhineland. It is characterised by a style uniformity resulting from the fact that the whole building came into being in a single time period and according to a single design subject to one correction. Combination of Romanesque architectural features with a spectacular scale of the architectural undertaking and size of the church makes it an example of most beautiful Protestant churches in Poland. Austerity and solemnity of decoration and fittings of the interior also underscore the rank of the church. In the interior, the following elements are worth attention: wall painting, stone altar, pews for the faithful, black and pale grey floor made of tiles arranged in a geometric pattern, pipe organ casing, lamps, and enormous multi-layer chandelier in the central part.

History

The initial activities aimed at the construction of the third Evangelical-Augsburg church in Łódź were undertaken in 1900, where the parish of St John was divided so that a new church of St Matthew could be built in the new parish located in the southern part of the city. At the turn of the 19th and the 20th century, the city was inhabited by approx. 80 thousand Evangelical Protestants and the two existing parishes were unable to provide sufficient pastoral services. The growing Protestant population forced church authorities to act - buy appropriate land and procure a design of the church. In 1901, a church construction committee was appointed, including in its composition, among others, E. Herbst, J. Kindreman, and E. Geyer. The initial plans provided for the purchase of a square near the Main Market Square, however, in the end, in 1904, a plot at 279/281 Piotrkowska Street was bought. Preparation of the design was entrusted to Johannes Wende. In 1908, a decision was taken to built a bigger church that it had been previously assumed, and the design was sent to an architect from Berlin, F. Schwechten. The design was corrected following the Schwechten’s suggestions and in 1910, the construction was commenced, starting from the confirmation chapel situated on the western side. The works were interrupted by the outbreak of the World War I. They were finished in a free Poland, in 1928, and in November that year, the building was consecrated. The church of St Matthew is the only Evangelical-Augburg church which was not handed over by the state after the World War II to the Catholic Church.

Description

Its regular body was built on a Greek cross floor plan and constitutes a dominant characteristic feature at the intersection of Piotrkowska and Czerwona Streets. On the axis of the main façade, there is a slender, two-storey tower built on a square floor plan, which in its upper section turns into an octagon covered with a slim tinted spire roof covered with metal sheets arranged in a pattern of rhombuses. The whole is topped by a steel crucifix on an orb. The lower storey is decorated in the corners by octagonal turrets with conical tented roofs. The body and the transept are covered by high gable roofs clad with roof tiles, similarly as the corner turrets. All façades are decorated with shallow rustication. On the ground floor level, there is a massive plinth. Rectangular door openings, apart from the front door, are equipped with semi-circular transom lights. The entrance portal with a triangular top section is slightly advanced when compared to the face of the wall. It is filled with a tympanum with an oculus and relief figures of adoring angels. The upper section is circumscribed by a deep, step-like archivolt whose individual profiles are decorated with elaborate interlace motifs. The entrance door are flanked by four gentle columns on each side, with decorative capitals. The arrangement of the columns corresponds to the depth of the portal: three columns are arranged one after another in the back, and the front one is separated by a vertical zigzag ornament. Above the column capitals, there is a stone frieze decorated with curved foliage motifs. There are two smaller entrances on the sides. Side portals are straight and terminate in a flat archivolt resting on double columns.

Horizontal partitions of the façades, apart from the plinth referred to above, are defined by a string course, dividing the façades into storeys. In the lower storey, there are twin window openings, so called biforia (paired arched windows), and in the central part of the transept, there is a triforium (triple arched window) partitioned by small columns with cubical capitals, with a narrow surround with dentil ornament in the top section. The upper storey is partitioned with narrow lesenes into rectangular, narrow fields, finished with an arcaded frieze in the upper section and featuring high windows with surrounds in the upper sections, flanked by columns arranged in the reveals. In the main façade, above the entrance to the church, there is a large arcaded niche with a rose window. The triangular terminating section of the gable is finished in the upper section with an arcaded frieze. In the gable walls of the transept, featuring triangular ending sections, there are two large rose windows in archivolts. Gable walls of the transept are topped with archivolt friezes.

In the tower, in the storey over the porch, three clock faces are installed (apart from the western side). In the upper store, above the corner turrets, façades are accentuated by arcaded openings with paired arched windows partitioned with columns. Below the arches of the arcades, there are oculi. From the east, west, north, and south, arcades are preceded by shallow balconies with massive balustrades. The corners of the octagon are accentuated by gentle and slender engaged columns with decorative capitals. The storey is topped with an arcaded frieze and a stepped cornice decorated with a corbel in each angle of the octagon. Above the cornice, there are triangular gables with triforia. The roof of the tower features small triangular windows.

The confirmation chapel located from the western side has analogical decoration as other façades - a triangular gable with an arcaded frieze and a large rose window. In the lower part, there are wide semi-circular windows.

Windows in the staircase are rectangular. The door opening is circumscribed by a surround.

The interior layout is determined by the Greek cross projection, with a visibly separated central section, chancel section, and interiors of the transept arms containing galleries characteristic of Protestant churches, supported by massive columns with tetraconch cross section, decorated with marble-imitating painting. In the corners and on the walls of the transept, there is a rustication arranged in a strip pattern.

The floors in the central part and under the galleries are laid with pale-grey and black panels in a checkerboard arrangement. The floor of the chancel is made of white tiles, in the confirmation chapel - with terrazzo, and the floors of the galleries are finished with wooden boards. In the staircases at the chancel and the porch, there are concrete stairs with steps covered with terrazzo. The tower can be accessed by a wooden staircase, and the galleries by a brick spiral staircase.

The vaults of the church are variegated. Over the central section, there is a cupola covered with a lierne vault, and in the confirmation chapel, over the side naves, porches, and under the galleries there are groin vaults and cross-rib vaults.

The corners of the central part are decorated with wall painting with foliage and geometric motifs, and gold coating. Above them, there are busts of the Four Evangelists in medallions. Similar wall painting with foliage and geometric motifs cover the rood arch. The walls of the chancel, which is distinctly separated by a platform couple of steps high, are covered with painted rustication, and above the apse section, there are painted scenes of the Crucifixion and Descent from the Cross. The wall painting was made by Julius Hornung, according to a design by Robert Lamb. Above the scenes, there are round window openings filled with stained glass. The interior of the chancel is occupied by a stone altar in whose front part there is an image of Christ in Gethsemane surrounded by kneeling angels.

On the sides of the chancel, there are niches partitioned by stone balustrades, and over them - small, semi-circular balconies with balustrades similar to those on the galleries: covered with foliage ornamentation enclosed in rectangular fields, separated from one another by small columns. Also the ambo with reliefs on the balustrade and marble elements is worth attention. Both are the works of the Jaeger und Minikel company, according to a design by architect P. Senss. The marble baptismal font was made in the workshop of a famous stonemason from Łódź, Antoni Urbanowski. The giant chandelier hanging in the central part, made of many layers of brass rings supporting numerous round shades, adds a solemn and elegant touch to the interior.

Among the fittings, immense rosette stained glass windows and oculi in the chancel are worth particular attention. They were made in 1923 by the company of Adolph Seiler from Wrocław. On each of them, there is information about the founders. The stained glass windows from the porch were made in the workshop Moczany from Zbąszyn.

The church of St Matthew, due to its form, architectural detail, and interior décor, belongs to the most spectacular churches in Poland. It is currently the only Evangelical-Augsburg church in the city. In the current years, renovation works are conducted outside and inside the church.

The monument is accessible upon prior arrangement in the parish office. In the church, free-of-charge concerts are organised.

compiled by Patrycja Podgarbi, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Łódź, 27-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bandurka M., Rosin R., Łódź 1423-1823-1973. Zarys dziejów i wybór dokumentów, Łódź 1974
  • Krajewska H., Protestanci w Łodzi 1815-1914. Między edukacją a ewangelizacją, Warszawa 2014
  • Rynkowska A., Ulica Piotrkowska, Łódź 1970
  • Stefański K., Karta Ewidencyjna Zabytków Architektury i Budownictwa, Kościół św. Mateusza, październik 1989
  • Stefański K., Architektura sakralna Łodzi w okresie przemysłowego rozwoju miasta 1821-1914, Łódź 1995
  • Stefański K., Jak zbudowano przemysłową Łódź. Architektura i urbanistyka miasta w l. 1821-1914, Łódź 2001
  • Stefański K., Atlas architektury dawnej Łodzi do 1939 r., Łódź 2008, s. 104
  • Strzałkowski J., Architekci i budowniczowie w Łodzi do r. 1944, Łódź 1997
  • Urbaniak A., Śladami starej Łodzi, t. I, Łódź 1988, t. II, Łódź 1993
  • www.ap.gov.pl zakładka Wirtualne wystawy: Łódź- miasto wielu wyznań, Kościół ewangelicko-augsburski pod wezwaniem św. Mateusza, ul. Piotrkowska 279
  • www.ap.gov.pl zakładka Wirtualne wystawy: Świątynie w obiektywie Włodzimierza Pfeiffera

Cathedral church of St Stanislaus Kostka
Łódź

one hour

The church evidences the dynamic development of the town at the turn of the 19th and 20th century. It was built owing to consistent efforts of the construction committee whose aim was to obtain a favourable location and announce a design contest for the building.

Both the external part of the church as well as its interiors are maintained in a uniform neo-Gothic style. The external part is clad with bright clinker brick and sandstone elements. The gable of the tapering tower and vaults feature a unique - for that time - reinforced concrete structure. In the interior, lavishly decorated altars, ambo, stained glass windows, pews for the faithful, and numerous commemorative plaques designed by famous sculptors are worth particular attention.

History

The second half and the end of the 19th century marked a time of fast development of the city, inhabited then by more than 200 thousand citizens, of which approximately a half were Roman Catholic. The two existing parishes did not offer sufficient pastoral guardianship over such a large number of faithful. The southern part of the city, heavily industrialised and densely populated by Roman Catholic citizens working in the plants of Scheibler and Grohman were virtually deprived of it. In response to that situation, the parish priest of the church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, prelate Ludwik Dąbrowski, undertook efforts aimed at the construction of a new Roman Catholic church. In 1895, the construction committee for the church was established. For the purposes of the planned investment, the square by Piotrkowska Street, at the intersection of Ks. Ignacy Skorupko (former Placowa Street) was designated.

In mid-1898, the national press reported about an open and unrestricted contest for the design of the future church. The information was repeated by numerous foreign newspapers. The detailed agenda of the competition included a number of items strictly specifying the requirements connected, among other things, to the construction costs, location of the main entrance to the church, location of the rectory, or number of seats and standing room for the faithful. Also the type of lighting (gas) and ventilation was determined. As a result of such a wide-spread announcement of the contest in the press, the interest of both Polish as well as foreign design companies was enormous. In total, 38 designs were submitted (e.g. from the Netherlands, Germany, France, Sweden, Vienna, and Prague), from which the contest jury, invited especially to decide in such an important contest, were to select the winning design. The jury included, among others, Metropolitan of Warsaw archbishop Wincenty Chościak Popiel, representatives of the construction committee, two eminent Warsaw architects: Konstanty Wojciechowski and Stefan Szyller, and a renown artist from Łódź, Juliusz Jung.

In 1901, the construction was commenced according to the design of “Wende and Zarske” company from Łódź, corrected by J. Wende on the basis of guidelines provided by Józef Dziekanowski - one of the architects invited to Warsaw to provide an opinion on the winning design.

The World War I and early exhaustion of the funds caused interruption in the construction of the magnificent church. The church tower was not built.

On 10 December 1920, Pope Benedict XV established a diocese in Łódź, and the church of St Stanislaus Kostka was granted the status of a cathedral.

On 15 October 1922, it was consecrated by bishop Wincenty Tymieniecki, its the then parish priest.

In the mid 1920s, the construction of the tower was completed, and the church was consecrated.

On 11 May 1971, as a result of a fire in the cathedral, vaults, main altar, and pipe organ were damaged. Renovation of the damaged structural parts and fittings was completed in 1977.

In 1989, Pope John Paul II granted the church the status of a minor basilica.

In 1992, the diocese of Łódź became an archdiocese, and the church gained the status of an archcathedral basilica.

Description

The church as can be seen today was built on a Latin cross floor plan, with a chancel from the west, and a two-bay transect crossing the five-bay body. Also the external part reflects the legible partition of the interior. The bays are accentuated from the outside by narrow, pointed-arch windows and buttresses between them. Over the buttresses, flying buttresses are situated, emphasising the lightness of the construction and defining in a clear way its style.

Pale-yellow face brick with which walls and friezes running under cornices crowing individual storeys, provides the whole with a unique character. Also door and window surrounds are made of brick. Colours of the façades are enriched with stone elements in the form of titled roofs covering steps of the plinth, cornices, and buttresses. Also pinnacles over the buttresses and slender bar tracery of windows are made from stone. In the pointed-arch top section of the entrance portal, there is a mosaic with depictions of the saint patron of the church, made in the 1960s.

On the slender roof at the intersection of corps de logis and the transept, there is a steeple turret topped with an octagonal spire. The tapering tower, higher than the whole building, was located on the axis of the front façade and is slightly advanced in relation to the wall face. In its central part, the main entrance to the cathedral was placed. The tower, along with the crucifix topping it, is 104 m high and was built on a square plan. The light, openwork structure housing church bells, along with the slender cupola and triangular roofs topped with orbs at the basis of the cupola, constitute a dominant feature. The whole is complemented by small turrets in the corners of the central octagon.

The interior of the archcathedral is equally spectacular and uniform in style - just like the exterior. Heavy stone piers, dividing the space into three naves, support pointed-arch arcades. Over them, walls of the main nave above the side naves are partitioned with a row of blind triforia, with high pointed-arch windows over them. The cross-rib vaults covering the naves has light and gentle outline harmonising with decoration in the form of slender supporting ribs.

The interior is enriched by lavishly decorated altars located in the chancel and at the side walls of the transept. The neo-Gothic style of lavishly sculptured, colourful and gilded religious depictions perfectly complements the whole and ensures its style uniformity. The main altar of the Transfiguration of Jesus, with the title scene in the central part, the altar of Our Lady of the Rosary in the right arm of the transept, the altar of the patron saint of the cathedral, and the ambo are worth particular attention. Elaborate detail, extraordinary care of the shape and colour of every item, places the church fittings in the lead of the most beautiful churches from the 20th century in Poland.

The enormous window openings are filled with colourful stained glass. In the chancel and the transverse nave, there are original [stained glass windows] from 1911. Stained glass windows in the main nave were produced, in Art Deco style, by the workshop of a stained glass artist from Cracow, S. G. Żeleński, according to a design by Jerzy Winiarz. There were made in 1927. The colourful stained glass windows of the side naves and the cloisters were made by Helena Bożyk in the beginning of the 1960s.

Over the main entrance, there is a choir with pipe organ casing, resting on two subtle columns. On the corbels topping the columns, there are figures of St Peter and St Paul, surrounded by foliage motifs. The openwork balustrade along with the pipe organ casing occupy the whole width of the main nave.

For several years, conservation works have been carried out in the archcathedral. The façades, internal walls, and stone piers have regained their former glory. The chancel has been renovated, and the historic stained glass windows have underwent conservation works. In the side naves and in the cloister of the chancel, newly designed chandeliers have been hung.

The style uniformity of the architectural part and the fittings of interiors of the archcathedral basilica is referred to by the researches and enthusiast of the sacred architecture of Łódź as a consistent realisation of the neo-Gothic ideal of the House of God. Its stylistic features, decorative expression and composition allow for considering it one of the most outstanding works of architecture representing features of the French Gothic in Poland.

The church is accessible all year round apart from hours of services.

compiled by Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Łódź, 25-09-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bandurka M., Rosin R., Łódź 1423-1823-1973. Zarys dziejów i wybór dokumentów, Łódź 1974
  • Bazylika archikatedralna w Łodzi pw. św. Stanisława Kostki, tekst: K. Stefański, Bydgoszcz 2001
  • Rynkowska A., Ulica Piotrkowska, Łódź 1970
  • Stefański K., Atlas architektury dawnej Łodzi do 1939 r., Łódź 2008, s. 104
  • Stefański K., Architekt Józef Kaban, Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki, t. XXXV, 1990, z. 3-4
  • Stefański K., Architektura sakralna Łodzi w okresie przemysłowego rozwoju miasta 1821-1914, Łódź 1995
  • Strzałkowski J., Architekci i budowniczowie w Łodzi do r. 1944, Łódź 1997
  • Urbaniak A., Śladami starej Łodzi, t. I, Łódź 1988, t. II, Łódź 1993
  • www.ap.gov.pl zakładka Wirtualne wystawy: Łódź- miasto wielu wyznań, Bazylika archikatedralna św. Stanisława Kostki "katedra"- ul. Ks. Skorupki 9
  • www.ap.gov.pl zakładka Wirtualne wystawy: Świątynie w obiektywie Włodzimierza Pfeiffera

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