Śladami SOP - ETAP 2 - w ciągu rzeki Czarnej i Drzewiczki
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Joanna Rek

Śladami SOP - ETAP 2 - w ciągu rzeki Czarnej i Drzewiczki

3

several hours

świętokrzyskie

Industrial plant complex
Maleniec

one hour

Preserved equipment and job stations in a condition largely unchanged since the heyday of the plant in the 19th century; carefully introduced upgrades testifying to the innovation and ingenuity of the previous generations of the early era of industrial revolution in Poland

History

The former ironworks is one of the technical monuments of the industry that developed in the Świętokrzyskie region over centuries. The 2nd half of the 18th century saw a rapid development of metallurgy, thanks to the support and activity of the royally, nobility and bishops. The north part of the region, which is now referred to as Old-Polish Industrial Region or Old-Polish Industrial Area, was a site for ore mines, blast furnaces, iron works and manufactures of tools and armaments. The plant in Maleniec was built in that period (1784) by the owner of the estate, Jacek Jezierski, castellan of Łuków. He built a pond on the Czarna River, mill, sawmill, rod shop and a pig-iron processing shop. The production covered various iron tableware and farm tools, using the pig-iron smelted in the nearby blast furnaces. In 1787 the plant was visited by the last Polish king, Stanisław August Poniatowski. At the end of the 18th century, the complex was purchased by Duke Hessen-Darmstadt; he operated the plant for almost 25 years without upgrading it. The next owner, Tadeusz Bocheński, landowner and economic activist, purchased the plant in 1824. Thanks to loans from the Bank of Poland, he introduced a number of innovations and significantly raised the production capacity of Maleniec and other neighbouring plants. In 1837, in addition to the upgrading of the furnaces, he built a rolling mill, axe shop and  pig-iron processing shop using the hydropower of the existing water system. He created the most modern mining and metallurgical plant in the Congress Kingdom of Poland. In the 19th century, the complex was modernized twice; in the 1850s, Tadeusz’s brother, Józef Bocheński, removed the pig-iron furnaces and introduced nail-making machinery; in the 1870s, the new owner Feliks Wielogłowski, replaced the nail-making devices with machines manufacturing various kinds of shovels, spades and farm tools. In the early 20th century, the property was purchased by Felicjan Jankowski. The last owner, from 1913, was his daughter Helena Frolich who leased the plant to the Jewish entrepreneur Binem Kozłowski. Until 1967, i.e. for most of the 20th century, the character and organization of manufacturing remained unchanged, the only difference was the use of scrap metal to lower the production costs (e.g. rims of train carriage wheels). During the Nazi occupation, the factory operated under German supervision (a combustion engine was introduced as an auxiliary drive); in 1945 the water supply system was destroyed. After WW2, after the repair of the complex and resuming production by the local population and local entrepreneurs, the plant was nationalized. Later, it was occasionally modernized, e.g. introduction of a supplementary electric drive, but until the decommissioning in 1967, it used the hydropower and old machinery. Over that time, it was part of the Opoczno Regional Industry Plant and later of the Końskie Farm Tool Factory, which transferred the Maleniec facility to the students and staff of the Silesian University of Technology in 1970 for didactic purposes. In the coming years, Maleniec was a popular destination for students and teachers who, in agreement with the monument conservation authority, performed their student practice while maintaining the facility. They carried out various tasks, such as inventorying, preservation, repairs and even partial reconstruction. In 2004 the plant was taken over by the receiver and sold it in a tender procedure to the Management Board of Końskie County which transferred it into a municipal cultural institution, the Old Metallurgical Plant in Maleniec. Today, the Maleniec museum exhibits historical and original items as well as presenting old manufacturing techniques and technologies.

Description

The spatial complex of the Old Metallurgical Plant in Maleniec consists of: the former hydropower system, production buildings, remains of the factory housing estate, Kasztelańska Road and the former storage. Currently, the complex of the industrial plant in Maleniec, consisting of the former industrial plant and the water system, is officially registered as a historical monument. It is currently located in Końskie County, not far from the Kielce-Piotrków Trybunalski road. The location on the bend of the Czarna River permitted a convenient and safe layout of the water system. The system is made up of: the former pond (now a water reservoir), side causeway and front dam, outlet weirs and a natural overflow. Separate inlet canals fed water to different wheel drives (wooden undershoot wheels) providing power to the rolling mill and spade shop; also internal channels are present and lower inlet canals. The south canal wheel is installed in a cage and coupled by a shaft with the drive of the rolling mill machinery. The following have been preserved from the former industrial plant: the wooden rolling mill shop, stone spade shop (nail-making shop), drop hammer, a system of rails and switches, former paint shop and storage. The rolling mill rebuilt after the war (a wooden building on a stone foundation) has an asymmetrical roof, three-nave, five-span plan, with a large drive wheel cage to the south. The rolling mill equipment is a set of cogged gears, an impressive flywheel (the so-called "Madman of Maleniec"), roller, two-chamber furnace, lathe, scissors, balance, blower and other small tools. The spade shop (previously also nail shop) is a building on a rectangular plan a symmetrical gable roof, with a later annex for an auxiliary combustion or electric engine; inside, a three-nave, eight-span plan. Inside the shop, there was a set of presses and grinders performing consecutive technological operations involving the production of spades and shovels and driven by so-called small water wheel. Besides, the shop has: a lifting nailer, riveter, three-chamber furnace with a blower and the equipment of the mechanical workshop. Most of the described machinery and equipment is original and dates back to the 19th century.

Municipal area; used by the local Museum of Technology in Maleniec, available in the museum opening hours

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 02.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Herbst. S, Ochrona Zabytków, R. IV. 1951.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.
  • Baranowski B., Baranowski W., Koliński J., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1970, t.II, z.4, powiat Opoczno, s. 17-18.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najważniejsze zabytki techniki powiatu koneckiego, Tradycje przemysłowe ziemi koneckiej, Kielce 1991, s. 51-61.
  • Guldon Z., Kaczor J., Górnictwo i hutnictwo w Staropolskim Okręgu Przemysłowym w drugiej połowie XVIII wieku, Kielce 1994.
  • Szczepański J., Modernizacja górnictwa i hutnictwa w Królestwie Polskim w I połowie XIX w. Rola specjalistów niemieckich i brytyjskich, Kielce 1997.
  • Główka J., Hutnictwo i przemysł metalowy w Zagłębiu Staropolskim w okresie międzywojennym 1918-1939, Kielce 2012.

transport time to the next site

17 min

Industrial plant and housing complex
Sielpia Wielka

one hour

An example of a carefully designed and laid out - in terms of function, space and technology - industrial complex of the 1st half of the 19th century, featuring late classicistic architecture with the original exposure of the interior and machinery of the old plant.

History

The former rolling mill and puddling furnace plant is one of the technical monuments of the industry that developed in the Świętokrzyskie region over centuries. The north part of the region which is now referred to as Old-Polish Industrial Region or Old-Polish Industrial Area, was a site for ore mines, blast furnaces, iron works and manufactures of tools and armaments. The regular industrialisation started after 1815, under the Russian occupation, mainly due to the activity of Stanisław Staszic, the Rev. Drucki-Lubecki and the Bank of Poland.  The facility in Sielpia was built in that period. It was designed in 1818 by Stanisław Staszic. The construction started in 1821 and finished by 1841. The complex encompassed: power reservoir (on the Czarna River), inlet canal, production shops, administrative building, auxiliary buildings, factory hospital, residential facility for the administration and a housing estate - probably designed by Karol Knake - and the technological devices designed by foreign specialists (e.g. Philippe de Girard who built the turbine). The mechanical equipment was probably built in Rejów, Starachowice and Bialogon. In 1904 the plant became a private property and was decommissioned in 1921. It was registered as an engineering monument of historic interest in 1934, which was the first such decision in the country pertaining to an industrial area. The site became the local Museum of Technology and Steel Industry. During World War II, the plant was devastated and stripped of its equipment by the Germans. After the war, when the former Museum of Industry resumed its operation as the Museum of Industry and Technology of the the Polish Federation of Engineering Associations, the Sieplia plant, gradually renovated and maintained, was made its local branch. In 1962 the Museum of the Old-Polish Industrial Area was opened. In the old rolling mill and puddling furnace shops filled with attractive machinery and equipment from the surrounding metallurgical plants (mostly of the 19th and early 20th century but also from the 18th century). The old water power system was destroyed during the flood in 1937; in the 1960s, the reservoir was rebuilt (for retention and leisure purposes) together with the causeway, new weir and culvert (for the internal power-generation system).

Description

The complex sits on the west side of the Kielce-Końskie road running on top of the causeway. On the east side, there is a water reservoir (originally divided) damming the water in the Czarna River. The complex consists of factory buildings (including the internal power-generation system) and an industrial housing estate. The factory and residential buildings were laid out in a regular, classicistic form on two adjacent rectangular plots. The north plot (factory) is separated from the south plot (of residential nature and containing the so-called market) through the utility buildings (administration, school, residential house for the administration personnel). An additional value of this spatial arrangement is an estate road running from the “market” towards the west and a symmetrically located, lower section of the inlet canal, opening up outside the plant premises. The main production building is located on the axis of the factory square determined by the route of the partially covered inlet canal. The architecture od the rolling mill has five gables on the front façade but is almost open-space inside, with a multi-nave division by brick arcades on pillars and cast iron columns. Behind this building, there are two perpendicularly set drying plants and a gate with two gatehouses to the south. Located in the central part of the complex, the school, residential and administration building are abandoned and are gradually deteriorating; only overgrown pieces of the wall have remained after the factory hospital (in the north part of the complex). The housing estate consisted of 29 houses of two kinds: smaller ones (single-family) were located along the estate square and larger ones (two-family) were located in the south terrace and along the west street. Although the buildings have undergone upgrades and reconstructions, their original dimensions have been been, to a large extent, preserved. All the buildings are built of quarry stone, with brick inserts and plaster. Mainly wooden gable roofs (partly with pediments), once covered with shingles, now sheet metal, tar paper or cement tiles. The interior of the main production shops has been largely reconstructed using the original and secondary (but equivalent or similar) materials and pieces of equipment.

The area of the plant is owned by the state; managed by the museum, available during the museum opening hours; the area of the housing estate belongs is privately owned.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 05.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Rey A., Zagadnienia energetyki wodnej w budownictwie przemysłowym Zagłębia Staropolskiego w I połowie XIX w., Kwartalnik Urbanistyki i Architektury, 1957, t.II. z.3-4.
  • Krygier E., Ruszczyńska T., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, Wrocław - Warszawa 1958, t.II, z.1, powiat Końskie, s. 59-60.
  • Radwan M., Rudy, kuźnice i huty żelaza w Polsce, Warszawa 1963.
  • Zieliński J., Staropolskie Zagłębie Przemysłowe, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1965.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najważniejsze zabytki techniki powiatu koneckiego, Tradycje przemysłowe ziemi koneckiej, Kielce 1991, s. 51-61.
  • Główka J., Hutnictwo i przemysł metalowy w Zagłębiu Staropolskim w okresie międzywojennym 1918-1939, Kielce 2012.

transport time to the next site

25 min

Forge
Stara Kuźnica

one hour

Unique technological equipment as well as landscape and historical values of the industrial layout and systems of former ironworks.

History

The local water-driven hammery is mentioned in the written records already in 1662. The list of ironworks operating in the Congress Kingdom of Poland of 1823, it is included in Nieświńskis’ estate as a private property of Wielhorskis. In the late 1930s, it was upgraded thanks to loans taken from the Polish Bank supporting the expansion of private industrial investment. After 1860, the facility cooperated with the nearby blast furnace operating until 1893. Since the beginning of the 20th century, its function was limited to the forging of iron scrap into small agricultural tools and household items. In 1957, the hammery ceased to operate and was taken over by the Museum of Technology and Industry in Warsaw. Since the renovation in the early 1960s, it has been opened to visitors as a local museum. In the 1970s, the water reservoir was reconstructed while reinforcing the causeway and making a new culvert; the undertaking led to the destruction of the former culvert with a wooden gate and a footbridge. The hammery building underwent a thorough renovation: the old wooden structure of the shed, roof truss, roofing and weatherboards were replaced. The area is owned by the State Treasury and managed by the Museum of Technology and Industry in Warsaw.

Description

The hammery complex is situated on the Młynkówka River, by the local road, approx. 12 km from Końskie. The complex consists of a water system, the hammery building with equipment and the remains of auxiliary buildings (shed, residential building, traces of the blast furnace and slag dumps). Of the old water system, only the causeway has remained: the front dam (causing backwater), culvert and outlet (rebuilt) and channel (entering the building in its further stretch). The hammery building is in fact a rectangular wooden shed of frame structure with single external weatherboard, set on a stone foundation. It has a gable roof with timber rafter and purlin roof truss covered with shingle; the façades are simple and windowless; barn floor inside. The entrance door (plank) in the south-west wall lead to an open-space production interior; today, featuring exhibits. Exhibited is the unique, old equipment: pressure water hammer and anvil, water-driven undershot wheel driving the hammer and box bellows driven by a separate (internal) undershot wheel; and auxiliary equipment: heating stove, manual shears for cutting sheet metal, sharpening tool, pincers, pliers and other small blacksmith tools. The hammery complex has retained its historic spatial plan, and the devices can be occasionally run for showcase purposes.

The property is owned by the State Treasury and managed by the museum; the area is publicly accessible; the building can be visited upon arrangement with the live-in supervisor.

Compiled by Włodzimierz Pedrycz, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 09.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karty ewidencyjne: - Kuźnica wodna - zespół, - Budynek kuźnicy (kuźni), oprac. J. A. Baliński 1996, [Archiwum Świętokrzyskiego Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie].
  • Guldon Z., Kaczor J., Górnictwo i hutnictwo w Staropolskim Okręgu Przemysłowym w drugiej połowie XVIII wieku, Kielce 1994.
  • Koźminski K., Zagłębie Staropolskie w Kieleckiem, Warszawa 1955.
  • Krygier E., Ruszczyńska T., Katalog Zabytków Budownictwa Przemysłowego w Polsce, , Wrocław - Warszawa 1958, t.II, z.1, powiat Końskie, s. 61-62.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najważniejsze zabytki techniki powiatu koneckiego, Tradycje przemysłowe ziemi koneckiej, Kielce 1991, s. 51-61.
  • Wojewódzki R., Najcenniejsze zabytki techniki - Stara Kuźnica; w miesięczniku IKAR, nr 11 (15) z 1994r.

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