Śladami SOP - ETAP 3 - w ciągu rzeki Kamiennej
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Joanna Rek

Śladami SOP - ETAP 3 - w ciągu rzeki Kamiennej

7

two days

świętokrzyskie

Water system on the Żarnówka River (remains of the blast furnace plant)
Mostki

30 minutes

Industrial blast furnace complex typical of the 1st half of the 19th century, i.e. the Congress Kingdom of Poland; visible and accessible.

History

In accordance with Stanisław Staszic’s plan of 1818 of the development of the steel industry in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, projects were drawn up of the industrial development of the Kamienna River valley and the Kielce region. The blast furnace plant in Parszów was intended for pig iron manufacturing for further processing in the “ironworks along the Kamienna River". Before, the place was known for 17th-century smithies and a blast furnace of the 2nd half of the 18th century (most probably with a dam). Destroyed during the floods in 1812, the plant was rebuilt in 1829 in a completely new layout according to the design by Jacek Lipski. Along with the new blast furnace, a new water power system was installed, designed according to the contemporary standards - an earth dam with a release outlet (on the Żarnówka River, a tributary of the Kamienna), inlet culvert, inlet canal to the factory buildings centred around the water frame with the outflow through the bottom canal (partially covered, partly open) to the riverbed. Next to the blast furnace, there was an auxiliary steam engine and a water hoisting tower. In 1834 the foundry in Parszów was completely redeveloped and was then considered one of the best equipped state-owned foundries; a mechanical plant was opened nearby. It mainly served the military needs but also produced construction hardware and machine parts. About 1840 the blast furnace was replaced, and after the fire in 1860 only the foundry kept operating. A housing estate for workers, which very often accompanied bigger industrial investments, was developed gradually in the 2nd half of the 19th century, ultimately reaching the village of Mostki where another blast furnace was operating (in collaboration with the one in Parszów). The facility abandoned at the end of the 19th century gradually fell into disrepair; until WW2, some of the building were still under the roof, and during the war a defence bunker was raised at the site of the blast furnace. In the 1960s, there were still the production building (housing a school and located on the inlet canal parallel to the dam), ruined armory, administrator’s house and some residential houses. The water reservoir does not exist (even some of its parts have been taken over by new development), but some elements of the former water system have been preserved: the earth dam, weir abutments (used for the new bridge constructed on the old road at the end of the war), culvert under the dam, parts of inlet canals and retaining walls. The lower terrace have been occupied by farm buildings unrelated to the plant, and on the foundations of the old factory buildings new facilities have been located, including the development of a superstructure of the school facility. The area has gone into private hands (including a private company), and the investments were suspended in the 1990s at an early construction stage. Currently, the area is overgrown and visible is the advancing deterioration of the stonework - both of the original 19th-century and post-war development.

Description

The area of the former industrial plant is located along the Starachowice-Skarżysko-Kamienna road (which runs on the embankment parallel to the old dam) and the road to Suchedniów (closing the original basin of the water reservoir to the east). The following components of the former water system have been preserved: an outline of the large pond (now dry), the earth dam (largely preserved but transformed as a result of the road system development), outlet weir in the middle of the causeway (single-span, made of quarry stone with abutments currently serving as supports, a wooden road bridge and a stone apron on wooden pillars), a fragment of inlet culvert (stone and arched - east of the spillway), parts of the lower sections of the inlet channel (now dry, with the outlet of the underground part under the building and further with the overgrown open bed). In the north-east part of he complex there was the main plant’s yard, enclosed from the south with the former causeway and from the west with the riverbed and transformed with a retaining wall shaping the relatively flat area of factory buildings. During the operation of the plant, there were numerous buildings added to the complex, for example, a blast furnace, foundry, workshops and auxiliary buildings. Today, the north factory build is visible (in fact its ground level), located on the former inlet canal, as the last link in the hydropower system. It was once a one-storey building with a gable roof; now it looks different - a bit higher, with half-hipped roof with dormers windows - this is the remnant of the 1990s unfinished reconstruction and adaptation. The stone-and-brick walls of the ground floor as well as the basic plan and basic division of the interior have been preserved. The wooden and stone, one-storey farm buildings and residential houses located in the west part of the factory area are modern developments unrelated to the former industrial facility. Most of the area, with the exception of the vicinity of private houses, is overgrown, with large trees and less and less accessible.

The site is generally accessible but held by private owners; residential buildings are occupied

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 19.11.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne. Układ hydroenergetyczny, Zakład wielkopiecowy - zespół i Budynek produkcyjny, oprac. G. Balińska i J.A. Baliński, Kielce 1995 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1961, t.2, z.3, powiat Iłża, miasto Skarżysko-Kamienna, miasto Starachowice.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Parszów; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 3 (19) z 1995r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

10 min

Remnants of a post-industrial complex
Wąchock

30 minutes

Preserved remains of a complete manufacturing complex of the 19th century with a water power system; an example of the development of the cultural landscape of the Kamienna River in the form of an industrial complex with the relevant architecture.

History

The industrial tradition of the Wąchock region dates back to the 13th century when the local Cistercians began to extract ores. The following centuries saw the rapid growth of the steel and metallurgical industry; in 1818 the monastery assets together with the industrial complex were taken over by the state. In accordance with Stanisław Staszic's plans for the development of metallurgical industry in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, the Wąchock plant was seen as one of the components of the whole industrial system on the Kamienna River. The plan to build a blast furnace failed but in the years 1821-1823 a forging plant was built manufacturing a variety of finished goods and wrought iron. The water system on the Kamienna River was completed in 1833 as part of the investment of the Bank of Poland, which involved a substantial redevelopment and upgrading of the metallurgical plant (after the forgeries were decommissioned). It was a modern plant with six hearths, three hammers and box bellows. It operated (as the State Mining and Metallurgical Plant) probably until the 1860s; In 1869 it was purchased by the local entrepreneur Piotr Hutt. The complex consisted of the water system and factory buildings (built of stone and wood). During that period, the plant was probably modernized. It changed hands again in 1888. It was purchased by the German entrepreneur Nauman who assigned it his son-in-law M. Schoenberg. Having access to his family capital, Schoenberg made considerable investment to given the complex its current shape. He upgraded (reconstructed and extended the existing infrastructure) the buildings and machinery and built a two-storey brick building (the so-called “Palace”) to accommodate his family. The complex embraced the water mill, foundry, mill machine factory and outbuildings; the area was closed by a fancy fence from the east side. Power was supplied from the hydro-technical system: first driven by water wheels and at the end of the 19th century by turbines. In 1924 Schoenberg leased the factory to the Lidowiecka Commerce and Industrial Company subject to the condition that the metal production would continue. Soon, however, the factory closed, only the water mill operated until the wartime (1938), powered by a water turbine and later by an electric motor. The water system stopped functioning after the flood of 1938 when the weir was heavily damaged. The Schoenebergs left Wąchock in 1944 and the estate became the property of the state. In the 1950s the factory buildings served as a precast concrete products factory and a workshop; they were also used by the Communal Cooperative for storage purposes. The Palace served as temporary lodging, a communal office and a health center; the mill kept operating until the 1970s. In the 1980s, the local authorities started the renovation of the Palace which soon stopped. In 1989 the buildings with the adjacent land were purchased in a tendering procedure by the Stempnowski brothers who intended to convert the complex into a hotel and leisure facility. Those plans never came to fruition and the property was purchased by another private entrepreneur in 2004. The area was fenced on all sides and partly cleaned up but no major investment ever started. Today, the area is overgrown and hardly accessible; the condition of the buildings is deteriorating and the remains of the former water system are almost gone. In the meantime (2008), the outer water reservoir was recreated along with the embankments. The weir on the river was rebuilt.

Description

The postindustrial complex is located in the north-west part of the village, between the Kamienna River and the railway line; from the west, it borders on the recently rebuilt water reservoir. The boundary of the property is the embankments separating the buildings from the water system, accessible by roads from the east. The area is fenced: from the south-west by the old stone and cast iron decorated fence, from the north-east by a stone wall, and from the other sides by contemporary fencing panels. Originally, the complex possessed its complete internal hydroelectric system: beginning with the pond - the upper canal with the culvert, turbine chambers (former water wheels) with the energy channel inlet and the lower input canal. Characteristic was the considerable length of the dam and the small distance between the inlet and relief culvert and the parallel arrangement of two separate water chambers in relation to the inlet canal. The whole complex represented an asymmetric industrial spatial system with the factory buildings clustered on one side. The buildings are arranged on both sides of the inlet canal, at the water cage, thus creating a symmetrical system (probably developed in the 2nd half of the 19th century based on some former buildings). On the north side, there are the remains of the foundry and workshop; the mill and production shop were situated on the south side. In addition, a residential building (Palace) was erected here. The complex also contained numerous auxiliary and storage buildings in the east and west part of the property - most of them have already disappeared. The central part of the plot was occupied by a garden: today, lush and disorderly high and low greenery. The buildings have a rectangular plan. For the most part, they were two-storey structures (the Palace with a basement), covered with gable roofs and half-hip roofs. The façades reveal some traces of decorative cornices and pilaster strips. The Palace has a richer ornamentation: its façades are in neo-Renaissance style, symmetric and multi-axial. Its corners are highlighted as well as the central avant-corps (including the east three-arcade entrance). The building also has a stone base course and three stone cornices; it the upper part, there are more stone decor elements (window sills, rosettes, acroterions). The interior of the building has been altered but the two-bay layout with the winder staircase with stone steps is still visible. The buildings were made of stone and sandstone (preserved to this day), including the base part made of dimension stone and the upper parts of quarry stone; the Palace has some spots of brick used to give the ultimate shape to holes or openings. The buildings were plastered, and the façades of the palace went very well with the embossed, stone (not plastered) architectural design. Today most building are ruins: no roofs, ceilings or plaster. Relatively well maintained is the Palace and the adjacent factory building; in the renovation in the 1990s, the roofing, roof truss and ceilings were replaced; also some architectural decor has survived on the façades.

The site is not accessible; private, fenced area; lack of owner’s contact details.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 28.11.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne: Założenie przemysłowe, System hydroenergetyczny, Pałac, Budynek gosp.-produkcyjny, Młyn, Odlewnia, Warsztaty, Budynek produkcyjny,  Ogrodzenie , oprac. G. Balińska i J.A. Baliński, Kielce 1994 oraz Jaz, oprac. L. Budych, Kielce 1994 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1961, t.2, z.3, powiat Iłża, miasto Skarżysko-Kamienna, miasto Starachowice.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1957, t.II. z.3-4.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Wąchock; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 6 (34) z 1996r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

11 min

Blast furnace plant complex
Starachowice

2 hours+

A fully preserved spatial system of the historical industrial complex with visible gradual stages of transformation resulting from the upgrade of technology; largely preserved blast furnace hardware along with auxiliary devices - an example of the traditions and industrial skills of the outgoing generations

History

A forging settlement existed in the area already in the mid-15th century when this land was owned by the Cistercians of Wąchock. A local hammery is mentioned in the 16th- and 17th-century sources as a supplier of armaments for King Stefan Batory. In the years 1778-1779, Abbot Aleksander Rudkiewicz launched a Poland-first modern blast furnace. At the turn of the 18th century, there were major ownership changes in the area: lease, followed by the government sequestration and the final seizure by the occupant during the Partitions. Any new investment in the facility began no earlier than in 1816 at the initiative of the Chief Mining Directorate of the Congress Kingdom of Poland. The investment was based mainly on Stanisław Staszic’s plan of the development of the mining and ore smelting industry in the area of ​​Kielce and the establishment of “a series of ironworks along the Kamienna River”. The plant in Starachowice was intended as the hub for the entire “industrial complex”. It was designed for the production of pig iron, castings and semi-finished forged goods. The plants situated higher above the river produced pig iron and the lower ones finished and semi-finished goods. Soon, Starachowice became the location of a modern rolling mill (1822) and metallurgical plants; the blast furnace was modernized (1823) and a sawmill and brickyard were built. The complex was a significant part of the industry sector in the Russia-occupied Poland managed by Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki after 1824 (after Staszic). But only in the 1836-1843, as a result of the investment by the Bank of Poland, the Starachowice plant developed to reach the current shape. A new blast furnace plant was erected (to the north-east of the former one); hydraulic works followed (increased damming capacity, new factory supply canals) and gradually new buildings were added - ore roasting ovens, water hoist tower, foundry, coal storage, auxiliary and administrative buildings, warehouses, worker lodgings; and equipment: bellows, heaters, blowers, hoists (made in Białogon). The designers were probably Fryderyk Lempe or Stanisław Wysocki, with the technological assistance of Philippe Girard and taking into account the latest know-how related to charcoal furnaces. In the 2nd half of the 18th century, the Starachowice plant was on the verge of bankruptcy. In 1870, after prior division of the property, it was sold to Baron Antoni Fraenkel who began the modernization of the plant after setting up a joint stock company named the Mining Society of the Starachowice Plant. By the end of the 19th century, the water wheels would have been replaced by turbines; besides, new heaters, blowers and steam engines were introduced; the blast furnace was upgraded. A major change occurred at the turn of the 19th century. In 1899 a new, modern, coke-powered blast furnace was built along with the rolling mill and steelworks. Despite such an advanced equipment, before WWI the plant struggled with a serious crisis. During the wartime, production was halted. But already in 1920, the plant resumed its operation to supply ammunition ordered by the Ministry of Military Affairs. At that time, the government took over a majority stake in the company. In the years 1926-1931, the blast furnace and heaters were thoroughly converted; an electric drive system was introduced for the auxiliary equipment and new dust collectors were purchased. In 1936 a new unloading conveyor system was installed. In 1952 the plant was incorporated into the Truck Factory (as the Metallurgy Department). In 1954 the blast furnace and boiler plant were upgraded. Production continued until 1968 when the metallurgical plant was closed and entered into the register of monuments. One of the auxiliary buildings housed a brickyard operating until 1973. In the 1970s and 1980s there were only minor renovation and protection works carried out. In the early 1990’s, a trilateral initiative emerged of establishing a museum. The property was transferred to the municipality; but only after the takeover by the Starachowice District authorities, the idea came to fruition. In 2001, pursuant to the decision of the Starachowice District authorities, a museum was established which - between 2008 and 2010 - carried out a thorough renovation of most of the buildings and the surrounding area (the Regio Ferrea project). Today, the complex is the Museum of Nature and Technology (also known as Ecomuseum) dedicated to Jan Pazdur.

Description

The blast furnace plant is located in the south part of the city, near the railway line and parallel to the Kamienna River. It is preceded by a water reservoir on the Kamienna with a contemporary road built on the former causeway. Further east, behind a loosely developed piece of land, the historical industrial complex begins. It encompasses an area of ​​rectangular shape of ​​nearly 8 hectares. It features buildings and structures erected in either of the two consecutive phases of operation of the blast furnace plant: the mid-19th century and from the turn of the 19th century. The complex was designed in the 1830s on the south slope of a former mine; three stone-reinforced terraces were built supported by retaining walls as the location for: ore storage, ore roasting ovens and the engine room; three blast furnaces, a cast hall and the factory square closing the entire area from the south. This terrace-like system has remained to this day, just as the inlet canal, engine building and the building of the former cast hall. At the end of the 19th century, the plant was thoroughly modernized and new production facilities were built in the south section of the complex. The production line was set up here: the turbo blower building, the blast furnace and its technological installations, the new cast hall, balances and warehouses; to the south, there was a line of auxiliary facilities: the boiler plant, steam blower, water tower; to the west and east, there were administrative buildings and other technical and auxiliary facilities. The development of the facility also covers paved routes and passages as well as yards, side tracks (including the overhead conveyor) and the remains of the water system (covered and open canal). The listed buildings have been preserved until today as they were originally with few or no traces of transformation required by technological progress. Most 19th-century buildings were built of stone with spots of ceramic brick; these buildings are usually on a rectangular plan with a gabled roof, with specially designed, partly plastered façades - a classicistic architecture, typical of the developments of the mid-19th century. The 20th century buildings are built as post-and-beam structures with the roof truss and metal frames filled with brick. Inside, there are old and newer machines and devices including, for example, a steam and piston blower with a flywheel, chamber boilers of the early 20th century, dust collectors, balances and an electric blower from the interwar period. Flooring elements and landscaping details are made of slag and cement bricks produced locally. The main structure - the blast furnace along with the hoist tower and auxiliary equipment and installations - dominates the whole complex flanked by brick chimneys of the secondary facilities.  It is a shaft furnace made up of two joined cones. It is made of fire brick and partly coal brick; it rests on the core laid on a reinforced concrete foundation and from the outside is lined by the metal operating and maintenance platforms. Today, the premises are tidied up and most of the buildings are used for the museum and exhibition purposes (nicely displayed); the tour of the area is well organized: it starts from the reception building by the new north entrance linked to the parking lot.

The complex is owned by the Museum of Nature and Technology; available during the museum working hours.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 16.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne: - Zespół wielkopiecowy, - Piec hutniczy, - Budynek maszyny wyciągowej, - Budynek dmuchawy elektrycznej, - Budynek dmuchawy parowej, - Dawna hala lejnicza, - Budynek hali lejniczej, - Budynek kotłowni, - Wieża ciśnień, - Dawna maszynownia, - Budynek oczyszczalni gazu wielkopiecowego, - Budynek zarządu huty, - Budynek administracyjny, - Zbiorniki do granulacji żużla, - Portiernia, oprac. J. Maraśkiewicz 1991;  [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Dumała K., Przemiany przestrzenne miast i rozwój osiedli przemysłowych w Królestwie Polskim w latach 1831-1869, Wrocław - Warszawa - Kraków - Gdańsk 1974.
  • Gąsiorowska-Grabowska N. Z dziejów przemysłu w Królestwie Polskim, Warszawa 1965.
  • Główka J., Hutnictwo i przemysł metalowy w Zagłębiu Staropolskim w okresie międzywojennym 1918-1939, Kielce 2012.
  • Kalinowski W., Budowa zakładów starachowickich w latach 1836-1841, w świetle materiałów kartograficznych, w KHKM Rok. XIX. 1971, nr 1.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1961, t.2, z.3, powiat Iłża, miasto Skarżysko-Kamienna, miasto Starachowice.
  • Pazdur J., Starachowice - osiedle i zakłady do 1939 r., Studium do dziejów górnictwa i hutnictwa, t.13, 1968.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja górnictwa i hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIX w. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Starachowice; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 5 (21) i 6 (22)  z 1995r.;
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

13 min

Water devices with a dam and culvert
Starachowice

30 minutes

An example of the new approach to industrial investment simultaneously covering the technological and architectural dimension enclosed in an urban complex

History

In accordance with Stanisław Staszic’s plan of 1818 of the development of the steel industry in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, projects were drawn up of the industrial development of the Kamienna River valley and the Kielce region. Earmarked for redevelopment, the facility in Michałów (earlier accommodating a hammery and a metallurgical plant which were taken over by the state from the Benedictines of Święty Krzyż in 1818) was intended as a component of “a series of ironworks along the Kamienna River", manufacturing forged and hot-rolled semi-finished products. The construction began in 1836; until 1841 a water system was finished consisting of an earth dam with a breakwater (damming up the water of the reservoir - the largest on the Kamienna River), the weir and an internal power generation system. In 1842 a puddling furnace was launched; also a housing estate for workers was built (22 houses). In 1843 the plant employed more than 60 people; the construction was supervised by Henryk Rose. The plant had a classic, or even model, layout: the axial layout of the factory complex integrated in the free, asymmetrical water intake system (differently shaped culvert and inlet on both sides of the causeway). The buildings were located on the axis determined by the intake and outlet canal, including the road system. In 1870, the facility was purchased, together with the Starachowice hub, by A. Fraenkel’s Banking House which set up a company to manage the plants. After ca. 1876, the facility was modernized by installing, among others, two steam engines and later a turbine in place of the water wheel. At the turn of the 19th century, in the time of economic crisis, the output was reduced in connection with the new development plans for the metallurgical industry. The great flood of 1903 pushed ahead the process of liquidation of the factory; the culvert and dam were seriously affected and part of the machinery was transferred to Nietulisko. The decommissioned plant and other buildings fell into disrepair and we gradually disintegrated. An archive photo of 1903 shows some visible remnants of the culvert (stilt-founded), as monumental as the one in nearby Brody; interesting was the use of a steel structure for the overflow section (still visible in the 1950s). In 1948 the complex was nationalized and ceased to be owned by the Society of Starachowice Mining Plants. In 1964, along with the construction of a new bridge over the culvert, the left abutment was removed and the left one severely damaged. The area of the former reservoir is now dry and overgrown. Also, the workers’ dwellings gradually disappear or are subject to conversion. The factory buildings are also largely gone, too, except for a south building altered for residential purposes. The post-industrial area is now owned by the municipality (since 1990), while the area of water installations (the river and the pond) are held by the state.

Description

The area of the former industrial zone is located in the district of Michałów, now in the south-east part of Starachowice, formerly a separate settlement.  From the north, the former factory area borders on the basin of the non-existent water reservoir, separated by a road on the causeway, reinforced from the pond side by a devastated breakwater wall.  Along the road, there are old trees forming an alley: chestnut trees, wattles and a magnificent oak - a natural monument. The Kamienna River flows through the former culvert, now framed in a new, concrete structure of the bridge; the remains of the factory and workers’ quarters are located in the south-east part of the complex, behind the causeway, and the residential houses behind the main road to Ostrowiec. Originally, this was the location of a complex, internal power system with a single-canal power plant - a single-span inlet, inlet canal (stone bed) guiding water into the water wheel (turbine), and an outlet canal, first running underground and then on the open surface. There were several factory buildings: the main power plant building sided with the water plant, and two production facilities enclosed the yard, standing parallel to the layout. At the close of the yard axis, there was the entrance gate flanked by the balance and the gatehouse. The entire structure was built of quarry stone, finished with sandstone panels and blocks. Today, these buildings do not exist: the only thing left is some remnants of the walls and foundations. Located further to the east, a storied function building is now a residential facility for five families. Generally speaking, the picturesque location reveals some, almost invisible, remains of the old industrial complex, typical of the period of industrialization in the Congress Kingdom of Poland.

The site is generally accessible. It is an occupied residential building.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 17.11.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne. Układ hydroenergetyczny i Zakład metalurgiczny - zespół, oprac. G. Balińska i J.A. Baliński, Kielce 1995 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Dumała K., Przemiany przestrzenne miast i rozwój osiedli przemysłowych w Królestwie Polskim w latach 1831-1869, Wrocław - Warszawa - Kraków - Gdańsk 1974.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1961, t.2, z.3, powiat Iłża, miasto Skarżysko-Kamienna, miasto Starachowice.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1957, t.II. z.3-4.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995.
  • Suliga. I., Rozwój technologii hutniczych na przestrzeni wieków w Staropolskim Zagłębiu Przemysłowym - referat na Sesji Naukowej - 200 lat Huty w Ostrowcu Świętokrzyskim - 17.05.2013 [www.200lathutywostrowcu.pl].
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja Górnictwa i Hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIXw. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Michałów; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 11 (27) z 1995r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

10 min

Remains of the water system
Brody

30 minutes

An interesting example of classicist interpretation in industrial construction in the 1st half of the 19th century, featuring an organic amalgamate of architectural forms with characteristic features of water construction

History

In accordance with Stanisław Staszic's plans for development of metallurgical industry in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, the plant to be constructed in Brody was to constitute an indirect component of "permanent iron works on the river Kamienna", manufacturing forged and hot-rolled semi-finished products. Construction was started in the next years, probably in the times of Ksawery Durcki-Lubecki, the minister of income and treasury. The system is equipped with a classic system of weirs — relief and working weirs on opposite ends of the dam. The driving force of the system was water — a complete water system was created, comprised of: water reservoir with earth dam, relief weir, working weir and channel, water distributor shaft next to the complex of plant buildings, and water discharge with a lower working channel and a relief channel. The reservoir water system was created in years 1836-1841, and the whole plant was completed in ca. 1845, already under the supervision of the Bank of Poland. Apart from the water system, the following structures were created on the site: buildings of the puddling and rolling sections of the plant, administration building and workers' lodges; the construction was probably supervised by the industrial constructor Henryk Rose. In the second half of the 19th century, the iron works in the Old-Polish Industrial Area became less profitable, and the plant in Brody, although modernised and subjected to organisational and ownership changes, strived for survival. The disaster came in 1903 — great flood destroyed the dam and weirs, and buildings of the plant and the internal power system were seriously damaged. Deprived of its main driving force, the plant was stopped; culverts were ruined, machines and appliances gradually removed, and destroyed plant buildings and abandoned residential lodges were demolished after the war. The site of the complex was supervised in that times by Mining and Metal Works in Zębiec. In the 1960s., the project involving a dam on the river Kamienna was resumed, the reservoir was created anew (an earth barrier was constructed/reconstructed then with new concrete dams, and the flow was directed through a new culvert located in the centre of the dam, and then through a regulated channel to the old river trough). The original working weir and channel are indiscernible today, but the former relief weir was partially reconstructed in years 1972-1976 (on the basis of the preserved remains) in the form of a "dry" exhibit with new (side, north) concrete retaining wall and stairs — original elements had been numbered, partially dismantled and recreated with tie-rod reinforcements. In 1971, the site of the reservoir went under the supervision of the Central Office of Water Management in Warsaw. Currently, it is owned by the State Treasury, controlled by the Regional Board of Water Management in Warsaw, and the whole water system is administered by the Management Board of Catchment Area in Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski.

Description

The site of the former plant is located in the south-western part of Brody, in the valley of the river Kamienna. In the early 1960s, a breached dam with the river free-flowing through it, and a ruined weir were still here, but remains of plant buildings were virtually invisible. At present, there is a water reservoir here (used as a retention tank and formed in the place of the original one), with a new weir, and the original permanent culvert weir is currently excluded from the water system (in was partially reconstructed with the use of existing elements and fabric). A little further on, off the road, there is the building of the former management of the plant (currently a communal service building). Buildings of the rolling mill and puddling section as well as the workers' estate next to them did not survive, and the lower terrace of the former plant features currently pitches and meadows, transected by a regulated section of the river. The most visible element of the old system is the former relief weir, once regulating the level of water piled-up by the dam. It was designed as a seven-bay, symmetrical structure whose heads and pillars were used as supports for a road bridge. Reconstructed, it features four bays based on original fragments: the right head, four pillars and overflow thresholds; the narrows from the north was made in a new concrete retaining wall along with a stairway leading down the slope.  Also now, view to the weir from the water side is impressive — monumental, massive pillars (with elements of simplified classicist detail), covered with basket-handle arches and connected in the lower part by intra-bay walls; the southern retaining wall descending down the slope has an arched end section. The entire structure is made of grey sandstone blocks (currently on cement mortar, originally on limestone mortar), and the pillars from the side of the water up the dam feature profiled slider guides. While technical condition of the structure is still quite good, there are already signs of mechanical and material wear and tear. According to the announcement of the current administrator, the weir will soon undergo general renovation.

Site is generally accessible.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 14.11.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna. Zespół dawn. walcowni i pudlingarni w Brodach, Jaz przepustowy stały na rzece Kamiennej, oprac. Z.M. Łabęcki, Kielce 1994 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1961, vol.2, fasc.3, powiat Iłża, miasto Skarżysko-Kamienna, miasto Starachowice.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1957, vol.II. fasc.3-4.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, vol.XI. fasc.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995.
  • Suliga. I., Rozwój technologii hutniczych na przestrzeni wieków w Staropolskim Zagłębiu Przemysłowym - referat na Sesji Naukowej - 200 lat Huty w Ostrowcu Świętokrzyskim - 17.05.2013 [www.200lathutywostrowcu.pl].
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja Górnictwa i Hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIXw. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Brody Iłżeckie; w miesięczniku IKAR, no 2 (30), 1996.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

8 min

Urban and industrial complex
Nietulisko Duże

two hours

A preserved, original and Europe-unique urban layout of the industrial complex the 1st half of the 19th century with visible structures and remnants of the original water system of high spatial and architectural value.

History

In accordance with Stanisław Staszic’s plan of 1818 of the development of the steel industry in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, projects were drawn up - also with the assistance of Fryderyk Lampe - of the industrial development of the Kamienna River valley and the Kielce region. The designed Nietulisko factory was intended as the final element of “a series of ironworks along the Kamienna River” manufacturing finished products and semi-finished forged and rolled metals - relying entirely on hydropower. The construction of the water facilities for the Nietulisko plant began in 1824. For this purpose, a canal was built from the reservoir in Brody about 7km away (damming the waters of the Kamienna River). In the following years, during the terms of office of Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki, the then Minister of Revenues and Treasury, the work continued but the construction was finished only after the November Uprising, already under the management of the Bank of Poland. Before 1846, the complete hydro-technical system was ready (also providing additional water supply from the Świślina River, a tributary of the Kamienna) and the factory buildings were erected together with a housing estate. The author of the design and the site manager for the project was Karol Knake. The main facility - the rolling mill - was commissioned in 1841. The factory machinery was driven by one of the first water turbines installed in the Congress Kingdom of Poland and a huge breastshot wheel. In the 2nd half of the 19th century, the profitability of the company fell dramatically and in 1880 it was taken over - along with the entire Starachowice hub - by the Fraenkel Banking House. At the end of the century, the plant was modernized: in the 1880s two water wheels were in place, and in the 1890s a traction engine was installed; in 1895 there facility had three turbines. The great flood of 1903 destroyed the damming system in Brody and cut off the plant from the Kamienna River. Also, the Świślina River broke through the causeway and formed a new bed. Having no access to energy supply, the plant closed in 1905. The factory equipment was dismantled, taken to Russia, or sold; the factory buildings fell into disrepair, and only the administrative building and part of the workers’ dwellings were maintained in a satisfactory condition. In the 1st half of the 20th century, the property was owned by the Mining Society of the Starachowice Plant founded by Baron A. Fraenkel. In the interwar period, the majority stock in the society was held by the state. In 1943 the complex was purchased by the Radom Linen Mill. In 1961, as Nietulisko Duże A, it was claimed by the state along with all the buildings pursuant to a government’s decree on land reform. In 1948 the administrative buildings were adapted for educational purposes (kindergarten and school) and the residential houses were still occupied (though partly rebuilt). In 2001 the school plot was taken over by the municipality, and the area of the former plant is held by the state and by the Kunów municipality; in the local zoning plan, the area is earmarked to serve as a park and location for public services.

Description

The industrial complex is located along the Starachowice-Ostrowiec road, in Nietulisko Duże (previously Nietulisko Fabryczne). The road divides the area of the former plant into two parts: the north-east side with the entire water system and factory buildings and the south-west side intended for residential functions. This urban layout represents outstanding spatial values: it is a rarity in the Old-Polish Industrial Area; they are manifested in the beauty of the urban system (a palace-garden type), precise architectural solutions and innovations in the water system design. The complex consists of a water power, factory buildings and a residential estate. It is designed on two main composition axes: the main axis is aligned with the route of the inlet canal (flowing from the symmetrically formed hexagonal retention reservoir built at the meeting point of the Świślina and Kamienna rivers) and the main factory building - the rolling mill; the other axis runs perpendicularly along the longer side of the rolling mill. Along the other axis, the auxiliary industrial and administrative buildings were raised; further, there is a symmetrical and semicircular square of the residential estate, with a radial-ring system of roads lined with the residential bungalows. The water system relied on two intakes: from the canal to the Kamienna River and from the Świślina River, collecting water in the artificial reservoir. In its lower side, there was a lock allowing water into the open, upper inlet canal. The power generation system was equipped with two water wheel cages, later replaced with turbines.  The water discharged from the plant flowed in the underground outlet canal, and the excess water from the Świślina River was dumped via the weir into the side relief canal. Currently, the water system is still visible but without water; the remains of the monumental culverts and bridges are still discernible. The factory buildings include the rolling mill, dryer facility, control buildings (today a kindergarten), stables and warehouses and the former administration building (today an elementary school). Only the former administrative building and guardhouse are in a decent condition (still used). Auxiliary factory buildings are in ruins; similarly, the rolling mill. But still its spatial and architectural solutions are visible: the symmetric plan, fragmented, with a two-storey central part and a two-lane canal along the axis and two side wings of the production shops. The walls and casing of the canals are made of quarry and dimension stone, and the arcades, frames and machine foundations are made of brick; the roof truss was probably wooden with gable roofs. The carefully designed and constructed façades of the buildings and the water lock are still impressive in terms of the scale, precision of design and architectural detail.

The area is only partially fenced; the essential elements of the complex are freely accessible

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 13.10.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna. Zespół zakładu przemysłowego i osiedla mieszkalnego przyfabrycznego, oprac. W. Sławiński, Kielce 1992 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Dumała K., Przemiany przestrzenne miast i rozwój osiedli przemysłowych w Królestwie Polskim w latach 1831-1869, Wrocław - Warszawa - Kraków - Gdańsk 1974.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1957, t.II. z.3-4.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995.
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja Górnictwa i Hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIXw. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Nietulisko Fabryczne; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 3 (31) z 1996r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

 

transport time to the next site

4 min

założenie przestrzenno-poprzemysłowe fabryki tektury
Doły Biskupie

one hour

Print this tour

This is user generated tour. Report terms violation.

Sites from that tour

zgłoś naruszenie