szlakiem kościołów granitowych Pomorza Zachodniego
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Maciej Słomiński

szlakiem kościołów granitowych Pomorza Zachodniego

6

two days

zachodniopomorskie

Saint Nicholas parish church, currently the church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Gryfino

30 minutes

One of the few municipal granite churches from the transitional period between Romanism and Gothic in the region. Example of rare in Pomorze Zachodnie temple on a Greek cross floor plan. The peculiarity of this historical structure is also the tower solution - originally open from three sides.

History

Already in the foundation document of Gryfino of 1254, the parish church comprised 4 voloks of land. In 1278 duke Barnim I passed the patronage over the church in Gryfino to Mariacka collegiate church in Szczecin. In 1281 the parish priest from Gryfin - Jan Belkow, was mentioned for the first time. In the third quarter of the 13th century simply closed presbytery and both wings of the transept were built. Originally those elements were supposed to be the part of the building set on a Greek cross floor plan. Ca. 1300 a basilica-type nave body was erected with a tower on the main nave axis on the ground floor, open from three sides with pointed-arch arcades. These works were completed in the first quarter of the 14th century, which is evidenced by subsequent foundations of the altars in 1300, 1302, 1314, 1320, 1322 and 1325. In this period the interior of the church was covered by beam ceiling. Ca. 1500 the church was reconstructed in a hall layout - the existing low side naves were substituted with new, higher ones, and the interior was covered with late Gothic vaultings. Sacristy was added to the northern wall of the presbytery. During the fire of the city in 1530 the church was partly damaged. During the reconstruction after the fire new transept gables were built, roofs over the naves were reconstructed and the tower arcades were bricked up. Ca. 1534, the temple was taken over by the Protestants. In 1580 new altar was made - a tryptych by the painter from Szczecin - David Redtel (currently in the National Museum in Szczecin), in 1605 a stone Mannerist ambo and choir stalls were founded. In 1725 Gothic tower dome was demolished due to a lightning strike and then it was substituted with a new Baroque one. In the years 1861-1863 an architect - Buchterkirch carried out a restoration of the church. Then the transept and side naves gables were bricked, the structure and covering of the roof and tower dome were exchanged, the pillars were reconstructed and neo-Gothic fittings were performed, including the altar and organs. In 1901 Hans Selinger of Berlin decorated the walls and vaultings with figural and ornamental wall paintings. In 1925 the tower dome was substituted with the current, neo-Baroque one. After 1945 most of the neo-Gothic elements of the fittings and decorations of the 19th and 20th century were removed.

Description

The church is located in the centre of town, in the northern frontage of the former market square, between the longitudinally running Kościelna and Bolesława Chrobrego streets, within the area of the former churchyard cemetery. It is an oriented, early Gothic building, cross-shaped in plan, with rectangular presbytery, transverse nave, single-bay, three-nave, hall body and western tower square-shaped in plan. There are gable roofs, over each of the side naves there are two roofs situated transversely to the main axis, like the roof of the sacristy. Four-storey tower is topped with octagonal low tholobate and neo-Baroque two-storey dome with a lantern. The oldest parts (presbytery, transept and tower walls at the level of two lower storeys) built of granite blocks with brick details, side naves, sacristy, two upper storeys of the tower and ceilings are made of Gothic brick, the gables of the transept, side naves and a tholobate under the tower dome are made of early modern brick. The roofs are covered with beaver tail roof tiles, while the tower dome is clad with slate roof tiles.

There are pointed-arch door and window openings. Tower façades are divided with string courses. In each wall of the ground floor there are three visible pointed-arch niches, out of which the middle ones constitute the remains of arcades, formerly open and then bricked-up again. Upper levels facades of the tower are partitioned by means of pointed-arch niches with a pair of small windows, in the upper storey - with bell openings. Side naves walls are buttressed, pierced by windows arranged on two storeys - smaller on the lower storeys and bigger on the upper one. On the top facades of the transept there are early Gothic pointed-arch portals with three-step reveals, on the southern facade - with an archivolt framed on the sides with pairs of narrow arcades. There are high Gothic windows over the portals, three on the southern façade, two on the northern façade - framed on the sides by pairs of niches. Transept gables and pairs of gables over the side naves are neo-Gothic and are partitioned with blind windows. Eastern facade is pierced by a large pointed-arch window in the trefoil closed blind window emerging to the area of the gable. Gable is partitioned with seven blind windows, alternately - pointed-arch and trefoil ones. Sacristy walls are buttressed, with small, windows closed with pointed arches. In the end wall the upper storey is separated with a frieze, partitioned with pointed-arch blind windows running into the gable area.

Interior is covered with stellar vaultings. Side naves are separated with square pillars cut at the thickness of the wall. Transept is confined from the East and West with arches at the thickness of the wall, transept wings are separated from the North and South with arches. In the attic early Gothic double windows in the brick wall of the main nave are visible, dating back to the period when the nave body layout was of basilica type. Sacristy is covered by cross-rib vaulting. Fittings: neo-Gothic altar of 1960s. with a painting by Stanisław Batowski ołd stanów polskich składany Matce Bożej Królowej Polski [tribute of Polish states paid to Mother Mary, the Queen of Poland] brought from Kałusz, Renaissance stone ambo of 1605, Renaissance choir stalls of the beginning of the 17th century, organs with a neo-Gothic pipe organ casing of the third quarter of the 19th century.

Limited access to the historic building. The interior may be accessed upon the consent of the parish priest.

Prepared by Maciej Słomiński, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Szczecin, 08.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Lemcke H., Die Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler des Regierungsbezirks Stettin, t. 6: Der Kreis Greifenhagen, Stettin 1902, pp. 209 and subseq.
  • Łopuch W., Symbioza kamienia i cegły. Architektura kościelna księstwa zachodniopomorskiego w latach 1278-1325, „Przegląd Zachodniopomorski” 1987, z. 3.
  • Mroczko T., Arszyński M., (ed.), Architektura gotycka w Polsce, Warsaw 1995, pp. 93-94.
  • Świechowski Z., Architektura granitowa Pomorza Zachodniego w XIII wieku, Poznań 1950, pp. 24, 27-29, 34.

transport time to the next site

9 min

Kościół parafialny pw. Matki Boskiej Różańcowej
Wełtyń

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

5 min

Kościół parafialny pw. Najświętszego Serca Pana Jezusa
Gardno

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

5 min

kościół filialny pw. Najświętszej Marii Panny Matki Kościoła
Żelisławiec

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

21 min

Parish church of the Virgin Mary, Support of Christians
Banie

30 minutes

One of the few municipal granite churches from the transitional period between Romanism and Gothic in the region. A three-nave interior layout preserved from that time is very rare.

History

The church was erected in the middle of 13th century, soon after the land of Banie was granted to the Templars’ Order by the duke Barnim I in 1234 and location of the town in 1235. In the Middle Ages it was a St. Mary Magdalene church. It was established as a three-nave pseudo-basilica, with a tower massif wider than the nave body and a sacristy adjoining simply closed presbytery from the North. The existence of the temple is confirmed by a mention of 1274 concerning the selection of a new parish priest from Banie. In 1478 the church burnt down, when it was set on fire by the army from Brandeburg, after 1535 it was taken over by the Protestants. The temple burnt again in 1690 was reconstructed and fitted with, among other things, a Baroque altar, ambo and bells cast in 1690 by a bell founder from Szczecin - Johann Jacob Mangold, as well as the organs built in the years 1763-1765. In 1716 the tower was topped with a Baroque dome. In 1853 the church was again burnt down. During the reconstruction in the years 1853-1854 the sacristy and an old tower were demolished and a new, significantly narrower one was built in its place, also new neo-Gothic gables were made, window and door openings were transformed and the roofs were rebuilt. During the acts of war in 1945 the roof and tower were damaged, and the tower was rebuilt in a reduced height. On 22 June 1946 the church was consecrated as Roman Catholic one under the current name. In 1981 a makeshift crowning of the tower was replaced with a new brick storey.

Description

The church is located in the centre of town, on the northern side of Targowa street - running latitudinally main communication artery of the town. It is situated within the area of the former cemetery, surrounded by a wall and overgrown by trees. Oriented. It is a Romanesque-Gothic building, with a short three-nave, three-bay, pseudo-basilica body, significantly narrower than the body of a neo-Gothic tower and an elongated, simply closed presbytery. There are gable roofs over the body and presbytery with a common roof ridge, the tower is topped with a pyramid hipped roof. The church is made of brick, a tower of a field stone in irregular bond, the eastern gable and detail (crowning frieze, string courses of the tower, bar tracery of the windows of the nave body and portal surrounds) - of factory brick, the crowning of the tower - of a new brick. The roofs are covered with sheet metal.

Facades of the nave body and presbytery have a separated plinth and are crowned with neo-Gothic, brick dentil frieze. Neo-Gothic portals: western in the tower, pointed-arch, two-step, side ones in the walls of the body are closed with a segmental arch (entrance from the South is bricked-up). There are pointed-arch windows: in presbytery they are early Gothic ones from the middle of the 13th century, strongly elongated, with a shape of a lance, they are strongly splayed, they are wider in the nave body, Gothic ones, with splayed reveals, divided with neo-Gothic bar tracery, tripartite, two-storey ones. Western façade and side facades of the body are symmetrical. Facade with a tower and main portal, northern and southern facade with side portals in the centre. In the eastern wall of the presbytery there are three early Gothic windows. The interior is covered with a wooden beam ceiling. Nave body is separated from presbytery with ogee-arched rood arch. Between the naves there are high pointed-arch arcades on massive square pillars topped with impost cornice. From the West it is supported by two pillars, Baroque wooden music gallery with a concave-convex baluster crest in the middle, with a cartouche with an emblematic representation.

Preserved elements of the monumental fittings: Baroque ambo with the sculptures of Evangelists, crowned with a figure of an archangel, neo-Gothic pipe organ casing and pews.

Limited access to the monument. Interior tours available upon prior consent of the parish priest.

Prepared by Maciej Słomiński, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Szczecin, 15.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Lemcke H., Die Bau- und Kunstdenkmäler des Regierungsbezirks Stettin, z. 6: Der Kreis Greifenhagen, Stettin 1902, pp. 167-175.
  • Świechowski Z., Architektura granitowa Pomorza Zachodniego w XIII wieku, Poznań 1950, pp. 24, 27-29, 34.

transport time to the next site

43 min

Parish church of the Holy Spirit
Moryń

30 minutes

One of the few municipal granite churches from the transitional period between Romanism and Gothic in the region, with a preserved 13th century sgrafitto decoration inside the church and on the presbytery facade, as well as original altar stone. Baroque ambo of the beginning of the 18th century - made by a famous woodcarver Bernhardt Hattenkerell, stand out in particular out of the elements of fittings.

History

The beginning of the construction of the church dates back to the time right after the middle of the 13th century. In the years 1263-1265 presbytery with transept were erected, most probably from the foundation of duke Barnim I, who vested the patronage over the temple in the monks brought down from Paris, of Victorinus Order of the rule of St. Augustine. The walls were erected by the workshop brought down most probably from Westphalia.In the first half of the 14th century the nave body was built. In 1350 the patronage over the temple was passed to the canons of the Myślibórz collegiate church. In the first half of the 14th century the nave body was built. Ca. 1540 the church was taken over by Evangelicals. During the Thirty Years’ War probably the roof and top section of the church were damaged. In the second half of the 17th century these damages were removed. At the beginning of the 18th century the structure was given Baroque fittings founded by the von Schoenebeck family, among others, a preserved ambo from the beginning of the 18th century, made by a famous woodcarver - Heinrich Bernhardt Hattenkerell. In 1756, the current, wooden top section of the tower was built. In 1945 the church was taken over by the Catolics, in 1951 - the parish in Moryń was established.

Description

The church is located in the north-eastern part of the town, between Ogrodowa street from the West and F.Chopin street from the East, within the area of the former cemetery, surrounded by a wall and overgrown by trees. Oriented, Roman-Gothic structure, on a Latin cross floorplan, with a square tower, short, three-nave, two-bay, pseudo-basilica body, not a very pronounced transept and elongated, simply closed presbytery.The porch adjoins the southern arm of the transept from the South, and it is built on the half of decagon plan. By the northern wall of the presbytery there was a rectangular sacristy, of which only the relics of side walls were preserved.The tower with an open passage from the South and North, with the last wooden storey separated by a step and crowned with a modest quadrangular dome.

There are gable roofs over the body and presbytery with a common roof ridge. The roofing of the middle nave are extended downwards over the side naves. The church is made of granite blocks, southern porch is erected of a field stone with irregular bond and of Gothic brick (of which the buttresses and details were made), the highest storey of the tower is made of wood in a framework structure and is plastered. The roofs are covered with beaver tail roof tiles, while the tower dome is covered by a sheet metal.

Facades of the nave body and presbytery have a separated plinth. There are early-Gothic pointed-arch portals under the tower in the western side of the body and in the southern wall of presbytery, right next to the transept corner. Similar portals are present in the top facades of the transept - in the southern one inside the later porch, bricked-up, just like in the northern one.The windows of the church are varied in shape. In the ground floor of the tower from the North and South there are pointed-arch passage openings, on three higher storeys there are slotted windows and small pointed-arch windows. On the wooden storey of the tower there are simply closed bell openings, and over them, under the cornice curved upwards there are round clock faces. In the side walls of the naves there are small windows of a shape resembling the square, closed with a segmental arch. On the top facades of the transept there are corners emphasised with pilaster strips. On the northern facade there is a bricked-up portal located inside the higher, pointed-arch blind window. Upwards there is an oculus framed at sides by a pair of narrow, pointed-arch early-Gothic openings. The gable is partitioned with three pointed-arch blind windows, above which there is a small blind window of a similar shape. On the southern facade over the roof of the porch an oculus is visible, analogical to the northern facade, and there are pointed-arch windows at sides. At the top of the blind window there are pointed-arch windows, arranged on two storeys - on the lower one there are five windows in the pyramid-like layout, on the upper one there are two windows and a round blind window above it. The walls of the porch are buttressed. From the South there is a bricked-up pointed-arch portal with brick, two-step reveals. Small windows are topped with a pointed arch. Preserved remains of the plaster with carved and coloured late-Gothic decoration - a type of rustication and frieze imitating ceramic decoration.

The windows of the presbytery are narrow, elongated, with strongly splayed reveals, closed with a pointed arch.On the eastern facade there is a group of three such window, of which the middle one is the highest. The eastern gable is partitioned with pointed-arch blind windows in the two-storey layout. On the southern facade of the presbytery there is a frieze under the eave with a motif of a vine, made in the technique of carving in plaster and colouring. On the northern wall there are visible relics of the sacristy walls.

The interior features a beam ceiling. Nave body is separated from presbytery with semi-circular rood arch, the windows of the transept are separated with massive pointed arches. Between the naves there are high pointed-arch arcades. In the presbytery there is a preserved original stone altar that was discovered in 1955, from the West there is a music gallery. On the walls of the presbytery there are elements of an original decoration made by carving and colouring technique - window surrounds of the bricked-up entrance into sacristy (in the northern wall) and square niche (in the southern wall), and also consecration crosses diverse in form. In the parts of the exposed stone bond there are decoratively shaped joints, consisting of several colourful belts. In the lower area of the arcade of the southern arm of the transept there is a painted, now barely legible scene, most probably from the 14th century. Preserved elements of the monumental mobile fittings: Baroque ambo with the sculptures of Evangelists - made by Heinrich Hattenkerell from ca. 1710, neo-Gothic pipe organ casing of the second half of the 19th century, candle holder in shape of a crown - from the end of the 19th century or the beginning of the 20th century.

Limited access to the historic building. The interior may be accessed upon the consent of the parish priest.

Prepared by Maciej Słomiński, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Szczecin, 19.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Die Kunstdenkmäler der Provinz Brandenburg, vol. 7, pt. 1: Der Kreis Königsberg/Neumark, Berlin 1928, pp. 195-204.
  • Dziurla H., Ołtarz granitowy z XIII wieku w Moryniu, „Materiały Zachodniopomorskie” 1956, vol. 2.
  • Świechowski Z., Architektura granitowa Pomorza Zachodniego w XIII wieku, Poznań 1950.

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