Śladami Staropolskiego Okręgu Przemysłowego
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Joanna Rek

Śladami Staropolskiego Okręgu Przemysłowego

14

two days

świętokrzyskie

Industrial complex of the former Białogońskie Works along with an industrial residential estate
Kielce

15 minuts

A comprehensive industrial complex originating from the 1st half of the 19th century, preserved in the urban scale, characterised by representative factory buildings and extensive residential and administrative buildings — subordinated to an axial spatial arrangement.

History

The works in Białogon near Kielce were to serve the purpose of smelting copper, silver, and partially also lead from the local deposits. The construction was started in 1814, according to a design by J. F. Moritz; the metalworks were named "Aleksander". The infrastructure created had symmetrical, axial layout and is comprised a complex of factory buildings and a workers' housing estate. In 1817, a water system including a pond with a causeway, weirs, and internal hydro-power system, was commissioned. In 1820, the construction of the works was completed and at the same time the construction of the workers' housing estate was started. The estate was designed by German constructor Karol Khake. The metalworks were closed in 1827 due to technical problems, but soon thereafter Prince Drucki-Lubecki (the then minister of treasury of the Kingdom of Poland) decided to convert the works into a machines factory. The conversion and modernisation were carried out under the supervision of engineer W. Preacher. In 1831, new rolling mill departments (of copper, brass, and lead) and a new sheet metal tin coating department were commissioned, and in 1834 — a cast iron foundry; in 1832, the forge was extended. Also the hydro-power supply system was converted, with a new great wheel on an iron shaft. In 1836, the modernisation was ended and the site of the works was fenced.  Between 1833 and 1845, the factory was administered by the Bank of Poland. The works in Białogon had then the greatest capacity of mechanical energy in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, and 240 people of staff. Industrial production devices for local industrial facilities were manufactured here, and also farming equipment and various tools. In the 2nd of the 19th century, the works fell into decline.  In 1898, engineer L. Skibiński started to lease the works; he restores them, replacing old devices and introducing new technologies. Mass production of cast iron pipes and outlet pipes is commenced; new workers' houses also start to appear. After the World War I, the works remain in the hand of the Skibiński family and operate under the name of Mechanical Works and Cast Iron Foundry "Białogon", with the production profile unchanged. In 1939-1944, the factory is managed by German occupation authorities. In 1945, the whole plant is nationalised. In the 1960s., a thorough modernisation of the plant was commenced; its production profile and name were modified (Kielce Pump Factory "Białogon"), most of the machine park was replaced (the old machines were donated to the Museum of Technology in Sielpia), there were conversions and extensions, and new facilities were created. The water system was diluted (part of the pond and uncovered channels were filled). In 1997 the plant was purchased from the State Treasury by a joint-stock company with shareholding of the plant's workers. At present, it operates under the name "Kielecka Fabryka Pomp BIAŁOGON S.A." (Kielce Pump Factory "Białogon" Joint-Stock Company) and produces pumps and cast iron moulds.

Description

The industrial complex is located in the south-western district of Kielce (former Białogon settlement is now included into the administrative borders of the city), by the route to Cracow. It was created based of the principle of comprehensive planning and completion of investments, applied in the 1st half of the 19th century. All spatial elements were subordinated to the principle of axial arrangement, with the system of access roads and the representative factory architectural complex at the entrance used as a framework; the water system was left aside, outside the boundaries of the complex. The main accent of the layout was constituted by a complex of factory buildings with a square in front of if, located on the side of the housing estate and shaped as a half of a decagon. The square gathered outlets of five radial streets opening to the gate of the factory yard. The main, widened street, built along the axis of the plant towards the east, connects the plant with the route Kielce-Cracow, and the street perpendicular to it separates the plant site from residential buildings also today. The factory complex was originally comprised of four separate pavilions encasing the factory square from three sides. The square was enclosed from the east by a gate flanked by two symmetrical gate-houses and auxiliary buildings. Of this historical buildings, whose symmetrical axial layout had been distorted as a result of continuous evolution of the production functions of the plant, only three main buildings (partially converted): the middle buildings of the former metalworks and forgery, and side buildings which were once rolling mills and a gate-house, were preserved until today. Built on rectangular plans and featuring variegated proportions, they were made of split stone, were one-storey, with gable roofs. They were originally plastered. The former metalworks were converted into a workshop hall, and later on into a warehouse (currently, it is not used), and the former rolling mills — into auxiliary buildings (currently used only partially). The water system is no longer discernible within the site, and neither the adjoining residential estate avoided substantial spatial and construction interference. The layout of streets has been preserved, but only some  residential houses made it to our times, and even those were significantly transformed (mainly by extensions and modernisation of the façade). They were one-storey buildings, partially with basements, with half-hip roofs; built on a rectangular floor plan, featuring a two-bay layout, and originally intended for 2-4 families. Next to the residential houses, there were also supplementary facilities housing a school, offices, house of the management board — also currently converted and transformed into flats. In the north-eastern part of the square of the residential estate, there is a wooden church, founded in the early 20th century by L. Skibiński, the then lessee.

The site is fenced and available upon arrangement with the User; the area of the housing estate is generally accessible, the houses are owned by private owners

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 02.12.2014.

 

  • Filling cards: Zespół Huty „Aleksander”. Hala odlewni mosiądzu, Hala odlewni, Hala kotlarni i modelarni, Portiernia, Budynek biurowy, Budynek szkoły, Domy mieszkalne robotnicze, compiled by Z. M. Łabęcki, Kielce 1994; Fabryka pomp ”Białogon” - układ hydroenergetyczny compiled by G. Balińska, J.A. Baliński, Kielce 1999 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Dumała K., Przemiany przestrzenne miast i rozwój osiedli przemysłowych w Królestwie Polskim w latach 1831-1869, Wrocław - Warszawa - Kraków - Gdańsk 1974.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa 1959, vol. 2, fasc. 2, powiat Kielce - województwo kieleckie.
  • Pazdur. J., Zakłady Metalowe w Białogonie 1614-1914, Wrocław 1957.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1957, vol. II. fasc. 3-4.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, vol. XI. fasc. 2.
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja Górnictwa i Hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIXw. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Białogon; w miesięczniku IKAR, no 12 (28) 1995, no 1 (29)  1996r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

27 min

Blast furnace plant
Kuźniaki

15 minuts

An example of the 19th-century industrial complex in Poland with a blast furnace of a distinctive, pyramid-shape shaft.

History

The area of today’s Świętokrzyskie, abounding in ore, wood and water, has been known for its steel industry for ages. The industry began to flourished in the 1st half of the 19th century, mainly due to the investment of the government of the then Congress Kingdom of Poland. Besides larger plants, also smaller private initiatives were developing, among them the first furnaces in Kuźniaki. Already in the 2nd half of the 18th century, Kużniaki was home to, first quarter- and then half-furnace integrated with a water hammery (perhaps at the beginning of the 19th century in the possession of the Kołłątaj family). In 1844 there were three metallurgical plants active in addition to the blast furnace. In the years 1860-1870, a new blast furnace was constructed operated the Jewish entrepreneur, Szlama Orner. Modified ca. 1890, the furnace was operated until 1897. The products were pipes, grids, sheet, crosses, and railings. After the decommissioning of the blast furnace, a wheel-driven mill was installed in the adjacent building, using the existing water system. later it was powered by a turbine and operated until 1955. The plant was closed down in the following years and the buildings fell into disrepair. In the years 1967-1968, the blast furnace was secured against collapse. By the 1980s, the water system had been considerably transformed: the spillway was disintegrated, the causeway was converted into a road, the canal was destroyed and the pond turned weedy. The condition of the production building (later the mill) without the equipment dramatically deteriorated. Only the blast furnace structure has endured the test of time as a clear, permanent ruin (in the 1960s it was secured by the personnel of Zawiercie Steelworks). It has remained so ever since. Today, the area around the blast furnace is a private property; it is fenced and clear although no specific information about its historical value is provided. Visible are also the remnants of the former water system, especially the old spillway, overflow and outlet duct.

Description

The remains of the plant are to be found between a small river (part of the watercourse of the Wierna River) and the municipal road Kielce-Mniów. Of the former blast furnace plant, only the ruins of the furnace are left along with the traces of the water system (an outline of the pond and causeway, the outlet duct under the road, parts of the underground canal, partly filled up with stone debris). The area of the plant is in private hands; next to the remains of the furnace, there are meadows, an orchard and garden, and residential and farm buildings. The blast furnace has survived as a permanent, yet visible ruin in the shape of a truncated, narrowing pyramid, square in plan with a circular interior; at the base of the furnace, there are four arched openings. The structure was built of quarry stone (local reddish sandstone) with the wedge elements in the openings and corner elements at the sides; the wall is partly covered with vegetation.

The area around the blast furnace is fenced; the structure is visible but beyond reach (private property); other elements of the water system are generally accessible

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 07.11.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna. Zakład wielkopiecowy, oprac. B. Paprocki, Kielce 1980 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Guldon Z., Kaczor J., Górnictwo i hutnictwo w Staropolskim Okręgu Przemysłowym w drugiej połowie XVIII wieku, Kielce 1994.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa 1959, t.II, z.2, powiat Kielce.
  • Radwan M., Wielkopiecownictwo w Zagłębiu Staropolskim w połowie XIX wieku, Stalinogród 1954.
  • Suliga. I., Rozwój technologii hutniczych na przestrzeni wieków w Staropolskim Zagłębiu Przemysłowym - referat na Sesji Naukowej - 200 lat Huty w Ostrowcu Świętokrzyskim - 17.05.2013 [www.200lathutywostrowcu.pl].
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Kuźniaki; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 3 (43) z 1997r.

transport time to the next site

16 min

Remains of blast furnace works
Bobrza

two hours

individual and monumental spatial arrangement demonstrating daring plans, execution and technique of the former industrial construction, as well as the landscape value of the complex

History

The former blast-furnace plant is one of the monuments of technology which has developed for centuries in the region today known as Świętokrzyskie. The northern part of the region which is now referred to as Old-Polish Industrial Region or Old-Polish Industrial Area, was a site for ore mines, blast furnaces, iron works and manufactures of tools and armaments. Planned industrialisation started after 1815, in what then constituted Russian Partition, mainly due to the activity of Stanisław Staszic, priest Drucki-Lubecki, and the Bank of Poland.  The remains of the blast furnace works originate precisely from that period. The construction was started in 1926 in accordance to a design by mining consultant Lempe, which envisaged five blast furnaces along with accompanying structures. Until 1830, the following structures were built: a reserve pond with lower and upper channel, retaining wall for the plant area on which warehouses, coal depots, auxiliary furnaces and residential buildings were erected; the blast furnaces themselves were not constructed - work had been stopped by the November Uprising, and was never resumed thereafter. In 1833, the Bank of Poland, the then owner of the facility, located a nails manufacture in Bobrza, which was liquidated in 1863. In 1873, the works went under management of the Kielce District Office, and as of 1884, they became private property. Subsequent owners carried out their own craft activities here - first, there were blacksmith workshops, then a weaving plant. Supposedly, no new investments were carried out, and the activities were based on the former, adapted, and partially converted structures. Weather conditions (including floods), lack of one purpose, or often improper use resulted in degradation and partial destruction of the complex. In the times of the Polish People's Republic, the works were nationalised, and the Knitting Plant "Elekta" was housed in the complex. In the 1920s, the plant discontinued its activities. In the meantime, the site of the former blast furnace plant and the adjacent area of the water system underwent numerous proprietary changes and their actual status is as follows: area of the former plant (along with the retaining wall) — property of Miedziana Góra commune; water system area and part of the residential estate - private property. In the years after the war, renovations and partial reconstruction of the retaining wall were carried out, as well as maintenance renovations of the buildings in use; the water system was converted for the purposes of a recreational resort. In the recent years, the commune started activities (projects, cleaning works and renovation) aimed at providing access to the former plant and developing the area for public purposes.

Description

The structure is located near the Kielce-Łódź route — at present in Miedziana Góra commune. It is situated on a wide plateau with a steep slope descending to the west, to the river Bobrza, which flows at the foot of the hill. The hill (probably after necessary levelling), surrounded with a retaining wall, was earmarked for the plant site. The intention of the constructors of the early 19th century was that the new industrial complex (located on two levels - a difference of approx. 17 m) would comprise: a complex of production preparation and administration buildings (on the plateau), formidable retaining wall, system of blast furnaces (at the feet of the wall), water system (connected with the river Bobrza), and residential estate with auxiliary buildings (farther into the plateau). The planned size of the complex was impressive - it were to be the largest blast furnace iron smelters comprising the key facilities of the Old-Polish Industrial Area. Only part of the complex was built: the retaining wall, part of production buildings, part of the water system, and the residential estate. Retaining wall - due to its impressive size, thoroughness of craftsmanship and shape reminiscent of the old tradition of earth ramparts, it is without equivalent in Poland. Built on a plan of a shallow U, with total length of approx. 500 m, it is up to 16 m high, ca. 5.5 m thick at the base, and approx. 3.5 thick at the top section. It is made of local sandstone in different shades of brown. It is comprised of irregular main core and external face bound with it, and bricked up horizontally. In times of its existence, the wall was most probably many times repaired and secured and the state of preservation of its individual parts varies. The most spectacular (and best preserved) is its southern part, comprised of two perpendicular sections — a southern and a western one; in the substantial part, the height of the wall preserved is similar to its original height - approx. 16 m. The central and northern sections were heavily destroyed — they are interrupted by landslide slopes, pond marsh, overgrown with vegetation and devoid of the face layer. Water system was planned as a whole and never completed. Until 1830, some elements of the system were built — the bottom working channel, water wheel cage, parts of earth dam, and possibly also the upper working channel. Most of them were obliterated over years by the forces of nature and by human intervention (conversions and adaptations). The system was used, inter alia, for the purposes related to a mill, fish ponds, and recreational resort. At present, the lower working channel and the stone abutment of the weir are discernible. Two coal depots were located on the upper terrace of the blast furnace works. The remains of the southern depot - built on a rectangular plan, survived until today. It was a single-storey structure, with basement and gable roof, made of local split sandstone with brick elements; originally, it was carefully finished and had a wooden shingle roof. At present, only its outer walls and the pillar structure of the ceiling over the basements exist. The building of the former management (smelter master house), which is located further on to the south-east, is a single-storey structure built on a rectangular floor plan, with a half-hip roof. Currently used as a residential building, it retained its original fabric to a significant extent. Also the following buildings survived (even if significantly converted): former industrial hall and part of residential buildings of the in-house estate. The buildings show signs of modest, but stylish Classicist development; they represented robust construction technology of that time, skilfully adapted to the functions dictated by the industry.

Area of the complex is mostly accessible.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 28.08.2014

Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne: - Zakład wielkopiecowy”, compiled by K. Cygorijni 1977; - Skład na węgiel w zakładzie wielkopiecowym „węgielnia”, compiled by Z. Wojtasik 1985; - Hala w zakładzie wielkopiecowym,  compiled by FASC. Wojtasik 1984, - Budynek d. Zarządu, compiled by K. Cygorijni 1977, - Mur oporowy, compiled by compiled by K. Cygorijni 1977 i Z. Wojtasik 1985; - Układ wodny, compiled by K. Cygorijni 1977 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Bielecki J.W. Kalendarium dziejów Bobrzy, Koncepcja udostępnienia i zagospodarowania na cele publiczne zabytkowego Zakładu Wielkopiecowego w Bobrzy z monumentalnym murem oporowym, Kielce 2005, [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach].
  • Gąsiorowska-Grabowska N. Z dziejów przemysłu w Królestwie Polskim, Warszawa 1965.
  • Guldon Z., Kaczor J., Górnictwo i hutnictwo w Staropolskim Okręgu Przemysłowym w drugiej połowie XVIII wieku, Kielce 1994.
  • Hryniak E, Penkalla A., Dokumentacja Historyczno-Architektoniczna Zakładu Przemysłowego w Bobrzy, P.P. Pracownie Konserwacji Zabytków Oddział w Kielcach, Kielce 1977.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa 1959, vol.II, fasc.2, powiat Kielce.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, vol.XI. fasc.2.
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja górnictwa i hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIX w. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Bobrza; w miesięczniku IKAR, no 9 (13) z 1994r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

7 min

Remains of an industrial plant complex
Samsonów

one hour

An example of a monumental, carefully designed and laid out - in terms of function, space and technology - industrial complex of the 1st half of the 19th century.

History

The remains of the former plant are one of the technical monuments of the industry that developed in the Świętokrzyskie region over centuries. The regular industrialisation started after 1815, mainly due to the activity of Stanisław Staszic, the Rev. Drucki-Lubecki and the Bank of Poland.  The facility in Samsonów was built in that period. The foundation stone for the new plant was laid in 1818 by the governor of the Congress Kingdom of Poland, General Józef Zajączek, and the facility opened in 1823 and was renamed Józef Steelworks. Some foreign experts were behind the design and construction, among them Bogumił Schmidt and the mining specialist Frederick Lempe, and perhaps Henryk Grabkowski. The complex comprised a blast furnace with iron foundry and workshop as well as a storage and workers’ houses. In 1824 some adjustment were made to the blast furnace and the foundry was commissioned. In 1829 bellows were installed on the water wheel and steam engine, and in 1835 the blast furnace was readjusted again. The production covered pig-iron and military and utility equipment. After the fire of the blast furnace in 1866, the facility ceased its operation, and the facility began to fall into disrepair. During WWI, the hoist tower was partially destroyed in warfare. In 1922 the area of the former plant, as a "mining property with a pond and factory ruins”, was purchased from the Ministry of Industry and Trade by individual investors. In 1976 the property was purchased by the Voivodeship Conservator of Historical Monuments in Kielce for the State Treasury. In the years 1981-1983, the necessary works were carried out to secure the area as a permanent ruin. In 1995 the area of the plant became the municipal property and has remained in the possession of Zagnańsk municipality until today. 

Description

The former blast furnace plant is located on the local Miedziana Góra-Odrowąż road, at the junction with the road to Zagnańsk. It originally consisted of a water power system, factory buildings and a residential estate. The reservoir, supplied by the Bobrza River and situated in the south-east part of the complex, was connected by means of an oblique inlet canal with the blast furnace facility; culverts were also originally there. Today, they do not exist any more, nor does the reservoir. The situation of the main complex of factory buildings, gathered around the blast furnace, was designed in a classicistic manner as noble residences of the late 18th century. This is an axial layout, with the central, dominant structure of the blast furnace and hoist tower, and the foundry and yards located farther along the axis; they are flanked by two, symmetrically arranged two-storey production buildings (model shop, drying shop, forgery, paint shop, carpentry). The blast furnace and tower were surrounded by auxiliary buildings, e.g. the coal storage, engine room (controlling the water wheel at the tower and the steam engine by the furnace); there are also inlets of technical canals running under the complex in vaulted underground tunnels. The complex had both a monumental and aesthetic character with well designed proportions. The front wall of the complex (south façade) was a seven-axis structure with a three-panel entrance in a centrally located avant-corps. The blast furnace stands on a base in the form of a cubic block with the truncated cone of the chimney placed on it (originally of considerable height); the adjacent hoist tower is higher - rectangular on the ground floor and pyramid-shaped above (originally topped with a high lantern). Currently, these buildings are in a state of permanent ruin. The layout, scale and proportions of the complex are still visible, yet the detailed architectural solutions have not been preserved. Other auxiliary factory buildings (now in ruins) were scattered on the west and north side of the complex of blast furnace; to the south, outside the yard, there was the housing estate - now only one house has remained, yet considerably altered. The buildings of the plant are made of quarry stone, and the shaft of the blast furnace is lined with bossage. The whole thing was probably plastered, and the architectural design elements were exposed. The roof truss and the ceilings (except for the vaulted basement) were made of wood, and the roofs covered with shingles. The complex is well-maintained and quite well adapted to sightseeing.

The area is partially fenced and publicly available; from Tuesday through Saturday: 8:00-4:00pm - guided tours in consultation with the nearby Tourist Information.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 16.10.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna. Zakład wielkopiecowy „Zakład Wielkiego Pieca Huta Józefa” z osiedlem przyzakładowym i Zespół budynków przemysłowych przy wielkim piecu w zakładzie wielkopiecowym „Zakładzie Wielkiego Pieca Huta Józefów”, oprac. Z. Wojtasik, Kielce 1986 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Gąsiorowska-Grabowska N. Z dziejów przemysłu w Królestwie Polskim, Warszawa 1965.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa 1959, t.II, z.2, powiat Kielce.
  • Penkalla A., Zakład przemysłowy i osiedle mieszkaniowe w Samsonowie, Dokumentacja Historyczno - Architektoniczna PKZ o/Kielce, Kielce 1978 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach].
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Starz M., Zagnańsk, Samsonów, Tumlin, Ćmińsk; Z dziejów osad nad górną Bobrzą, Kielce 1995.
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja Górnictwa i Hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIXw. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Samsonów; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 10 (14) z 1994r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

25 min

Industrial plant and housing complex
Sielpia Wielka

one hour

An example of a carefully designed and laid out - in terms of function, space and technology - industrial complex of the 1st half of the 19th century, featuring late classicistic architecture with the original exposure of the interior and machinery of the old plant.

History

The former rolling mill and puddling furnace plant is one of the technical monuments of the industry that developed in the Świętokrzyskie region over centuries. The north part of the region which is now referred to as Old-Polish Industrial Region or Old-Polish Industrial Area, was a site for ore mines, blast furnaces, iron works and manufactures of tools and armaments. The regular industrialisation started after 1815, under the Russian occupation, mainly due to the activity of Stanisław Staszic, the Rev. Drucki-Lubecki and the Bank of Poland.  The facility in Sielpia was built in that period. It was designed in 1818 by Stanisław Staszic. The construction started in 1821 and finished by 1841. The complex encompassed: power reservoir (on the Czarna River), inlet canal, production shops, administrative building, auxiliary buildings, factory hospital, residential facility for the administration and a housing estate - probably designed by Karol Knake - and the technological devices designed by foreign specialists (e.g. Philippe de Girard who built the turbine). The mechanical equipment was probably built in Rejów, Starachowice and Bialogon. In 1904 the plant became a private property and was decommissioned in 1921. It was registered as an engineering monument of historic interest in 1934, which was the first such decision in the country pertaining to an industrial area. The site became the local Museum of Technology and Steel Industry. During World War II, the plant was devastated and stripped of its equipment by the Germans. After the war, when the former Museum of Industry resumed its operation as the Museum of Industry and Technology of the the Polish Federation of Engineering Associations, the Sieplia plant, gradually renovated and maintained, was made its local branch. In 1962 the Museum of the Old-Polish Industrial Area was opened. In the old rolling mill and puddling furnace shops filled with attractive machinery and equipment from the surrounding metallurgical plants (mostly of the 19th and early 20th century but also from the 18th century). The old water power system was destroyed during the flood in 1937; in the 1960s, the reservoir was rebuilt (for retention and leisure purposes) together with the causeway, new weir and culvert (for the internal power-generation system).

Description

The complex sits on the west side of the Kielce-Końskie road running on top of the causeway. On the east side, there is a water reservoir (originally divided) damming the water in the Czarna River. The complex consists of factory buildings (including the internal power-generation system) and an industrial housing estate. The factory and residential buildings were laid out in a regular, classicistic form on two adjacent rectangular plots. The north plot (factory) is separated from the south plot (of residential nature and containing the so-called market) through the utility buildings (administration, school, residential house for the administration personnel). An additional value of this spatial arrangement is an estate road running from the “market” towards the west and a symmetrically located, lower section of the inlet canal, opening up outside the plant premises. The main production building is located on the axis of the factory square determined by the route of the partially covered inlet canal. The architecture od the rolling mill has five gables on the front façade but is almost open-space inside, with a multi-nave division by brick arcades on pillars and cast iron columns. Behind this building, there are two perpendicularly set drying plants and a gate with two gatehouses to the south. Located in the central part of the complex, the school, residential and administration building are abandoned and are gradually deteriorating; only overgrown pieces of the wall have remained after the factory hospital (in the north part of the complex). The housing estate consisted of 29 houses of two kinds: smaller ones (single-family) were located along the estate square and larger ones (two-family) were located in the south terrace and along the west street. Although the buildings have undergone upgrades and reconstructions, their original dimensions have been been, to a large extent, preserved. All the buildings are built of quarry stone, with brick inserts and plaster. Mainly wooden gable roofs (partly with pediments), once covered with shingles, now sheet metal, tar paper or cement tiles. The interior of the main production shops has been largely reconstructed using the original and secondary (but equivalent or similar) materials and pieces of equipment.

The area of the plant is owned by the state; managed by the museum, available during the museum opening hours; the area of the housing estate belongs is privately owned.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 05.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury, 1957, t.II. z.3-4.
  • Krygier E., Ruszczyńska T., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław - Warszawa 1958, t.II, z.1, powiat Końskie, s. 59-60.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najważniejsze zabytki techniki powiatu koneckiego, Tradycje przemysłowe ziemi koneckiej, Kielce 1991, s. 51-61.
  • Główka J., Hutnictwo i przemysł metalowy w Zagłębiu Staropolskim w okresie międzywojennym 1918-1939, Kielce 2012.

transport time to the next site

16 min

Industrial plant complex
Maleniec

one hour

Preserved equipment and job stations in a condition largely unchanged since the heyday of the plant in the 19th century; carefully introduced upgrades testifying to the innovation and ingenuity of the previous generations of the early era of industrial revolution in Poland

History

The former ironworks is one of the technical monuments of the industry that developed in the Świętokrzyskie region over centuries. The 2nd half of the 18th century saw a rapid development of metallurgy, thanks to the support and activity of the royally, nobility and bishops. The north part of the region, which is now referred to as Old-Polish Industrial Region or Old-Polish Industrial Area, was a site for ore mines, blast furnaces, iron works and manufactures of tools and armaments. The plant in Maleniec was built in that period (1784) by the owner of the estate, Jacek Jezierski, castellan of Łuków. He built a pond on the Czarna River, mill, sawmill, rod shop and a pig-iron processing shop. The production covered various iron tableware and farm tools, using the pig-iron smelted in the nearby blast furnaces. In 1787 the plant was visited by the last Polish king, Stanisław August Poniatowski. At the end of the 18th century, the complex was purchased by Duke Hessen-Darmstadt; he operated the plant for almost 25 years without upgrading it. The next owner, Tadeusz Bocheński, landowner and economic activist, purchased the plant in 1824. Thanks to loans from the Bank of Poland, he introduced a number of innovations and significantly raised the production capacity of Maleniec and other neighbouring plants. In 1837, in addition to the upgrading of the furnaces, he built a rolling mill, axe shop and  pig-iron processing shop using the hydropower of the existing water system. He created the most modern mining and metallurgical plant in the Congress Kingdom of Poland. In the 19th century, the complex was modernized twice; in the 1850s, Tadeusz’s brother, Józef Bocheński, removed the pig-iron furnaces and introduced nail-making machinery; in the 1870s, the new owner Feliks Wielogłowski, replaced the nail-making devices with machines manufacturing various kinds of shovels, spades and farm tools. In the early 20th century, the property was purchased by Felicjan Jankowski. The last owner, from 1913, was his daughter Helena Frolich who leased the plant to the Jewish entrepreneur Binem Kozłowski. Until 1967, i.e. for most of the 20th century, the character and organization of manufacturing remained unchanged, the only difference was the use of scrap metal to lower the production costs (e.g. rims of train carriage wheels). During the Nazi occupation, the factory operated under German supervision (a combustion engine was introduced as an auxiliary drive); in 1945 the water supply system was destroyed. After WW2, after the repair of the complex and resuming production by the local population and local entrepreneurs, the plant was nationalized. Later, it was occasionally modernized, e.g. introduction of a supplementary electric drive, but until the decommissioning in 1967, it used the hydropower and old machinery. Over that time, it was part of the Opoczno Regional Industry Plant and later of the Końskie Farm Tool Factory, which transferred the Maleniec facility to the students and staff of the Silesian University of Technology in 1970 for didactic purposes. In the coming years, Maleniec was a popular destination for students and teachers who, in agreement with the monument conservation authority, performed their student practice while maintaining the facility. They carried out various tasks, such as inventorying, preservation, repairs and even partial reconstruction. In 2004 the plant was taken over by the receiver and sold it in a tender procedure to the Management Board of Końskie County which transferred it into a municipal cultural institution, the Old Metallurgical Plant in Maleniec. Today, the Maleniec museum exhibits historical and original items as well as presenting old manufacturing techniques and technologies.

Description

The spatial complex of the Old Metallurgical Plant in Maleniec consists of: the former hydropower system, production buildings, remains of the factory housing estate, Kasztelańska Road and the former storage. Currently, the complex of the industrial plant in Maleniec, consisting of the former industrial plant and the water system, is officially registered as a historical monument. It is currently located in Końskie County, not far from the Kielce-Piotrków Trybunalski road. The location on the bend of the Czarna River permitted a convenient and safe layout of the water system. The system is made up of: the former pond (now a water reservoir), side causeway and front dam, outlet weirs and a natural overflow. Separate inlet canals fed water to different wheel drives (wooden undershoot wheels) providing power to the rolling mill and spade shop; also internal channels are present and lower inlet canals. The south canal wheel is installed in a cage and coupled by a shaft with the drive of the rolling mill machinery. The following have been preserved from the former industrial plant: the wooden rolling mill shop, stone spade shop (nail-making shop), drop hammer, a system of rails and switches, former paint shop and storage. The rolling mill rebuilt after the war (a wooden building on a stone foundation) has an asymmetrical roof, three-nave, five-span plan, with a large drive wheel cage to the south. The rolling mill equipment is a set of cogged gears, an impressive flywheel (the so-called "Madman of Maleniec"), roller, two-chamber furnace, lathe, scissors, balance, blower and other small tools. The spade shop (previously also nail shop) is a building on a rectangular plan a symmetrical gable roof, with a later annex for an auxiliary combustion or electric engine; inside, a three-nave, eight-span plan. Inside the shop, there was a set of presses and grinders performing consecutive technological operations involving the production of spades and shovels and driven by so-called small water wheel. Besides, the shop has: a lifting nailer, riveter, three-chamber furnace with a blower and the equipment of the mechanical workshop. Most of the described machinery and equipment is original and dates back to the 19th century.

Municipal area; used by the local Museum of Technology in Maleniec, available in the museum opening hours

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 02.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Herbst. S, Ochrona Zabytków, R. IV. 1951.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.
  • Baranowski B., Baranowski W., Koliński J., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1970, t.II, z.4, powiat Opoczno, s. 17-18.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najważniejsze zabytki techniki powiatu koneckiego, Tradycje przemysłowe ziemi koneckiej, Kielce 1991, s. 51-61.
  • Guldon Z., Kaczor J., Górnictwo i hutnictwo w Staropolskim Okręgu Przemysłowym w drugiej połowie XVIII wieku, Kielce 1994.
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja górnictwa i hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIX w. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Główka J., Hutnictwo i przemysł metalowy w Zagłębiu Staropolskim w okresie międzywojennym 1918-1939, Kielce 2012.

transport time to the next site

33 min

Forge
Stara Kuźnica

30 minutes

Unique technological equipment as well as landscape and historical values of the industrial layout and systems of former ironworks.

History

The local water-driven hammery is mentioned in the written records already in 1662. The list of ironworks operating in the Congress Kingdom of Poland of 1823, it is included in Nieświńskis’ estate as a private property of Wielhorskis. In the late 1930s, it was upgraded thanks to loans taken from the Polish Bank supporting the expansion of private industrial investment. After 1860, the facility cooperated with the nearby blast furnace operating until 1893. Since the beginning of the 20th century, its function was limited to the forging of iron scrap into small agricultural tools and household items. In 1957, the hammery ceased to operate and was taken over by the Museum of Technology and Industry in Warsaw. Since the renovation in the early 1960s, it has been opened to visitors as a local museum. In the 1970s, the water reservoir was reconstructed while reinforcing the causeway and making a new culvert; the undertaking led to the destruction of the former culvert with a wooden gate and a footbridge. The hammery building underwent a thorough renovation: the old wooden structure of the shed, roof truss, roofing and weatherboards were replaced. The area is owned by the State Treasury and managed by the Museum of Technology and Industry in Warsaw.

Description

The hammery complex is situated on the Młynkówka River, by the local road, approx. 12 km from Końskie. The complex consists of a water system, the hammery building with equipment and the remains of auxiliary buildings (shed, residential building, traces of the blast furnace and slag dumps). Of the old water system, only the causeway has remained: the front dam (causing backwater), culvert and outlet (rebuilt) and channel (entering the building in its further stretch). The hammery building is in fact a rectangular wooden shed of frame structure with single external weatherboard, set on a stone foundation. It has a gable roof with timber rafter and purlin roof truss covered with shingle; the façades are simple and windowless; barn floor inside. The entrance door (plank) in the south-west wall lead to an open-space production interior; today, featuring exhibits. Exhibited is the unique, old equipment: pressure water hammer and anvil, water-driven undershot wheel driving the hammer and box bellows driven by a separate (internal) undershot wheel; and auxiliary equipment: heating stove, manual shears for cutting sheet metal, sharpening tool, pincers, pliers and other small blacksmith tools. The hammery complex has retained its historic spatial plan, and the devices can be occasionally run for showcase purposes.

The property is owned by the State Treasury and managed by the museum; the area is publicly accessible; the building can be visited upon arrangement with the live-in supervisor.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 09.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne: - Kuźnica wodna - zespół, - Budynek kuźnicy (kuźni), oprac. J. A. Baliński 1996, [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Guldon Z., Kaczor J., Górnictwo i hutnictwo w Staropolskim Okręgu Przemysłowym w drugiej połowie XVIII wieku, Kielce 1994.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Ruszczyńska T., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, , Wrocław - Warszawa 1958, t.II, z.1, powiat Końskie, s. 61-62.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najważniejsze zabytki techniki powiatu koneckiego, Tradycje przemysłowe ziemi koneckiej, Kielce 1991, s. 51-61.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Stara Kuźnica; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 11 (15) z 1994r.

transport time to the next site

51 min

Water system on the Żarnówka River (remains of the blast furnace plant)
Mostki

15 minuts

Industrial blast furnace complex typical of the 1st half of the 19th century, i.e. the Congress Kingdom of Poland; visible and accessible.

History

In accordance with Stanisław Staszic’s plan of 1818 of the development of the steel industry in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, projects were drawn up of the industrial development of the Kamienna River valley and the Kielce region. The blast furnace plant in Parszów was intended for pig iron manufacturing for further processing in the “ironworks along the Kamienna River". Before, the place was known for 17th-century smithies and a blast furnace of the 2nd half of the 18th century (most probably with a dam). Destroyed during the floods in 1812, the plant was rebuilt in 1829 in a completely new layout according to the design by Jacek Lipski. Along with the new blast furnace, a new water power system was installed, designed according to the contemporary standards - an earth dam with a release outlet (on the Żarnówka River, a tributary of the Kamienna), inlet culvert, inlet canal to the factory buildings centred around the water frame with the outflow through the bottom canal (partially covered, partly open) to the riverbed. Next to the blast furnace, there was an auxiliary steam engine and a water hoisting tower. In 1834 the foundry in Parszów was completely redeveloped and was then considered one of the best equipped state-owned foundries; a mechanical plant was opened nearby. It mainly served the military needs but also produced construction hardware and machine parts. About 1840 the blast furnace was replaced, and after the fire in 1860 only the foundry kept operating. A housing estate for workers, which very often accompanied bigger industrial investments, was developed gradually in the 2nd half of the 19th century, ultimately reaching the village of Mostki where another blast furnace was operating (in collaboration with the one in Parszów). The facility abandoned at the end of the 19th century gradually fell into disrepair; until WW2, some of the building were still under the roof, and during the war a defence bunker was raised at the site of the blast furnace. In the 1960s, there were still the production building (housing a school and located on the inlet canal parallel to the dam), ruined armory, administrator’s house and some residential houses. The water reservoir does not exist (even some of its parts have been taken over by new development), but some elements of the former water system have been preserved: the earth dam, weir abutments (used for the new bridge constructed on the old road at the end of the war), culvert under the dam, parts of inlet canals and retaining walls. The lower terrace have been occupied by farm buildings unrelated to the plant, and on the foundations of the old factory buildings new facilities have been located, including the development of a superstructure of the school facility. The area has gone into private hands (including a private company), and the investments were suspended in the 1990s at an early construction stage. Currently, the area is overgrown and visible is the advancing deterioration of the stonework - both of the original 19th-century and post-war development.

Description

The area of the former industrial plant is located along the Starachowice-Skarżysko-Kamienna road (which runs on the embankment parallel to the old dam) and the road to Suchedniów (closing the original basin of the water reservoir to the east). The following components of the former water system have been preserved: an outline of the large pond (now dry), the earth dam (largely preserved but transformed as a result of the road system development), outlet weir in the middle of the causeway (single-span, made of quarry stone with abutments currently serving as supports, a wooden road bridge and a stone apron on wooden pillars), a fragment of inlet culvert (stone and arched - east of the spillway), parts of the lower sections of the inlet channel (now dry, with the outlet of the underground part under the building and further with the overgrown open bed). In the north-east part of he complex there was the main plant’s yard, enclosed from the south with the former causeway and from the west with the riverbed and transformed with a retaining wall shaping the relatively flat area of factory buildings. During the operation of the plant, there were numerous buildings added to the complex, for example, a blast furnace, foundry, workshops and auxiliary buildings. Today, the north factory build is visible (in fact its ground level), located on the former inlet canal, as the last link in the hydropower system. It was once a one-storey building with a gable roof; now it looks different - a bit higher, with half-hipped roof with dormers windows - this is the remnant of the 1990s unfinished reconstruction and adaptation. The stone-and-brick walls of the ground floor as well as the basic plan and basic division of the interior have been preserved. The wooden and stone, one-storey farm buildings and residential houses located in the west part of the factory area are modern developments unrelated to the former industrial facility. Most of the area, with the exception of the vicinity of private houses, is overgrown, with large trees and less and less accessible.

The site is generally accessible but held by private owners; residential buildings are occupied

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 19.11.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne. Układ hydroenergetyczny, Zakład wielkopiecowy - zespół i Budynek produkcyjny, oprac. G. Balińska i J.A. Baliński, Kielce 1995 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1961, t.2, z.3, powiat Iłża, miasto Skarżysko-Kamienna, miasto Starachowice.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Parszów; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 3 (19) z 1995r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

10 min

Remnants of a post-industrial complex
Wąchock

30 minutes

Preserved remains of a complete manufacturing complex of the 19th century with a water power system; an example of the development of the cultural landscape of the Kamienna River in the form of an industrial complex with the relevant architecture.

History

The industrial tradition of the Wąchock region dates back to the 13th century when the local Cistercians began to extract ores. The following centuries saw the rapid growth of the steel and metallurgical industry; in 1818 the monastery assets together with the industrial complex were taken over by the state. In accordance with Stanisław Staszic's plans for the development of metallurgical industry in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, the Wąchock plant was seen as one of the components of the whole industrial system on the Kamienna River. The plan to build a blast furnace failed but in the years 1821-1823 a forging plant was built manufacturing a variety of finished goods and wrought iron. The water system on the Kamienna River was completed in 1833 as part of the investment of the Bank of Poland, which involved a substantial redevelopment and upgrading of the metallurgical plant (after the forgeries were decommissioned). It was a modern plant with six hearths, three hammers and box bellows. It operated (as the State Mining and Metallurgical Plant) probably until the 1860s; In 1869 it was purchased by the local entrepreneur Piotr Hutt. The complex consisted of the water system and factory buildings (built of stone and wood). During that period, the plant was probably modernized. It changed hands again in 1888. It was purchased by the German entrepreneur Nauman who assigned it his son-in-law M. Schoenberg. Having access to his family capital, Schoenberg made considerable investment to given the complex its current shape. He upgraded (reconstructed and extended the existing infrastructure) the buildings and machinery and built a two-storey brick building (the so-called “Palace”) to accommodate his family. The complex embraced the water mill, foundry, mill machine factory and outbuildings; the area was closed by a fancy fence from the east side. Power was supplied from the hydro-technical system: first driven by water wheels and at the end of the 19th century by turbines. In 1924 Schoenberg leased the factory to the Lidowiecka Commerce and Industrial Company subject to the condition that the metal production would continue. Soon, however, the factory closed, only the water mill operated until the wartime (1938), powered by a water turbine and later by an electric motor. The water system stopped functioning after the flood of 1938 when the weir was heavily damaged. The Schoenebergs left Wąchock in 1944 and the estate became the property of the state. In the 1950s the factory buildings served as a precast concrete products factory and a workshop; they were also used by the Communal Cooperative for storage purposes. The Palace served as temporary lodging, a communal office and a health center; the mill kept operating until the 1970s. In the 1980s, the local authorities started the renovation of the Palace which soon stopped. In 1989 the buildings with the adjacent land were purchased in a tendering procedure by the Stempnowski brothers who intended to convert the complex into a hotel and leisure facility. Those plans never came to fruition and the property was purchased by another private entrepreneur in 2004. The area was fenced on all sides and partly cleaned up but no major investment ever started. Today, the area is overgrown and hardly accessible; the condition of the buildings is deteriorating and the remains of the former water system are almost gone. In the meantime (2008), the outer water reservoir was recreated along with the embankments. The weir on the river was rebuilt.

Description

The postindustrial complex is located in the north-west part of the village, between the Kamienna River and the railway line; from the west, it borders on the recently rebuilt water reservoir. The boundary of the property is the embankments separating the buildings from the water system, accessible by roads from the east. The area is fenced: from the south-west by the old stone and cast iron decorated fence, from the north-east by a stone wall, and from the other sides by contemporary fencing panels. Originally, the complex possessed its complete internal hydroelectric system: beginning with the pond - the upper canal with the culvert, turbine chambers (former water wheels) with the energy channel inlet and the lower input canal. Characteristic was the considerable length of the dam and the small distance between the inlet and relief culvert and the parallel arrangement of two separate water chambers in relation to the inlet canal. The whole complex represented an asymmetric industrial spatial system with the factory buildings clustered on one side. The buildings are arranged on both sides of the inlet canal, at the water cage, thus creating a symmetrical system (probably developed in the 2nd half of the 19th century based on some former buildings). On the north side, there are the remains of the foundry and workshop; the mill and production shop were situated on the south side. In addition, a residential building (Palace) was erected here. The complex also contained numerous auxiliary and storage buildings in the east and west part of the property - most of them have already disappeared. The central part of the plot was occupied by a garden: today, lush and disorderly high and low greenery. The buildings have a rectangular plan. For the most part, they were two-storey structures (the Palace with a basement), covered with gable roofs and half-hip roofs. The façades reveal some traces of decorative cornices and pilaster strips. The Palace has a richer ornamentation: its façades are in neo-Renaissance style, symmetric and multi-axial. Its corners are highlighted as well as the central avant-corps (including the east three-arcade entrance). The building also has a stone base course and three stone cornices; it the upper part, there are more stone decor elements (window sills, rosettes, acroterions). The interior of the building has been altered but the two-bay layout with the winder staircase with stone steps is still visible. The buildings were made of stone and sandstone (preserved to this day), including the base part made of dimension stone and the upper parts of quarry stone; the Palace has some spots of brick used to give the ultimate shape to holes or openings. The buildings were plastered, and the façades of the palace went very well with the embossed, stone (not plastered) architectural design. Today most building are ruins: no roofs, ceilings or plaster. Relatively well maintained is the Palace and the adjacent factory building; in the renovation in the 1990s, the roofing, roof truss and ceilings were replaced; also some architectural decor has survived on the façades.

The site is not accessible; private, fenced area; lack of owner’s contact details.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 28.11.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne: Założenie przemysłowe, System hydroenergetyczny, Pałac, Budynek gosp.-produkcyjny, Młyn, Odlewnia, Warsztaty, Budynek produkcyjny,  Ogrodzenie , oprac. G. Balińska i J.A. Baliński, Kielce 1994 oraz Jaz, oprac. L. Budych, Kielce 1994 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1961, t.2, z.3, powiat Iłża, miasto Skarżysko-Kamienna, miasto Starachowice.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1957, t.II. z.3-4.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Wąchock; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 6 (34) z 1996r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

11 min

Blast furnace plant complex
Starachowice

2 hours+

A fully preserved spatial system of the historical industrial complex with visible gradual stages of transformation resulting from the upgrade of technology; largely preserved blast furnace hardware along with auxiliary devices - an example of the traditions and industrial skills of the outgoing generations

History

A forging settlement existed in the area already in the mid-15th century when this land was owned by the Cistercians of Wąchock. A local hammery is mentioned in the 16th- and 17th-century sources as a supplier of armaments for King Stefan Batory. In the years 1778-1779, Abbot Aleksander Rudkiewicz launched a Poland-first modern blast furnace. At the turn of the 18th century, there were major ownership changes in the area: lease, followed by the government sequestration and the final seizure by the occupant during the Partitions. Any new investment in the facility began no earlier than in 1816 at the initiative of the Chief Mining Directorate of the Congress Kingdom of Poland. The investment was based mainly on Stanisław Staszic’s plan of the development of the mining and ore smelting industry in the area of ​​Kielce and the establishment of “a series of ironworks along the Kamienna River”. The plant in Starachowice was intended as the hub for the entire “industrial complex”. It was designed for the production of pig iron, castings and semi-finished forged goods. The plants situated higher above the river produced pig iron and the lower ones finished and semi-finished goods. Soon, Starachowice became the location of a modern rolling mill (1822) and metallurgical plants; the blast furnace was modernized (1823) and a sawmill and brickyard were built. The complex was a significant part of the industry sector in the Russia-occupied Poland managed by Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki after 1824 (after Staszic). But only in the 1836-1843, as a result of the investment by the Bank of Poland, the Starachowice plant developed to reach the current shape. A new blast furnace plant was erected (to the north-east of the former one); hydraulic works followed (increased damming capacity, new factory supply canals) and gradually new buildings were added - ore roasting ovens, water hoist tower, foundry, coal storage, auxiliary and administrative buildings, warehouses, worker lodgings; and equipment: bellows, heaters, blowers, hoists (made in Białogon). The designers were probably Fryderyk Lempe or Stanisław Wysocki, with the technological assistance of Philippe Girard and taking into account the latest know-how related to charcoal furnaces. In the 2nd half of the 18th century, the Starachowice plant was on the verge of bankruptcy. In 1870, after prior division of the property, it was sold to Baron Antoni Fraenkel who began the modernization of the plant after setting up a joint stock company named the Mining Society of the Starachowice Plant. By the end of the 19th century, the water wheels would have been replaced by turbines; besides, new heaters, blowers and steam engines were introduced; the blast furnace was upgraded. A major change occurred at the turn of the 19th century. In 1899 a new, modern, coke-powered blast furnace was built along with the rolling mill and steelworks. Despite such an advanced equipment, before WWI the plant struggled with a serious crisis. During the wartime, production was halted. But already in 1920, the plant resumed its operation to supply ammunition ordered by the Ministry of Military Affairs. At that time, the government took over a majority stake in the company. In the years 1926-1931, the blast furnace and heaters were thoroughly converted; an electric drive system was introduced for the auxiliary equipment and new dust collectors were purchased. In 1936 a new unloading conveyor system was installed. In 1952 the plant was incorporated into the Truck Factory (as the Metallurgy Department). In 1954 the blast furnace and boiler plant were upgraded. Production continued until 1968 when the metallurgical plant was closed and entered into the register of monuments. One of the auxiliary buildings housed a brickyard operating until 1973. In the 1970s and 1980s there were only minor renovation and protection works carried out. In the early 1990’s, a trilateral initiative emerged of establishing a museum. The property was transferred to the municipality; but only after the takeover by the Starachowice District authorities, the idea came to fruition. In 2001, pursuant to the decision of the Starachowice District authorities, a museum was established which - between 2008 and 2010 - carried out a thorough renovation of most of the buildings and the surrounding area (the Regio Ferrea project). Today, the complex is the Museum of Nature and Technology (also known as Ecomuseum) dedicated to Jan Pazdur.

Description

The blast furnace plant is located in the south part of the city, near the railway line and parallel to the Kamienna River. It is preceded by a water reservoir on the Kamienna with a contemporary road built on the former causeway. Further east, behind a loosely developed piece of land, the historical industrial complex begins. It encompasses an area of ​​rectangular shape of ​​nearly 8 hectares. It features buildings and structures erected in either of the two consecutive phases of operation of the blast furnace plant: the mid-19th century and from the turn of the 19th century. The complex was designed in the 1830s on the south slope of a former mine; three stone-reinforced terraces were built supported by retaining walls as the location for: ore storage, ore roasting ovens and the engine room; three blast furnaces, a cast hall and the factory square closing the entire area from the south. This terrace-like system has remained to this day, just as the inlet canal, engine building and the building of the former cast hall. At the end of the 19th century, the plant was thoroughly modernized and new production facilities were built in the south section of the complex. The production line was set up here: the turbo blower building, the blast furnace and its technological installations, the new cast hall, balances and warehouses; to the south, there was a line of auxiliary facilities: the boiler plant, steam blower, water tower; to the west and east, there were administrative buildings and other technical and auxiliary facilities. The development of the facility also covers paved routes and passages as well as yards, side tracks (including the overhead conveyor) and the remains of the water system (covered and open canal). The listed buildings have been preserved until today as they were originally with few or no traces of transformation required by technological progress. Most 19th-century buildings were built of stone with spots of ceramic brick; these buildings are usually on a rectangular plan with a gabled roof, with specially designed, partly plastered façades - a classicistic architecture, typical of the developments of the mid-19th century. The 20th century buildings are built as post-and-beam structures with the roof truss and metal frames filled with brick. Inside, there are old and newer machines and devices including, for example, a steam and piston blower with a flywheel, chamber boilers of the early 20th century, dust collectors, balances and an electric blower from the interwar period. Flooring elements and landscaping details are made of slag and cement bricks produced locally. The main structure - the blast furnace along with the hoist tower and auxiliary equipment and installations - dominates the whole complex flanked by brick chimneys of the secondary facilities.  It is a shaft furnace made up of two joined cones. It is made of fire brick and partly coal brick; it rests on the core laid on a reinforced concrete foundation and from the outside is lined by the metal operating and maintenance platforms. Today, the premises are tidied up and most of the buildings are used for the museum and exhibition purposes (nicely displayed); the tour of the area is well organized: it starts from the reception building by the new north entrance linked to the parking lot.

The complex is owned by the Museum of Nature and Technology; available during the museum working hours.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 16.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne: - Zespół wielkopiecowy, - Piec hutniczy, - Budynek maszyny wyciągowej, - Budynek dmuchawy elektrycznej, - Budynek dmuchawy parowej, - Dawna hala lejnicza, - Budynek hali lejniczej, - Budynek kotłowni, - Wieża ciśnień, - Dawna maszynownia, - Budynek oczyszczalni gazu wielkopiecowego, - Budynek zarządu huty, - Budynek administracyjny, - Zbiorniki do granulacji żużla, - Portiernia, oprac. J. Maraśkiewicz 1991;  [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Dumała K., Przemiany przestrzenne miast i rozwój osiedli przemysłowych w Królestwie Polskim w latach 1831-1869, Wrocław - Warszawa - Kraków - Gdańsk 1974.
  • Gąsiorowska-Grabowska N. Z dziejów przemysłu w Królestwie Polskim, Warszawa 1965.
  • Główka J., Hutnictwo i przemysł metalowy w Zagłębiu Staropolskim w okresie międzywojennym 1918-1939, Kielce 2012.
  • Kalinowski W., Budowa zakładów starachowickich w latach 1836-1841, w świetle materiałów kartograficznych, w KHKM Rok. XIX. 1971, nr 1.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1961, t.2, z.3, powiat Iłża, miasto Skarżysko-Kamienna, miasto Starachowice.
  • Pazdur J., Starachowice - osiedle i zakłady do 1939 r., Studium do dziejów górnictwa i hutnictwa, t.13, 1968.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja górnictwa i hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIX w. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Starachowice; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 5 (21) i 6 (22)  z 1995r.;
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

13 min

Water devices with a dam and culvert
Starachowice

30 minutes

An example of the new approach to industrial investment simultaneously covering the technological and architectural dimension enclosed in an urban complex

History

In accordance with Stanisław Staszic’s plan of 1818 of the development of the steel industry in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, projects were drawn up of the industrial development of the Kamienna River valley and the Kielce region. Earmarked for redevelopment, the facility in Michałów (earlier accommodating a hammery and a metallurgical plant which were taken over by the state from the Benedictines of Święty Krzyż in 1818) was intended as a component of “a series of ironworks along the Kamienna River", manufacturing forged and hot-rolled semi-finished products. The construction began in 1836; until 1841 a water system was finished consisting of an earth dam with a breakwater (damming up the water of the reservoir - the largest on the Kamienna River), the weir and an internal power generation system. In 1842 a puddling furnace was launched; also a housing estate for workers was built (22 houses). In 1843 the plant employed more than 60 people; the construction was supervised by Henryk Rose. The plant had a classic, or even model, layout: the axial layout of the factory complex integrated in the free, asymmetrical water intake system (differently shaped culvert and inlet on both sides of the causeway). The buildings were located on the axis determined by the intake and outlet canal, including the road system. In 1870, the facility was purchased, together with the Starachowice hub, by A. Fraenkel’s Banking House which set up a company to manage the plants. After ca. 1876, the facility was modernized by installing, among others, two steam engines and later a turbine in place of the water wheel. At the turn of the 19th century, in the time of economic crisis, the output was reduced in connection with the new development plans for the metallurgical industry. The great flood of 1903 pushed ahead the process of liquidation of the factory; the culvert and dam were seriously affected and part of the machinery was transferred to Nietulisko. The decommissioned plant and other buildings fell into disrepair and we gradually disintegrated. An archive photo of 1903 shows some visible remnants of the culvert (stilt-founded), as monumental as the one in nearby Brody; interesting was the use of a steel structure for the overflow section (still visible in the 1950s). In 1948 the complex was nationalized and ceased to be owned by the Society of Starachowice Mining Plants. In 1964, along with the construction of a new bridge over the culvert, the left abutment was removed and the left one severely damaged. The area of the former reservoir is now dry and overgrown. Also, the workers’ dwellings gradually disappear or are subject to conversion. The factory buildings are also largely gone, too, except for a south building altered for residential purposes. The post-industrial area is now owned by the municipality (since 1990), while the area of water installations (the river and the pond) are held by the state.

Description

The area of the former industrial zone is located in the district of Michałów, now in the south-east part of Starachowice, formerly a separate settlement.  From the north, the former factory area borders on the basin of the non-existent water reservoir, separated by a road on the causeway, reinforced from the pond side by a devastated breakwater wall.  Along the road, there are old trees forming an alley: chestnut trees, wattles and a magnificent oak - a natural monument. The Kamienna River flows through the former culvert, now framed in a new, concrete structure of the bridge; the remains of the factory and workers’ quarters are located in the south-east part of the complex, behind the causeway, and the residential houses behind the main road to Ostrowiec. Originally, this was the location of a complex, internal power system with a single-canal power plant - a single-span inlet, inlet canal (stone bed) guiding water into the water wheel (turbine), and an outlet canal, first running underground and then on the open surface. There were several factory buildings: the main power plant building sided with the water plant, and two production facilities enclosed the yard, standing parallel to the layout. At the close of the yard axis, there was the entrance gate flanked by the balance and the gatehouse. The entire structure was built of quarry stone, finished with sandstone panels and blocks. Today, these buildings do not exist: the only thing left is some remnants of the walls and foundations. Located further to the east, a storied function building is now a residential facility for five families. Generally speaking, the picturesque location reveals some, almost invisible, remains of the old industrial complex, typical of the period of industrialization in the Congress Kingdom of Poland.

The site is generally accessible. It is an occupied residential building.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 17.11.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne. Układ hydroenergetyczny i Zakład metalurgiczny - zespół, oprac. G. Balińska i J.A. Baliński, Kielce 1995 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Dumała K., Przemiany przestrzenne miast i rozwój osiedli przemysłowych w Królestwie Polskim w latach 1831-1869, Wrocław - Warszawa - Kraków - Gdańsk 1974.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1961, t.2, z.3, powiat Iłża, miasto Skarżysko-Kamienna, miasto Starachowice.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1957, t.II. z.3-4.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995.
  • Suliga. I., Rozwój technologii hutniczych na przestrzeni wieków w Staropolskim Zagłębiu Przemysłowym - referat na Sesji Naukowej - 200 lat Huty w Ostrowcu Świętokrzyskim - 17.05.2013 [www.200lathutywostrowcu.pl].
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja Górnictwa i Hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIXw. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Michałów; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 11 (27) z 1995r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

10 min

Remains of the water system
Brody

30 minutes

An interesting example of classicist interpretation in industrial construction in the 1st half of the 19th century, featuring an organic amalgamate of architectural forms with characteristic features of water construction

History

In accordance with Stanisław Staszic's plans for development of metallurgical industry in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, the plant to be constructed in Brody was to constitute an indirect component of "permanent iron works on the river Kamienna", manufacturing forged and hot-rolled semi-finished products. Construction was started in the next years, probably in the times of Ksawery Durcki-Lubecki, the minister of income and treasury. The system is equipped with a classic system of weirs — relief and working weirs on opposite ends of the dam. The driving force of the system was water — a complete water system was created, comprised of: water reservoir with earth dam, relief weir, working weir and channel, water distributor shaft next to the complex of plant buildings, and water discharge with a lower working channel and a relief channel. The reservoir water system was created in years 1836-1841, and the whole plant was completed in ca. 1845, already under the supervision of the Bank of Poland. Apart from the water system, the following structures were created on the site: buildings of the puddling and rolling sections of the plant, administration building and workers' lodges; the construction was probably supervised by the industrial constructor Henryk Rose. In the second half of the 19th century, the iron works in the Old-Polish Industrial Area became less profitable, and the plant in Brody, although modernised and subjected to organisational and ownership changes, strived for survival. The disaster came in 1903 — great flood destroyed the dam and weirs, and buildings of the plant and the internal power system were seriously damaged. Deprived of its main driving force, the plant was stopped; culverts were ruined, machines and appliances gradually removed, and destroyed plant buildings and abandoned residential lodges were demolished after the war. The site of the complex was supervised in that times by Mining and Metal Works in Zębiec. In the 1960s., the project involving a dam on the river Kamienna was resumed, the reservoir was created anew (an earth barrier was constructed/reconstructed then with new concrete dams, and the flow was directed through a new culvert located in the centre of the dam, and then through a regulated channel to the old river trough). The original working weir and channel are indiscernible today, but the former relief weir was partially reconstructed in years 1972-1976 (on the basis of the preserved remains) in the form of a "dry" exhibit with new (side, north) concrete retaining wall and stairs — original elements had been numbered, partially dismantled and recreated with tie-rod reinforcements. In 1971, the site of the reservoir went under the supervision of the Central Office of Water Management in Warsaw. Currently, it is owned by the State Treasury, controlled by the Regional Board of Water Management in Warsaw, and the whole water system is administered by the Management Board of Catchment Area in Ostrowiec Świętokrzyski.

Description

The site of the former plant is located in the south-western part of Brody, in the valley of the river Kamienna. In the early 1960s, a breached dam with the river free-flowing through it, and a ruined weir were still here, but remains of plant buildings were virtually invisible. At present, there is a water reservoir here (used as a retention tank and formed in the place of the original one), with a new weir, and the original permanent culvert weir is currently excluded from the water system (in was partially reconstructed with the use of existing elements and fabric). A little further on, off the road, there is the building of the former management of the plant (currently a communal service building). Buildings of the rolling mill and puddling section as well as the workers' estate next to them did not survive, and the lower terrace of the former plant features currently pitches and meadows, transected by a regulated section of the river. The most visible element of the old system is the former relief weir, once regulating the level of water piled-up by the dam. It was designed as a seven-bay, symmetrical structure whose heads and pillars were used as supports for a road bridge. Reconstructed, it features four bays based on original fragments: the right head, four pillars and overflow thresholds; the narrows from the north was made in a new concrete retaining wall along with a stairway leading down the slope.  Also now, view to the weir from the water side is impressive — monumental, massive pillars (with elements of simplified classicist detail), covered with basket-handle arches and connected in the lower part by intra-bay walls; the southern retaining wall descending down the slope has an arched end section. The entire structure is made of grey sandstone blocks (currently on cement mortar, originally on limestone mortar), and the pillars from the side of the water up the dam feature profiled slider guides. While technical condition of the structure is still quite good, there are already signs of mechanical and material wear and tear. According to the announcement of the current administrator, the weir will soon undergo general renovation.

Site is generally accessible.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 14.11.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna. Zespół dawn. walcowni i pudlingarni w Brodach, Jaz przepustowy stały na rzece Kamiennej, oprac. Z.M. Łabęcki, Kielce 1994 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1961, vol.2, fasc.3, powiat Iłża, miasto Skarżysko-Kamienna, miasto Starachowice.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1957, vol.II. fasc.3-4.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, vol.XI. fasc.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995.
  • Suliga. I., Rozwój technologii hutniczych na przestrzeni wieków w Staropolskim Zagłębiu Przemysłowym - referat na Sesji Naukowej - 200 lat Huty w Ostrowcu Świętokrzyskim - 17.05.2013 [www.200lathutywostrowcu.pl].
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja Górnictwa i Hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIXw. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Brody Iłżeckie; w miesięczniku IKAR, no 2 (30), 1996.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

transport time to the next site

8 min

Urban and industrial complex
Nietulisko Duże

two hours

A preserved, original and Europe-unique urban layout of the industrial complex the 1st half of the 19th century with visible structures and remnants of the original water system of high spatial and architectural value.

History

In accordance with Stanisław Staszic’s plan of 1818 of the development of the steel industry in the Old-Polish Industrial Area, projects were drawn up - also with the assistance of Fryderyk Lampe - of the industrial development of the Kamienna River valley and the Kielce region. The designed Nietulisko factory was intended as the final element of “a series of ironworks along the Kamienna River” manufacturing finished products and semi-finished forged and rolled metals - relying entirely on hydropower. The construction of the water facilities for the Nietulisko plant began in 1824. For this purpose, a canal was built from the reservoir in Brody about 7km away (damming the waters of the Kamienna River). In the following years, during the terms of office of Ksawery Drucki-Lubecki, the then Minister of Revenues and Treasury, the work continued but the construction was finished only after the November Uprising, already under the management of the Bank of Poland. Before 1846, the complete hydro-technical system was ready (also providing additional water supply from the Świślina River, a tributary of the Kamienna) and the factory buildings were erected together with a housing estate. The author of the design and the site manager for the project was Karol Knake. The main facility - the rolling mill - was commissioned in 1841. The factory machinery was driven by one of the first water turbines installed in the Congress Kingdom of Poland and a huge breastshot wheel. In the 2nd half of the 19th century, the profitability of the company fell dramatically and in 1880 it was taken over - along with the entire Starachowice hub - by the Fraenkel Banking House. At the end of the century, the plant was modernized: in the 1880s two water wheels were in place, and in the 1890s a traction engine was installed; in 1895 there facility had three turbines. The great flood of 1903 destroyed the damming system in Brody and cut off the plant from the Kamienna River. Also, the Świślina River broke through the causeway and formed a new bed. Having no access to energy supply, the plant closed in 1905. The factory equipment was dismantled, taken to Russia, or sold; the factory buildings fell into disrepair, and only the administrative building and part of the workers’ dwellings were maintained in a satisfactory condition. In the 1st half of the 20th century, the property was owned by the Mining Society of the Starachowice Plant founded by Baron A. Fraenkel. In the interwar period, the majority stock in the society was held by the state. In 1943 the complex was purchased by the Radom Linen Mill. In 1961, as Nietulisko Duże A, it was claimed by the state along with all the buildings pursuant to a government’s decree on land reform. In 1948 the administrative buildings were adapted for educational purposes (kindergarten and school) and the residential houses were still occupied (though partly rebuilt). In 2001 the school plot was taken over by the municipality, and the area of the former plant is held by the state and by the Kunów municipality; in the local zoning plan, the area is earmarked to serve as a park and location for public services.

Description

The industrial complex is located along the Starachowice-Ostrowiec road, in Nietulisko Duże (previously Nietulisko Fabryczne). The road divides the area of the former plant into two parts: the north-east side with the entire water system and factory buildings and the south-west side intended for residential functions. This urban layout represents outstanding spatial values: it is a rarity in the Old-Polish Industrial Area; they are manifested in the beauty of the urban system (a palace-garden type), precise architectural solutions and innovations in the water system design. The complex consists of a water power, factory buildings and a residential estate. It is designed on two main composition axes: the main axis is aligned with the route of the inlet canal (flowing from the symmetrically formed hexagonal retention reservoir built at the meeting point of the Świślina and Kamienna rivers) and the main factory building - the rolling mill; the other axis runs perpendicularly along the longer side of the rolling mill. Along the other axis, the auxiliary industrial and administrative buildings were raised; further, there is a symmetrical and semicircular square of the residential estate, with a radial-ring system of roads lined with the residential bungalows. The water system relied on two intakes: from the canal to the Kamienna River and from the Świślina River, collecting water in the artificial reservoir. In its lower side, there was a lock allowing water into the open, upper inlet canal. The power generation system was equipped with two water wheel cages, later replaced with turbines.  The water discharged from the plant flowed in the underground outlet canal, and the excess water from the Świślina River was dumped via the weir into the side relief canal. Currently, the water system is still visible but without water; the remains of the monumental culverts and bridges are still discernible. The factory buildings include the rolling mill, dryer facility, control buildings (today a kindergarten), stables and warehouses and the former administration building (today an elementary school). Only the former administrative building and guardhouse are in a decent condition (still used). Auxiliary factory buildings are in ruins; similarly, the rolling mill. But still its spatial and architectural solutions are visible: the symmetric plan, fragmented, with a two-storey central part and a two-lane canal along the axis and two side wings of the production shops. The walls and casing of the canals are made of quarry and dimension stone, and the arcades, frames and machine foundations are made of brick; the roof truss was probably wooden with gable roofs. The carefully designed and constructed façades of the buildings and the water lock are still impressive in terms of the scale, precision of design and architectural detail.

The area is only partially fenced; the essential elements of the complex are freely accessible

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 13.10.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna. Zespół zakładu przemysłowego i osiedla mieszkalnego przyfabrycznego, oprac. W. Sławiński, Kielce 1992 [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Dumała K., Przemiany przestrzenne miast i rozwój osiedli przemysłowych w Królestwie Polskim w latach 1831-1869, Wrocław - Warszawa - Kraków - Gdańsk 1974.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1957, t.II. z.3-4.
  • Rey A., Geneza i rozwój układów przestrzennych zakładów hutniczych w Zagłębiu Staropolskim., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury 1966, t.XI. z.2.
  • Suliga J., Studium historyczne przyrodniczo-kulturowe doliny rzeki Kamiennej, KRAJOBRAZY 8 (20), Warszawa 1995.
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja Górnictwa i Hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIXw. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Nietulisko Fabryczne; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 3 (31) z 1996r.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.

 

transport time to the next site

4 min

założenie przestrzenno-poprzemysłowe fabryki tektury
Doły Biskupie

one hour

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