Północna rokada Twierdzy Przemyśl
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Północna rokada Twierdzy Przemyśl

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GHW VII½ Tarnawce inter-field artillery fort
Ostrów

one hour

Partially preserved and well-cared-for fort presents high research values as an untypical example of a fort with main positions serving the purpose of flanking defence of inter-fields. The fort presents high landscape values as well. As a crucial part of the system of fortifications which formed the Fortress of Przemyśl, it remains a valuable historical monument of European importance.

History

In the years 1854-1855, as part of construction of the first stronghold around Przemyśl, an artillery sconce no. 2 of the FS type (Feuer-Schanze) was built between Kuńkowce and Ostrów. As part of reinforcing the Fortress of Przemyśl in 1887, the old FS sconce was transformed into a semi-permanent artillery battery no. 4. In 1890 the General Engineering Inspector, General Daniel Salis Soglio, presented a fortress expansion design, which provided for construction of a new fort with four armoured towers for cannons and mortar in place of the battery. Due to the need to reduce costs, the decision-makers ultimately gave up the construction of the armoured fort and in the years 1900-1902 the battery was transformed into an inter-field artillery fort VII½ “Tarnawce”. It is marked as Gürtel-Hauptwerk VII½ Tarnawce on the Festung-Umgebungs-Plan von Przemyśl (fortress map). Despite being labelled as the “main ring fort”, the new fort was dedicated to close defence. It was armed with four casemate cannons Minimalschartenlafette M.94 on trailers, for small embrasures in left-flank and right-flank casemates, as well as six 8 mm machine guns of the M.7 type (four in the moat’s caponier and two on the infantry rampart). The aim of the fort, together with fort VIII “Łętownia”, was to control the Tarnawce hills on the right bank of the San river and the river valley as well as to flank inter-fields and the area in front of forts VII and VIII with cannon fire. The fort was manned by 1/2 of the infantry company and 32 gunners. During both sieges of the fort (18 September - 9 October 1914 and 9 November 1914 - 22 March 1915) the fort did not participate directly in the hostilities. Before the surrendering of the fortress on 22 March 1914 caponiers and casemates had been blown up. During the third siege (30 May - 4 June 1915), the fort was overrun by German and Austro-Hungarian forces. Gorge barracks were demolished in the inter-war period to gain building materials. The round bastion and gorge rampart were levelled out as well. In 1992 the fort was adapted to serve as back facilities of the hotel built on the eastern side of the fort. Today, the fort remains in private hands. The owner, Ryszard Hanus, ordered the fort’s area and makes it available to visitors. He arranged a sports embrasure in the moat.

Description

GHW VII½ “Tarnawce” fort is an inter-field artillery field for close defence, erected as part of the centred fortifications system. It is located in the northern part of Ostrów, west of Przemyśl and south of Kuńkowce. Erected on top of the 252.20 hill, on the right bank of the San river, between VIII “Łętownia” and VII “Prałkowce” artillery forts.

The area of the fort measured within the boundaries of its allocated plot of land is approximately 3.6 hectares.

The fort was erected on a bastion plan, surrounded by a dry moat; a deep moat extends visibly ahead of the fort’s flanks before the fort heads, was initially shot through from the axial caponier and also functioned as a fire plain facing the forefields of neighbouring forts and the inter-field. In front of the right head, the moat was adapted to serve as a sports embrasure in our times. Shallower flank moats were defended from ramparts of flanks. The gorge moat is the shallowest. The fort features earthen ramparts. The head rampart features an uplift along the axis over the main bunker and two traverses without emergency bunkers. The fort’s gorge features remnants of an earthen roundel on a flattened semi-circular plan, flanking the gate and the gorge moat. The centre of the fort includes ruins of gorge barracks with a masonry exposed wall. The southern wing of the barracks features ruins of a masonry casemate for two cannons. Remnants of a base and a trailer revolving rail of one of the cannons have survived, same as a fragment of embrasure surrounds. A contemporary building that houses a toilet abuts on the left wall of the barracks. A preserved main bunker has survived along the fort’s axis; it includes an entrance from the gorge barracks’s side and two side flanks terminating in sally ports to battle stations of infantry. The shelter has brick walls and concrete vaults. The shelter is protected by an earthen rampart. The best-preserved, axial part of the shelter houses a café - a small lecture room. There is an entrance leading from the shelter along the fort’s axis to the preserved narrow postern, linking the shelter with the axial caponier. Ruins of the caponier with two-sided counterscarp flanks have survived. The fort is surrounded by tree planting, mainly of robinia pseudoacacia - remainder of the front, lateral and rear mask.

The fort is available for visitors between 1 May and 30 October, during hours specified in visiting regulations available on the fort’s website.

compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 02-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bobusia B., Gosztyła M., Zub M. Plany Twierdzy Przemyśl, Przemyśl 2004
  • Bogdanowski J. Sztuka obronna, Kraków 1993.
  • Bogdanowski J. Twierdza Przemyśl, w: Teka konserwatorska Polska południowo-wschodnia, t. 4, Rzeszów 1991.
  • Bogdanowski J. Architektura obronna w krajobrazie Polski od Biskupina do Westerplatte, Warszawa - Kraków 1996.
  • Brzoskwinia W., Idzikowski T., Środulska-Wielgus J., Wielgus K. Wartości zabytkowej Twierdzy Przemyśl, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Idzikowski T., Architectura et Ars Militaris 5. Twierdza Przemyśl. Fort XV „Borek”, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Powstanie. Rozwój. Technologie, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Sapeta A. Dzisiejsze zagrożenia Twierdzy Przemyśl - raport, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Sapeta A. Zestawienie obiektów Twierdzy Przemyśl, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Strona internetowa: Fort VII½ Ostrów http://www.fortostrow.cba.pl dostęp 2.10.2014 r.

transport time to the next site

15 min

7 min

Main artillery fort GHW VIII (Gürtelhauptwerk) VIII Łętownia
Łętownia

one hour

A well-preserved main artillery fort GHW VIII (Gürtelhauptwerk - main ring fort) has substantial research values as the first centred, permanent defensive fort built during the third stage of the construction of the fortress. Additionally, the fort also has decorative architectural details. As a crucial part of the system of fortifications which formed the Fortress of Przemyśl, it remains a valuable historical monument of European importance.

History

In the years 1854-1855, as part of the construction of fortifications of the first stronghold around Przemyśl, an artillery sconce no. 4 of the FS type (Feuer-Schanze) was built in Kuńkowce village, in the western part of the ring. In the years 1881-1882, during the construction of permanent fortifications forming part of the Fortress of Przemyśl, the sconce was transformed into a permanent artillery fort GHW VIII “Łętownia” - the first one to be built in the fortress. It is marked as Lagerfort VIII Łętownia on the Festung-Umgebungs-Plan (fortress map). The design of the fort was prepared by Anton Werner. In 1903 the gorge section was modernised. In place of a demolished wall with a gate, a steel sponson with stations for two machine guns flanking the fort’s gorge was added to the barracks’ wall on the northern side of the gate. An opening of the entrance gate leading to the fort’s vestibule was lowered as well. The task of the fort was to defend the San river valley and the surrounding hills, defend Przemyśl-Dynów and Przemyśl-Sanok roads and to defend interfields stretching towards VII½ and VIIIa forts and their forefields. The fort was armed with four 12 cm cannons of the M.75/96 type standing on wooden trailers, two 9 cm cannons of the M.75/96 type on tall fortress trailers and two 15 cm cannons of the Granatkanone type on casemate trailers. The fort was manned by 1 infantry company (approx. 250 soldiers), 86 gunners and 8 pioneers (sappers). During the first and the second siege of the fortress (18 September - 9 October 1914 and 9 November 1914 - 22 March 1915) the fort did not experience a direct attack. Before the surrendering of the fortress on 22 March 1914 caponiers in the moat and intermediate ammunition warehouses in parts of emergency bunkers had been blown up. During the third siege (30 May - 4 June 1915), the fort was overrun by German and Austro-Hungarian forces. Until World War II, the fort was used by the Polish Armed Forces as an artillery munitions storage facility. Partial demolitions, among others, of the Carnot walls, were conducted at that time. In the years 1940-1941 Wehrmacht stationed in the fort. Executions of Jews and Poles were carried out there. After World War II the fort was used as a wine storage facility “Pomona”. From 2002 onwards, a museum run by private persons, lately - by Wiesław Sokolik, functioned there. In that period ordering works in the fort area were conducted. In 2010 the fort was taken over by the Society of Fortress Communes of the Fortress of Przemyśl. Currently, the Society is carrying out comprehensive renovation works.

Description

The GHW VIII fort (Gürtelhauptwerk VIII Łętownia) is a single-rampart artillery fort erected as part of the centred fort system. The fort is located on top of a hill (310.0 metres above sea level), north of Kuńkowiec.

The area of the fort is approximately 4.0 hectares.

The fort was designed as a pentagon. The feature is surrounded by a deep, dry moat, shallower in the gorge part. An irregular earthen roundel with an entrance in the middle has been preserved in the gorge section. The fort’s gorge terminates in barracks with an entrance vestibule located along the central axis. Entrances in the vestibule lead to the guardhouse with a prison and to an officer’s room. The central part of the vestibule includes entrances to corridors running along the exposed wall, leading to all casemates that initially housed: a fort commander’s room, soldiers’ dwelling rooms, a kitchen, a food warehouse, a room for the sick, two bathrooms and two toilets. In the end section of the vestibule there are two niches: one with a well and the other that probably functioned as a firewood storage facility. The barracks are sheltered by means of an earth rampart. The vestibule leads to a narrow, enclosed courtyard terminating in a bunker, initially housing a delivery warehouse of cannon munitions, two emergency bunkers and two toilets. Exits to battle posts are found on both sides of the courtyard. The main rampart that includes foreheads and flanks features transverses housing emergency bunkers. Posterns lead from three bunkers to currently non-existent caponiers in the moat. Fire posts of cannons and infantry were positioned between the transverses. All casemates, vestibule and posterns have concrete vaults. The façade of the barracks features semi-circular casemate bays, originally terminating in brick walls with windows terminating in arches. An entrance gate is located along the axis; windows and door openings of the munitions warehouse in the main bunker’s façade are decorated with surrounds that imitate rustication.

The fort is accessible throughout the year. Visiting the interior of the barracks and the main shelter will be possible after the completion of renovation works. The fort is located on the “left-bank fortress route of the Fortress of Przemyśl” (marked in black) and along the green tourist route from Przemyśl to Dynów.

compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 12-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bobusia B., Gosztyła M., Zub M. Plany Twierdzy Przemyśl, Przemyśl 2004
  • Bogdanowski J. Sztuka obronna, Kraków 1993.
  • Bogdanowski J. Architektura obronna w krajobrazie Polski od Biskupina do Westerplatte, Warszawa - Kraków 1996.
  • Brzoskwinia W., Idzikowski T., Środulska-Wielgus J., Wielgus K. Wartości zabytkowej Twierdzy Przemyśl, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Forstner F., Twierdza Przemyśl, tł. Bańbor J., Warszawa 2000.
  • Idzikowski T., Architectura et Ars Militaris 4. Twierdza Przemyśl. Fort VIII „Łętownia”, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Powstanie. Rozwój. Technologie, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Sapeta A. Zestawienie obiektów Twierdzy Przemyśl, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.

transport time to the next site

7 min

2 min

fort międzypolowy piechoty GZW VIIIa Leśniczówka-Łętownia
Łętownia

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

4 min

2 min

fort pancerny główny GHW IX Brunner
Ujkowice

one hour

transport time to the next site

2 min

1 min

Fort pancerny międzypolowy GZW IXa Przy Krzyżu
Ujkowice

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

2 min

2 min

fort artyleryjski GZW Xb Zagrodnia
Ujkowice

30 minutes

transport time to the next site

2 min

2 min

szaniec piechoty Orzechowce
Ujkowice

15 minuts

transport time to the next site

4 min

2 min

Main artillery fort GHW X Orzechowce
Ujkowice

one hour

The GHW X fort preserved as a ruin is of high scientific value as one of the two artillery forts enclosed by two ramparts, erected during the third stage of construction of the fortress and preserved in the Fortress of Przemyśl. It was involved in combat during the first and third siege in 1914 and 1915. It is also a valuable addition to the local landscape. As a crucial part of the system of fortifications which formed the Fortress of Przemyśl, it remains a valuable historical monument of European importance.

History

In 1854-1855 fortifications of the first fortified settlement were erected around Przemyśl. East of the village of Ujkowice, in the northern part of the ring, construction of an artillery sconce no. 8 of the FS (Feuer-Schanze) type began. The construction was not completed. In 1878, the sconce number was changed to 7 and the sconce was converted into a makeshift artillery battery. In 1886-1887, the battery was liquidated, and its site was used for the building of the two-rampart main artillery fort GHW X “Orzechowce”. It is marked as Lagerfort X (Orzechowce) on the Festung-Umgebungs-Plan (fortress map). In 1896, a trial missile attack on the fort was carried out in order to assess the resistance of individual components of the fort. Experience showed that the fort is outdated. In 1897-1900, the fort underwent modernisation. The structure of casemates was reinforced, two armoured artillery batteries were built on the flanks of the infantry rampart, and two armoured casemates were built on the wings of the upper rampart. The defensive gorge wall was demolished along with a demi-bastion and gate, and three caponiers in the moat. In place of the demolished structures, the walls of the barracks were extended by the addition of two gorge caponiers, and the moat was equipped with two double armoured counterscarp caponiers (cofferdams). In 1909 the fort was armed with four 15 cm cannons of the M.61 type on tall trailers on the upper rampart, eight 6 cm casemate cannons of the M.99 type (4 in casemates and 4 in caponiers), four 8 cm cannons of the M.94 type in the armoured artillery battery towers on the wings of the lower rampart, four 8 cm casemate cannons of the M.98 type on trailers for small embrasures in caponiers, two reserve stations for 9 cm field guns of the M.75/96 type as well as four 8 mm machine guns of the M.93 type in caponiers. In 1901 the fort together with the coupled artillery battery was manned by 1 infantry company, 1 fort artillery company and 8 pioneers (sappers). The purpose of the fort was to defend the section from the road to Pruchnik to the Rada stream, the hills in the region of Batycze and to the east and south of Trójczyce as well as to flank the coupled artillery battery and inter-fields in the direction of forts XIa and Xb. During the first siege of the fortress (18 September - 9 October 1914), fort X supported the defence of neighbouring fort XIa “Cegielnia” attacked by Russian infantry and artillery. Before surrendering of the fortress during the second siege (9 November 1914 - 22 March 1915) the fort had been blown up. During the third siege (29 May - 4 June 1915), after being shelled with 42 cm cannons and damaged by heavy artillery, the fort was taken over by the German 11th Bavarian Infantry Division. In 1920-1930, the gorge barracks and Carnot walls were demolished. Currently, the Association of Fortress Communes of the Fortress of Przemyśl is conducting renovation works at the fort.

Description

The GHW (Gürtelhauptwerk) X “Orzechowce” is a two-rampart, armoured, artillery fort, erected as part of the group fort system. The fort is located south-east of the village of Ujkowice, about 500 m south-west of the road from Przemyśl to Pruchnik.

The fort with the fortress road section, without the coupled artillery battery and connecting rampart, within the boundaries of the former fortress plots covers an area of about 6.9 ha.

The fort was erected on a pentagonal floor plan with a gorge section angled to form a tenaille. The structure is surrounded by a dry moat. There are remains of the gorge barracks with a postern leading to the central bunker. The partially preserved bunker casemates housed 2 residential rooms of soldiers, 2 emergency bunkers, a toilet and a portable munitions storage unit. Sally ports to both yards and a postern leading to the axial caponier liquidated during fort alterations extend from the bunker. There are a partially preserved rampart protecting the gorge barracks and the central bunker, the lower infantry rampart with the ruins of the armoured artillery batteries with the posts of 4 armoured artillery turrets and 2 viewing towers, and a damaged left-wing counterscarp caponier (cofferdam). The right flank adjoins an earthen rampart with a flattened slope, connecting the fort to the coupled artillery battery.

Viewing of the fort is possible without restrictions. When viewing the fort, caution is advised because of the danger of falling from the top of the upper rampart onto the area of the non-existent barracks. The fort forms a part of the black fortress trail as well as the cycling path which runs between the various forts that formed the Fortress of Przemyśl.

compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszów, 30-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bobusia B., Gosztyła M., Zub M. Plany Twierdzy Przemyśl, Przemyśl 2004
  • Bogdanowski J. Sztuka obronna, Kraków 1993.
  • Bogdanowski J. Architektura obronna w krajobrazie Polski od Biskupina do Westerplatte, Warsaw - Cracow 1996.
  • Bogdanowski J. Twierdza Przemyśl, [in:] Teka konserwatorska Polska południowo-wschodnia, vol. 4, Rzeszów 1991.
  • Brzoskwinia W., Idzikowski T., Środulska-Wielgus J., Wielgus K. Wartości zabytkowej Twierdzy Przemyśl, [in:] Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, 2nd Edition, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Forstner F., Twierdza Przemyśl, translated by Bańbor J., Warsaw 2000.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Powstanie. Rozwój. Technologie, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Sapeta A. Zestawienie obiektów Twierdzy Przemyśl, [in:] Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, 2nd Edition, Rzeszów 1999.

Coupled long-range artillery battery X/B2 Orzechowce
Ujkowice

15 minuts

Preserved artillery battery X/B2 is of high scientific value as a defensive masterpiece built in a group system, coupled with main armoured fort GHW X. It was involved in combat during the first and third siege in 1914 and 1915. As a crucial part of the system of fortifications which formed the Fortress of Przemyśl, it remains a valuable historical monument of European importance.

History

The artillery battery was built in 1886-1887, at the same time as two-rampart main artillery fort GHW X "Orzechowce". It does not have a separate name on the fortress map Festung-Umgebungs-Plan von Przemyśl. In 1897-1900, during the fort modernisation, the ramparts surrounding the battery and the rampart connecting it to fort GHW X were altered by flattening the slope. In 1901, the battery was armed with four 15 cm cannons on tall fort trailers. A small battery on the connecting rampart was armed with two 8 cm M.75 field guns. In 1909, the armament of the small battery was changed to two 9 cm M.75/96 field guns. The purpose of the battery was control the hills in the region of Batycze and to prevent the opponent's batteries being built there. The "small battery" was designed to strengthen the defence of the inter-field between forts GHW X and GZW Xa. During the first siege of the fortress (18 September - 9 October 1914), the batteries supported the defence of neighbouring fort XIa “Cegielnia” attacked by Russian infantry and artillery. Before surrendering of the fortress during the second siege (9 November 1914 - 22 March 1915) the cannons had been destroyed. During the third siege (29 May - 4 June 1915), after being shelled with heavy artillery, the batteries were taken over by the 11th Bavarian Infantry Division. In 1920-1930, emergency bunkers were demolished.

Description

Battery X/B2 is a defensive long-range battery coupled with fort GHW (Gürtelhauptwerk) X "Orzechowce", erected as part of the group fort system. The battery is located south-east of fort X, at the north-western end of the village of Żurawica, about 500 m west of the road from Przemyśl to Pruchnik. The boundary between the village of Ujkowice and Żurawica and the communes of Przemyśl and Żurawica separates battery X/B2 from the connecting rampart, "small battery", and fort X.

The area of the battery along with the rampart connecting it to the fort, measured within the boundaries of the former fort plots, is approximately 2.8 ha.

The battery was built on a rectangular floor plan. To the north and east, the structure is surrounded by a dry moat with a flattened slope. The preserved structures include a rampart with heavy cannon posts separated by traverses. On the side of the gorge and on both sides, the battery is closed off by an earthen rampart with a narrow moat (from the gorge side) and two passages on the site formerly occupied by non-existent gates: in the gorge and in the western flank, on the side of the "small battery". The area of the battery is overgrown with a forest in the western part and self-sown plants.

The left western flank of the battery is adjoined by a rampart with a dry moat with a flattened slope. The initial section of the rampart runs in a westerly direction, the next sections are bent towards the north-west and Fort GHW X. The "small battery" is located directly behind the point where the direction is changed. These are two field gun emplacements separated a traverse. Other two traverses separate fire posts from the remaining sections of the rampart. The "small battery", connecting rampart and moat are overgrown with trees, mostly black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia) trees, self-sown plants grown from trees that formerly were the front mask of the rampart.

The site is open to visitors. The fortification is part of the black fortress trail as well as the cycling path which runs between the various forts that formed the Fortress of Przemyśl.

compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszów, 5-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bobusia B., Gosztyła M., Zub M. Plany Twierdzy Przemyśl, Przemyśl 2004
  • Bogdanowski J. Sztuka obronna, Kraków 1993.
  • Bogdanowski J. Architektura obronna w krajobrazie Polski od Biskupina do Westerplatte, Warsaw - Cracow 1996.
  • Bogdanowski J. Twierdza Przemyśl, [in:]Teka konserwatorska Polska południowo-wschodnia, vol. 4, Rzeszów 1991.
  • Brzoskwinia W., Idzikowski T., Środulska-Wielgus J., Wielgus K. Wartości zabytkowej Twierdzy Przemyśl, [in:] Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, 2nd Edition, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Forstner F., Twierdza Przemyśl, translated by Bańbor J., Warsaw 2000.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Powstanie. Rozwój. Technologie, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Sapeta A. Zestawienie obiektów Twierdzy Przemyśl, [in:] Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, 2nd Edition, Rzeszów 1999.

transport time to the next site

11 min

9 min

Primary artillery fort GHW XI Duńkowiczki
Duńkowiczki

one hour

The well-preserved GHW XI fort presents high scientific values as one of the two artillery forts enclosed by two ramparts, erected during the third stage of construction of the fortress and preserved in the Fortress of Przemyśl. It participated in a combat during the first and third siege in 1914 and 1915. As a crucial part of the system of fortifications which formed the Fortress of Przemyśl, it remains a valuable historical monument of European importance.

History

In the years 1854-1855 fortifications of the first fortified settlement were erected around Przemyśl. West of Duńkowiczki village, in the northern part of the ring, an artillery sconce no. 11 of the FS (Feuer-Schanze) type was erected. In 1878 the sconce was transformed into a provisional artillery sconce XI “Duńkowiczki”, while in the years 1886-1887 into a permanent, two-rampart major artillery fort GHW XI “Duńkowiczki”. It is marked as Lagerfort XI (Duńkowiczki) on the Festung-Umgebungs-Plan (fortress map). In the years 1902-1908 the fort underwent modernisation. Two armoured batteries on the flanks of the infantry rampart and two armoured casemates on the flanks of the upper rampart were erected. In place of a demolished defensive wall with a gate and gorge caponier, a new caponier flanking the barracks was added to the barracks’ wall. The task of the fort was to protect the road to Cracow, hills on the forefield and interfields stretching towards fort XII and XIa. In 1909 the fort was armed with six 15 cm cannons of the M.61 type on tall trailers on the upper rampart, six 6 cm casemate cannons of the M.99 type in casemates, four 8 cm cannons of the M.02 type in extendable and rotating Senkpanzer towers, six 8 cm casemate cannons of the M.98 type on trailers for small embrasures in head and gorge caponiers as well as four machine guns of the M.7 MG type. The fort was manned by 1 infantry company, 146 gunners and 9 pioneers (sappers). During the first siege of the fortress (18 September - 9 October 1914) the fort XII, after heavy artillery gunfire, was unsuccessfully stormed by the Russian infantry on 7-8 October 1914. Before surrendering of the fortress during the second siege (9 November 1914 - 22 March 1915) casemates and the gorge caponier had been blown up. During the third siege (19 May - 4 June 1915), on 30 May 1915, after being shelled with 42 cm cannons and damaged by heavy artillery, the fort was taken over by the German 11th Bavarian Infantry Division. In the years 1920-1939 armoured towers were dismounted. 2 towers were fixed in the Fortress of Osowiec and 1 in Silesian fortifications. After World War II demolitions of brick component part of the fort were carried out. In the 1980s walls enclosing casemates of the barracks were rebuilt and passed over to an agricultural society. Later, they housed a mushroom farm. Currently, the Association of Fortress Communes of the Fortress of Przemyśl is conducting renovation works at the fort.

Description

The GHW (Gürtelhauptwerk) XI “Duńkowiczki” is a two-rampart, armoured, artillery fort, erected as part of the group fort system. The fort is located in the western part of Duńkowiczki village, approx. 900 m from the Przemyśl - Cracow route.

The fort has an area of approx. 5.2 ha and was erected on a pentagonal floor plan with a gorge section angled to form a tenaille. The work is surrounded by a dry moat. The fort’s gorge is enclosed by barracks with casemates, originally housing residential rooms of a commander, officers and soldiers, a dressing point, a kitchen, 2 food warehouses and 2 toilets. There is an entrance hall along the axis; a corridor with entrances to casemates and four niches of munitions lifts extends along the exposed wall. Flanks of the barracks feature sally ports to yards in front of the lower rampart dedicated to infantry and housing munitions warehouses with laboratories. A postern leading to the main bunker is located along the extension of the entrance hall. Its casemates housed 2 residential rooms of soldiers, 2 emergency bunkers, a toilet and a portable munitions warehouse. Sally ports to both yards - currently walled-up - and a postern leading to the non-preserved axial caponier extend from the bunker. The barracks and the main bunker are sheltered by means of an earth rampart. Positions of 15 cm cannons of the M.61 type, partitioned by three transverses housing emergency bunkers with munitions lifts, were located in the upper rampart above the barracks. A cannon lift was located in the bunker along the fort’s axis. Ruins of casemates are located in the rampart’s flanks. Armoured batteries (the western one is partially ruined) with positions of 4 Senkpanzer towers and 2 observation towers have survived on corners of the lower rampart. Entrances to posterns leading to non-preserved flank caponiers are located in the battery’s casemates. Casemates of barracks, a hall, posterns and emergency bunkers feature concrete vaults. Armoured batteries feature concrete ceilings resting on steel double-t beams. The façade of the barracks features semi-circular casemate bays, originally terminating in brick walls with secondary windows and doors.

The fort is available for viewers except for barracks that are going to be made available after the completion of renovation. It forms a part of the black fortress trial as well as the cycling path which runs between the various forts that formed the Fortress of Przemyśl.

compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 24-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bobusia B., Gosztyła M., Zub M. Plany Twierdzy Przemyśl, Przemyśl 2004
  • Bogdanowski J. Sztuka obronna, Kraków 1993.
  • Bogdanowski J. Architektura obronna w krajobrazie Polski od Biskupina do Westerplatte, Warszawa - Kraków 1996.
  • Bogdanowski J. Twierdza Przemyśl, w: Teka konserwatorska Polska południowo-wschodnia, t. 4, Rzeszów 1991.
  • Brzoskwinia W., Idzikowski T., Środulska-Wielgus J., Wielgus K. Wartości zabytkowej Twierdzy Przemyśl, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Forstner F., Twierdza Przemyśl, tł. Bańbor J., Warszawa 2000.
  • Idzikowski T. Architectura et Ars Militaris 11. Twierdza Przemyśl. Fort XI „Duńkowiczki”, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Powstanie. Rozwój. Technologie, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Sapeta A. Zestawienie obiektów Twierdzy Przemyśl, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.

transport time to the next site

5 min

3 min

Inter-field infantry sconce Sch XI Duńkowiczki
Duńkowiczki

30 minutes

A partially preserved inter-field infantry sconce Sch XI has high scientific, historical and landscape values as an example of an auxiliary work of the group fort system. As a part of the system of fortifications which formed the Fortress of Przemyśl, it remains a historical monument of European importance.

History

In the years 1854-1855 fortifications of the first fortified settlement were erected around Przemyśl. East of Duńkowiczki village, in the northern part of the ring, an artillery sconce no. 12 of the FS (Feuer-Schanze) type was erected. In 1878 the old sconce was incorporated into the newly erected, external ring of forts of the Fortress of Przemyśl as a positional battery 14; later, its number and name were changed to battery 9 Jaroslauer Strasse. In 1887 the work was altered to serve as a positional battery 9. It is marked as Batt. 9 (Małkowice) on the Festung-Umgebungs-Plan von Przemyśl (fortress map). As part of the fortress modernisation, in 1896 it was planned to reconstruct the battery to serve as an inter-field infantry sconce Sch XI. The planned reconstruction was probably completed in 1899. In 1901 the fort was manned by 1/2 of the infantry company. During the first siege of the fortress (18 September - 9 October 1914) the sconce found itself on the left flank of Russian attack on the northern section of the fort’s fortification ring, but it was probably not under direct attack. During the second siege (9 November 1914 - 22 March 1915) it did not participate in hostilities. As a result of the third siege (19 May - 4 June 1915), on 2 June 1915 the sconce was captured by the German 11th Bavarian Infantry Division, after being shot at by the artillery. After World War I, the sconce fell into disuse. In the years 1920-1930 bunkers were demolished.

Description

The sconce (Schanze XI) “Duńkowiczki” is an inter-field infantry sconce erected as part of the group fort system. The sconce is located on the border of Duńkowiczki and Żurawica, approx. 190 m east of the Przemyśl-Cracow road. The area of the sconce is approximately 1.8 hectares.

The sconce has a pentagonal floor plan, with a semi-circular round bastion flanking the gorge rampart and the entrance gate. The work is surrounded by a dry moat. Corners of heads and flanks feature two transverses that separate infantry positions in the sconce head from positions aimed at defending interfields. A rampart protecting non-preserved bunkers is located in the middle of the sconce. Currently, the gorge rampart, the round bastion and the gorge moat are levelled-out and poorly visible. The initial fort access road to the sconce led from the south, from a strategic road running on the northern side of the hill, on the backfield of forts of the northern part of the ring. The road was blurred after the construction of a large power switchboard on the southern side of the sconce. The new road to the switchboard (and sconce) leads from the west, directly from E4 route, along a former side mask camouflaging the route of the fortress road. The entire fort is thickly overgrown with plants - coincidence seedlings of trees and bushes. On the eastern and western side of the sconce, towards Fort XI Duńkowiczki and XII Żurawica, fragments of side masks camouflaging the route of the fortress strategic road have survived. In fact, the strategic road is located approx. 250-300 m to the south, south-west, behind the ridge of a hill where the sconce and side masks are located.

The sconce is available for viewing without restrictions. It is located not far from the “left-bank fortress route of the Fortress of Przemyśl” (marked in black) and from the cycling route running around the forts of the Fortress of Przemyśl.

compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 27-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bobusia B., Gosztyła M., Zub M. Plany Twierdzy Przemyśl, Przemyśl 2004
  • Bogdanowski J. Sztuka obronna, Kraków 1993.
  • Bogdanowski J. Architektura obronna w krajobrazie Polski od Biskupina do Westerplatte, Warszawa - Kraków 1996.
  • Bogdanowski J. Twierdza Przemyśl, w: Teka konserwatorska Polska południowo-wschodnia, t. 4, Rzeszów 1991.
  • Brzoskwinia W., Idzikowski T., Środulska-Wielgus J., Wielgus K. Wartości zabytkowej Twierdzy Przemyśl, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Forstner F., Twierdza Przemyśl, tł. Bańbor J., Warszawa 2000.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Powstanie. Rozwój. Technologie, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Sapeta A. Zestawienie obiektów Twierdzy Przemyśl, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.

transport time to the next site

6 min

6 min

Main artillery fort GHW XII Werner
Żurawica

two hours

A well-preserved main artillery fort GHW XII is of high scientific value as the second permanent artillery fort built during the third stage of the construction of the Przemyśl Fortress. It bears the traces of fights during the third siege of the fortress in 1915. Additionally, the fort also has decorative architectural details. As a crucial part of the system of fortifications which formed the Fortress of Przemyśl, it remains a valuable historical monument of European importance.

History

In 1855-1856, as part of the construction of fortifications of the first stronghold around Przemyśl, artillery sconce no. 13 of the FS type (Feuer-Schanze) was built north of the Żurawica village, in the northern part of the ring. In 1882-1884, during the construction of permanent fortifications forming part of the Fortress of Przemyśl, the sconce was transformed into a permanent artillery fort GHW XII "Żurawica" — the second one to be built in the fortress. The name was later changed in honour of the architect of the fort, Anton Werner. It is marked as Lagerfort XII (Werner) on the Festung-Umgebungs-Plan von Przemyśl (fortress map). In 1912-1914, the gorge section underwent modernisation. In place of a demolished defensive wall with a gate, a steel sponson with stations for two machine guns flanking the fort’s gorge was added to the barracks’ wall. The purpose of the fort was to defend the space between the road to Cracow and the railway line as well as the interfields stretching towards forts XI and XIIIa. In 1909, the fort was armed with four 15 cm cannons of the M.61 type standing on tall trailers (additional four reserve cannons) on the front ramparts, four 9 cm M.75/96 field guns on tall trailers on flank ramparts, and eight 15 cm grenade cannons (Granatkanone) on casemate trailers in the front caponier and at gorge stations. The fort was manned by 9 officers, 1 infantry company (266 soldiers), 94 gunners and 10 pioneers (sappers). During the first siege of the fortress (18.09-9.10.1914), fort XII and the adjacent artillery batteries supported the defence of neighbouring fort XI "Duńkowiczki" attacked by Russians. Before the surrendering of the fortress during the second siege (9.11.1914-22.03.1915) caponiers in the moat and the ammunition warehouse in the western part of the central bunker had been blown up. During the third siege (30.05-4.06.1915), after being shelled with heavy artillery, the fort was overrun by German and Austro-Hungarian forces. During the interwar period and after World War II, the fort was used by the Polish Armed Forces as an artillery munitions storage facility. Partial demolitions, among others, of the Carnot walls at the foot of the rampart, were conducted at that time. For a few years, the fort has been owned by a private person who has carried out repairs, renovations and cleaning works and adapted it for use as a museum dedicated to World War I, opened in 2010.

Description

The GHW XII "Werner" (Gürtelhauptwerk XII Werner) is a single-rampart artillery fort erected as part of the centred fort system. The fort is located north of the built-up area of Żurawica, at 20 Forteczna Street.

The area of the fort measured within the boundaries of the fortress plot is approx. 8.5 ha.

The fort was designed as a pentagon. The structure is surrounded by a deep dry moat with a masonry counterscarp on the front and flank sections. The remains of an earthen five-sided roundel with an entrance in the middle have been preserved in the gorge section. The fort’s gorge terminates in barracks with an entrance vestibule located along the central axis. The vestibule vault shows a visible hole pierced by a large-calibre bullet. Entrances in the vestibule lead to the guardhouse with a prison and to a commander's room. The central part of the vestibule includes entrances to corridors running along the corner wall, leading to all casemates that originally housed servants' room, soldiers' and officers' dwelling rooms, 2 kitchens, 2 food warehouses, and 2 bathrooms. Behind the entrance to the east corridor, there is a niche with a well. The barracks are sheltered by means of an earth rampart. The vestibule leads to a narrow courtyard enclosed by a bunker originally housing two delivery warehouses of cannon munitions with laboratories, combat emergency shelter, dressing station and two toilets. The eastern part of the bunker has not been preserved. On the axis of the bunker, there is an entrance to the postern leading to the non-existent front caponier. Exits to battle posts are found on both sides of the courtyard. The main rampart that includes ten foreheads and flanks features traverses housing emergency bunkers. Posterns lead from two bunkers to currently non-existent barrack caponiers. Fire posts of cannons and infantry were positioned between the traverses. All casemates, vestibule and posterns have concrete vaults. The façade of the barracks and the central bunker features semi-circular casemate openings enclosed by brick walls with rectangular windows. The entrance gate on the barracks's axis is decorated with surrounds that imitate rustication.

Viewing of the fort is possible during the opening hours. The fort is located along the “left-bank fortress route of the Fortress of Przemyśl” (marked in black) and along the cycling route running around the forts of the Fortress of Przemyśl.

compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszów, 17-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bobusia B., Gosztyła M., Zub M. Plany Twierdzy Przemyśl, Przemyśl 2004
  • Bogdanowski J. Sztuka obronna, Kraków 1993.
  • Bogdanowski J. Architektura obronna w krajobrazie Polski od Biskupina do Westerplatte, Warsaw - Cracow 1996.
  • Brzoskwinia W., Idzikowski T., Środulska-Wielgus J., Wielgus K. Wartości zabytkowej Twierdzy Przemyśl, [in:] Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, 2nd Edition, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Forstner F., Twierdza Przemyśl, translated by Bańbor J., Warsaw 2000.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Powstanie. Rozwój. Technologie, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Sapeta A. Zestawienie obiektów Twierdzy Przemyśl, [in:] Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, 2nd Edition, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Website: Fort XII Werner Museum. Przemyśl Fortress. http://www.fortwerner.pl/ (access: 16.10.2014).

transport time to the next site

14 min

11 min

zespół dworski
Bolestraszyce

two hours

transport time to the next site

2 min

4 min

Fort artyleryjski GZW XIII b
Bolestraszyce

one hour

transport time to the next site

4 min

7 min

Main armoured fort GHW XIII San-Rideau
Bolestraszyce

one hour

Preserved as a permanent ruin, the fort presents high research values as an example of the so-called “compact fort” - centred, two-rampart main fort with artillery located in armoured posts. It was one of the two most impressive forts of the Fortress of Przemyśl. The fort presents high landscape values as well. As a crucial part of the system of fortifications which formed the Fortress of Przemyśl, it remains a valuable historical monument of European importance.

History

The “San-Rideau” GHW XIII fort was erected in the years 1892-1896, as part of the so-called “armoured” expansion of the Fortress of Przemyśl. It was the main feature of the fifth defence perimeter. At first, it was labelled as XIIIa, later renamed XIII½ and finally - XIII. It is marked as Gürtel-H.W.XIII½ (San-Rideau) on the Festung-Umgebungs-Plan von Przemyśl (fortress map). The fort was erected to the design of Moritz Brunner, altered in line with guidelines of the Technical and Administrative Military Committee. The fort’s main armament consisted of three 15 cm howitzers (Panzerhaubitzen) and three 15 cm mortars (Panzermörser) of the M.80 type in armoured towers positioned on the upper storey of gorge barracks, six 8 cm casemate cannons of the M. 94 type located in both casemates on the edges of the barracks, six 8 cm casemate cannons of the M.94 type on trailers for small embrasures in both counterscarp caponiers. The fort was manned by 1 infantry company, 1 artillery company and 9 pioneers (sappers). The fort’s task was to defend the San river valley, support the neighbouring features XII½ (battery 10), XIII b, XIII a and XIV and support inter-fields by firing casemate cannons. During the first siege of the fortress (18 September - 9 October 1914) its artillery assisted the forts of the VI defence perimeter “Siedliska” in resisting a fierce Russian assault. Before surrendering the fortress during the second siege (9 November 1914 - 22 March 1915) armoured towers, casemates and caponiers had been blown up. During the third siege (30 May - 4 June 1915), the fort was overrun by German and Austro-Hungarian forces. Demolition works were carried out in the inter-war period to gain building materials. The fort XIII is associated with a legend of freeing a Russian officer, who had been imprisoned underground for 8 years, during the demolition.

Description

The fort GHW XIII “San-Rideau” is the main, armoured, centred, two-rampart artillery fort of the “Einheitsfort” type, erected as part of the group fortifications system. It is located in the northern part of Bolestraszyce, on the edge of the San river valley’s escarpment.

The area of the fort measured within the boundaries of its allocated plot of land is approximately 6.5 hectares. The fort was designed as a redan, surrounded by a dry moat. The moat’s counterscarp includes a partially preserved concrete shooting gallery and a left-flank caponier. Only the exposed wall of the right-flank caponier has survived. Earth components of the fort have survived as well - a lower infantry rampart, a rampart sheltering the gorge barracks and a counter-rampart surrounding the fort. Its slope includes remains of field reinforcement. The centre of the fort includes ruins of gorge barracks with a massive rubble of concrete blocks of the ceiling (on the left flank) and remnants of granite bases of armoured towers. The right flank includes preserved foundations of the casemate block and the gorge caponier as well as the exposed wall with traces of armoured towers and edges of apertures of the casemate. Winged sally ports from the barracks with access posterns have also survived. Open trapdoors are located along the posterns. Along the infantry rampart axis, there is a concrete main bunker with four exits to the courtyard. The bunker is covered with a concrete ceiling resting on steel double-t beams. Most steel elements of the ceiling were removed during demolition works. A vaulted postern linking the main bunker with the barracks has been preserved. Its outlet is located on the second storey of the exposed wall. A vaulted postern linking the lower storey of the barracks with a shooting gallery in the moat’s counterscarp has also been preserved along the fort’s axis. Its end section includes winder stairs leading to the gallery level. The gallery is equipped with a row of embrasures for hand weapons that include steel walls with apertures. The gallery leads to a left-flank single caponier with the preserved casemate block. Vaulted casemates have survived: a dwelling room, a guardhouse, a munitions chamber, water closet, a battle corridor with embrasures, entrance shaft to the non-existent armoured observation cupola. The casemates of canons have been blown up. A fort access road with a brick-and-stone, vaulted overpass over the strategic road has survived.

The fort is available for viewing without restrictions. Visiting the underground part requires special caution due to the risk of, among others, falling down through a trapdoor. The fort is located along the black “fortress” tourist route and the green cycling route.

compiled by Adam Sapeta, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Rzeszow, 14-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Bobusia B., Gosztyła M., Zub M. Plany Twierdzy Przemyśl, Przemyśl 2004
  • Bogdanowski J. Sztuka obronna, Kraków 1993.
  • Bogdanowski J. Twierdza Przemyśl, w: Teka konserwatorska Polska południowo-wschodnia, t. 4, Rzeszów 1991.
  • Bogdanowski J. Architektura obronna w krajobrazie Polski od Biskupina do Westerplatte, Warszawa - Kraków 1996.
  • Brzoskwinia W., Idzikowski T., Środulska-Wielgus J., Wielgus K. Wartości zabytkowej Twierdzy Przemyśl, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Idzikowski T., Twierdza Przemyśl. Powstanie. Rozwój. Technologie, Przemyśl 2004.
  • Sapeta A. Dzisiejsze zagrożenia Twierdzy Przemyśl - raport, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.
  • Sapeta A. Zestawienie obiektów Twierdzy Przemyśl, w: Informator regionalny Twierdza Przemyśl, wyd. II, Rzeszów 1999.

transport time to the next site

10 min

6 min

Fort piechoty GZW XIIIa Zabłocie
Bolestraszyce

30 minutes

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