Odkryj Sandomierz - Miasto Kobiet
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Muzeum Okręgowe w Sandomierzu

Odkryj Sandomierz - Miasto Kobiet

9

two hours

świętokrzyskie

Castle, today a regional museum
Sandomierz

one hour

The Sandomierz castle is one of the most characteristic elements of the Sandomierz townscape and one of its most precious monuments. Its role and importance in the life of the town over centuries is unquestionable. It was the heart of the life of the province, duchy, voivodeship, and town.  Worth noting is the contribution of outstanding artists, builders and designers working in Sandomierz under the royal patronage, such as Master Benedict know as Sandomierzanin, the royal sculptor and architect Santi Gucci, managing the workshops in Pińczów, perhaps also the Lubomirski’s architect Maciej Trapola.

History

Most probably the castle hill was the site of the former Sandomierz motte. The stone castle of Sandomierz, mentioned by the chronicler Janko of Czarnków as one erected by Casimir the Great, was probably built just before or in parallel with the defensive walls of Sandomierz. The 2nd half of the 15th century saw the conversion of the south, probably the most representative wing of the castle. Another similar project was held in ca. 1480 on the initiative of Starost Rafał of Jarosław. The castle changed its character significantly during the reign of King Sigismund I the Old who ordered the demolition of the most derelict castle buildings in 1513 with a view to preparing a construction site for a new development under the supervision of the master builder Benedykt. So ca. 1520 the east and west wings were erected.  But only in the next stage of construction works in the years 1564-1565 carried out by Sigismund II Augustus, a four-sided spatial arrangement of the 16th-century castle received its ultimate shape. Soon, in 1586 King Stefan Batory decided to complete the construction, mainly in the west wing, by arranging for the preparation of the design and cost estimates by the royal architect Santi Gucci. Further work was taken up in the 2nd quarter of the 17th century in the south-west area of the complex, most probably on the initiative of Sandomierz starost, Stanisław Lubomirski, perhaps with the participation of Lubomirski’s court architect Maciej Trapola. In 1656 the retreating Swedish troop blew up the castle before it was seized by the Polish army.  The unfinished west wing suffered the least and was the basis for the reconstruction undertaken in the years 1680-1688 by King Jan III Sobieski. After the vandalization of the castle interior by the Russian troops stationed here during the Bar Confederation fights, major changes were introduced in the late 18th century, when the Austrian occupant adopted the complex to fulfil a court and jail functions. The authorities of the Congress Kingdom of Poland, when redesigning the layout of Sandomierz as part of the urban regulatory plan of 1820, decided to move the jail to the main building and ordered the demolition of the rest of the complex. The characteristic prison-like façade of the building was created in that period. It was in the spring of 1959 when the prison buildings were transferred to the municipal authorities for comprehensive research (carried out by the Department of Architecture, Warsaw University of Technology) and then renovation and adaptation. After that, in the mid-1980s, the castle was handed over to the Regional Museum in Sandomierz as exhibition space.

Description

Today’s castle sits on a hill, south of the Old Town. The castle was a more or less regular complex on a square plan with the inner courtyard. Only the remains of the stone tower are left after the early structure, dating probably to the period of construction initiatives of King Casimir the Great. The preserved main building was once the west wing of the castle. The fine composition of the façade is an interesting example of the work based on the so-called “characterological" theory of architectural orders. Over the entrance there is a visible older part of the façade: partially reconstructed erection plaque dated 1520 and recalling the works carried by Master Benedict commissioned by King Sigismund I the Old. The museum exhibition features some of the stonework decorations of the time. The south tower is the oldest preserved part of the castle body. It was once part of the representative south wing of King Casimir’s castle and was rebuilt probably in the 2nd half of the 15th century. An interesting piece of interior is the royal kitchen in the north part of the building. It was designed after the Swedish demolition in 1656. Besides there is a monumental staircase to be found in the central part of the wing, leading up to the most splendid upper floor chambers. The Grand Hall features a portal of ca. 1620 with the coat of arms of the Lubomirskis, probably designed by their court architect Maciej Trapola.

The building is accessible; interior tour within the museum opening hours.

Compiled by Jerzy Zub, 15.12.2014.

Bibliography

  • Buliński M., Monografija miasta Sandomierza, Warszawa 1879.
  • Kalinowski W., Lalik T., Rutkowski H., Trawkowski S., Sandomierz, Warszawa 1956.
  • Miłobędzki A., Zamek sandomierski  (w:) Studia sandomierskie, Warszawa 1967.
  • Miłobędzki A., Zamek i więzienie (w:) Romantyzm, Warszawa 1967.
  • Dzieje Sandomierza, red. Samsonowicz H., t. I - IV, Warszawa 1993-94.
  • Zub J., Wstępne rozpoznanie zabudowy północnej części wzgórza zamkowego w Sandomierzu (w:) Pamiętnik sandomierski, t. III, Sandomierz 1997, s. 241-50.
  • Wódz B. E.,  Źródła archiwalne o architekturze zamku królewskiego w Sandomierzu w dobie renesansu (w:) Zeszyty Sandomierskie, nr 28, Sandomierz 2009, s. 29-35.

Dominican monastery complex of St. James the Apostle
Sandomierz

15 minuts

The church with the Dominican Monastery in Sandomierz is one of the most interesting and best preserved early Dominican buildings in this part of Europe. Attention is paid primarily to the magnificent perspective bipartite northern portal, despite the fact that the design of decorations is unique in Poland because of the abundant use of the ceramic decorating technique.

History

Dominicans were brought to Sandomierz by the efforts of Iwo Odrowąż, Bishop of Kraków, in 1226. The friars started construction work, perhaps using a somewhat older building, which was carried out with breaks until the end of the 13th century, which was caused by the Mongol invasions in 1240 and at the turn of 1259/1260. The invaders slaughtered all the Dominicans with the then convent prior, Sadok, but soon afterwards, their place was taken by Dominicans from other convents that arrived in Sandomierz. In the early 17th century, through the efforts of Teofil Szemberk from Reichenbach, the complex was extended by adding a chapel, later called the Chapel of the Martyrs of Sandomierz. The times of relative peace and prosperity were interrupted in 1657, when Prince of Transylvania George II Rákóczi with Swedish King Charles X Gustav invaded and robbed Sandomierz, also the Dominican monastery. They killed old Father Augustyn Rogala, the other friars fled and returned only a dozen days after these events. Soon afterwards, the Dominicans began rebuilding the church in the Baroque style, which was the result of the successful efforts of Suffragan of Kraków, Bishop Mikołaj Oborski in 1677. The tsarist decree of November 1864 put an end to the activities of Dominicans in Sandomierz and dissolved most of their establishments. The former Dominican church was taken over by diocesan priests, and Father Ludwik Piotrowicz, who administered the former Dominican church in 1875-1905, took actions to secure and renovate the church, while a large part of the monastery buildings were occupied by various institutions. The fire of the church in 1905 destroyed the altar and a considerable part of the interior, forced to undertake major conservation and restoration works, which were conducted by Father Józef Rokoszny. Under the supervision of architect Jarosław Wojciechowski and the Society for the Care of Monuments of the Past, it was decided to restore the original appearance of the church, while preserving the brick façades. The works were completed in 1909, a year later the Rosary Chapel decorated according to the designs by Karol Frycz was consecrated. In 2001, Dominicans returned to the church.

Description

The Church of St. James the Apostle along with the former Dominican monastery is situated on one of the hills of Sandomierz, known as the St. James' Hill or Old Town Hill. It is a late Romanesque three-nave church with a simply closed chancel and a belfry added to the north-west. The northern façade is pierced by the main entrance to the church, magnificent northern portal with a passage covered with a trefoil, located in a lavishly profiled arcade topped with a semicircular arch. The top section of the northern façade of the nave body is also ornamented with a wide frieze with interlaced motifs; an interlacing frieze also runs along the lower parts of the nave body and chancel. The windows of the northern nave are surmounted by friezes running along lintels. To the south, the church was extended with the addition of a monastery complex, of which only one eastern wing with relics of Romanesque ornamentation in the form of plates characterised by interlacing decorations has survived to this day. The Chapel of St. Hyacinth located to the west was created by converting part of the western and most recently constructed monastery wing on the site occupied by the cell of the Dominican saint, according to tradition. The present appearance of the interior is largely a result of the church restoration in 1905-1907. The five-bay body is partitioned with a row of pointed-arch arcades resting on square pillars. The barrel vaults preserved in the chancel from 1624-1631 are characterised by stucco decorations. The chancel features the wooden sarcophagus of Adelaide who founded the pre-Dominican church according to tradition. The northern nave was extended by adding the Chapel of the Szemberk family, called the Chapel of the Dominican Martyrs, with the interior decorated with stuccowork created around 1642 through the efforts of the son of the chapel’s founder, Jacek. The southern nave of the church adjoins a chapel devoted to the famous painting of Our Lady of the Rosary from the first half of the 17th century, separated from the nave with an Art Nouveau grillwork; the chapel was fitted and decorated according to designs by Karol Frycz, an outstanding interior decorator from Kraków, in the Art Nouveau style. The portal from the cloister to the church was designed in the early Gothic style and built of brick and stone in the mid-13th century; it is characterised by its three-stepped structure with a pair of little columns and pointed-arch archivolts. The southern part of the east wing features the original interesting basement with a vault supported by the central pillar.

No visitor access to the monastery building. The church is open to the public during the opening hours.

compiled by Jerzy Zub, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 14-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Łuszczkiewicz W., Kościół Św. Jakuba w Sandomierzu, (in:) Sprawozdania Komisyi Historyi Sztuki w Polsce, vol. II, 1881, pp. 27-52.
  • Wojciechowski J., Kościół św. Jakuba w Sandomierzu, (in:) Przegląd Techniczny, XLVIII, no. 16, 1910, pp. 207-10.
  • Sztuka polska przedromańska i romańska do schyłku XIII wieku, Walicki M. (ed.), Warsaw 1971
  • Gołubiewowa Z., Kościół dominikański p. w. św. Jakuba w Sandomierzu w XIII stuleciu i jego dekoracja architektoniczna, (in:) Studia nad historią dominikanów w Polsce 1222 - 1972, vol. II, Warsaw 1975, pp. 9-196.
  • Makarewicz S., Wypisy źródłowe do dziejów kultury artystycznej dominikanów sandomierskich w XVIII w., (in:) Studia Sandomierskie, vol. III, Sandomierz 1982, pp. 493-513.
  • Polanowski L., Zub J., Architektura klasztoru dominikanów sandomierskich w świetle ostatnich badań historycznych i archeologicznych, (in:) Materiały i Sprawozdania Rzeszowskiego Ośrodka Archeologicznego za lata 1991 - 1992, Rzeszów 1993, pp. 95-110.
  • Florek M., Kościół św. Jakuba i dawny klasztor dominikanów w Sandomierzu. Wyniki badań archeologiczno-architektonicznych (in:) Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej, R. XLII, no. 1, Warsaw 1994, pp. 3-25
  • Świechowski Z., Architektura romańska w Polsce, Warsaw 2000
  • Kurzej M., Siedemnastowieczne sztukaterie w Małopolsce, Kraków 2012

Zespół kościoła parafialnego pw. Nawrócenia św. Pawła Apostoła
Sandomierz

15 minuts

Reformers’ monastery complex, currently a parish complex and the Diocesan "Quo vadis" Christian Organisation, Culture and Education Centre
Sandomierz

30 minutes

The complex of monastery buildings from the last quarter of the 17th century is of significant historical and architectural value, important in the context of the sacred architecture of the region, and significant in the landscape of the old Opatów Suburb. The monastery complex was built of brick from the demolished castle in Zawichost, on the elevation of the Hill of St. Adalbert, whose name derives from a wooden church mentioned in fourteenth-century records, which has not survived to this day. The well-thought-out shape given to the space around the church in the 18th century is also of crucial importance (courtyard with the Stations of the Cross).

History

Reformers arrived in Sandomierz in 1672. A year later, after the erection of the religious congregation, they built the first monastic buildings still made of wood. Between 1679 and 1689, friars built a masonry church and monastery; in 1698-1703 they surrounded the monastery area with a wall and in 1776 they fenced the courtyard in front of the façade of the church with a wall with chapels containing painted Stations of the Cross (authorship of the design is attributed to Jesuit architect Father Józef Karśnicki). In 1809, the Church of St. Adalbert and the Church of St. Joseph were destroyed in a fire during the battles of the Duchy of Warsaw with the Austrian military forces. In 1864, following the cessation of the monastery, tsarist authorities set up an Orthodox church in the refectory, flats and office of the head of the border guard in the monastery buildings, and the church started to serve as a rectory church. A sacristy was added at that time. In 1934, the parish was relocated from the cathedral to the Church of St. Joseph. The church was destroyed by fire in 1944. After World War 2, the church and the monastery were reconstructed. In 2006, Bishop Andrzej Dzięga signed the founding act establishing a new Poor Clare monastery, and two years later the construction of the monastery began on the site of the former utility part of a post-Reformation complex.

Description

The former monastery complex is located in the suburbs on the northwest side, outside the walls of the chartered town. Along with the former horticultural utility facilities, it is surrounded by a wall. The north-eastern part is occupied by an oriented church with a sacristy and porch, which adjoins monastery buildings arranged in a quadrangle to the south, courtyard surrounded by a wall with chapels to the west; the courtyard can be accessed via an entrance from the north through a decorative gate.

The complex was built in the Baroque style, and in the 19th century and after World War 2 it underwent major alterations.

The church was erected on a floor plan in the shape of two rectangles: three-bay nave and two-bay chancel. The body is simple, very harmonious, composed of two tall cuboid aisles and chancel, covered with steep gable roofs between triangular gables. A Baroque cupola at the top extends from a lower roof over the chancel. The walls were built of brick, in the wall-pillar system in the niche style; the interior is covered with barrel vaults with lunettes supported by arches. The façades are very modest, without partitions, and pierced by windows topped with semicircular arches. At the corners and on the façade, there are flat lesenes supporting the profiled cornice beneath the eaves. The centre of the front façade is pierced by a large semi-circular windows, three similarly shaped blind windows are located at a triangular gable; the central blind window is taller than the side ones. The articulation of the eastern wall of the chancel is designed in a similar way. The western porch which was added to the façade, surmounted by a Baroque gable, and is open on three sides by means of entrances is formally richer. Its gable has a niche with remnants of a painting. The interior of the church is characterised by walls partitioned with deep altar niches up to the height of the nave, with windows in the intrados of lunettes at the top. The spaces between the niches are adorned with Tuscan pilasters supporting sections of entablature. The interior of the chancel is separated from the nave by a circular arch, lower and features shallower niches. The original fixtures and fittings preserved inside the church include Baroque and Classical altars (around 1820) painted illusionistically using the trompe-l’œil technique.

The monastery consists of three wings adjoining the walls of the church and surrounding together with the monastery building a quadrangular garth. The wings are of varying length, two-storey, one-and-a-half-bay, and covered with gable roofs and three-pitched roofs. The façades were made after World War 2 and do not represent any specific style.

The wall separating the courtyard in front of the façade is pierced to the north by an entry gate leading to the area surrounding the church, and on the inside it is partitioned with chapels with niches containing painted Stations of the Cross (now reproduced). The gate and chapels are surmounted by decorative concave-convex Late Baroque gables with volutes on the sides. The entrance is topped on the outside by a niche with a painted half-figure of St. Joseph with Child.

The building is open to visitors; a site of worship.

compiled by Leszek Polanowski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 11-12-2014.

Bibliography

  • Wiśniewski J., Dekanat sandomierski, Radom 1915
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, vol. III: Województwo kieleckie, issue 11: Powiat sandomierski, prepared by Łoziński J. Z. and Przypkowski T., Warsaw 1962, pp. 86-88
  • Błachut A. J., Budownictwo małopolskiej prowincji reformatów w XVII wieku w świetle ustawodawstwa zakonnego, KAiU, vol. XXIV, issue 2, Warsaw 1979
  • Błachut A. J., Architektura zespołów klasztornych reformatów małopolskich w XVII wieku, KAiU, vol. XXIV, issue 3, Warsaw 1979
  • Kalinowski Z., Kościół św. Józefa. Fundacja i Dzieje świątyni do kasaty klasztoru w 1864 roku, Studia sandomierskie 2 (1981)
  • Record sheet: Zespół poreformacki, ob. parafialny; Kościół reformatów, ob. parafialny pw. św. Józefa; Klasztor reformatów, ob. Dom Rekolekcyjny Diecezjalny; Mur ogrodzeniowy z bramką i kapliczkami, prepared by Polanowski L., 1993, Archives of the Branch Office of the Regional Office for the Protection of Historical Monuments in Sandomierz

Complex of the Benedictine nuns with the church of St Michael the Archangel, today the Higher Seminary in Sandomierz with the parish church.
Sandomierz

15 minuts

The monastery complex of Benedictine nuns is one of the most distinctive elements in the urban system and landscape of Sandomierz. Along with the Jesuit college, it was the first example of the Counter-Reformation foundation and construction in the Sandomierz region. The novelty was the introduction of basilica-like wings closed with corner galleries. Its reconstruction after the destruction during the Polish-Swedish Was and the construction of the church is linked to Jan Michał Linek, one of the key engineers serving the Zamoyski family.

History

St Michael Church and the former Benedictine nuns’ monastery were founded by Elżbieta Sieniawska, the wife of the Grand Marshal of the Crown and a sister of Hieronim, the founder of Collegium Gostomianum in Sandomierz, for nuns brought from Chełmno, with the approval of the secular and ecclesiastic authorities and Magdalena Mortęska, the abbess of the Chełmno convent. She undertook to assign the founder’s daughter, Zofia Sieniawska, and 12 other nuns to the new convent completed in 1615. Today’s complex, after the original wooden buildings were destroyed in a fire in 1623, was built (the construction started in 1627) opposite Opatów Gate, mainly thanks to the effort of the first abbess Zofia Sieniawska. The south wing of the monastery was completed before 1639 during the term of Abbess Elżbieta Magdalena Skotnicka, the second during the term of Abbess Zofia Mikułowska and the third in the years 1675-1689 due to the commitment of Abbess Justyna Skarszewska. The church was built in the years 1686-1692 according to the design by the architect of Zamość, Major Jan Michał Linek, during the term of the mentioned Abbess Justyna Skarszewska and her successor Anna Chrząstowska, and owing to Marcin Zamoyski, undertreasurer of the Crown, and Stanisław Zaremba, judge of Sandomierz, in the extension of the former south wing of the monastery. It was consecrated in 1692 by Bishop Jan Małachowski of Kraków. During the period of administration of Abbess Barbara Trzeciewska, the monastery walls were finished. Abbess Franciszka Tarłówna, the daughter of the governor of Lublin, built a belfry and a new gate; later, she also renovated the buildings after the great fire of the town in April 1757. In those years, the spiritual director of the monastery was the Jesuit Fr. Józef Karśnicki who designed the monastery residential building for the chaplain and confessor. In 1903, the church of the monastery complex was taken over by the Higher Seminary. The building was altered to fit the new function and a new east pavilion was added thanks to the effort of Bishop Stefan Zwierowicz. A fire in 1966 destroyed the interior of the church presbytery.

Description

The monastery complex is located at the foot of the old town hill, north of the defensive walls. The church consists of a rectangular nave and a lower, also rectangular presbytery, with an entrance from the south via a richly decorated portal of 1693-1695 made by the stonemasons of Kunów, Jan Marcin Kraus and Jerzy Giertler, according to the design by Jan Michał Linek. The modest interior of the church is dominated by a barrel vault; after a fire in 1966, only a tabernacle of the 2nd half of the 18th century was saved in the presbytery. On both sides of the rood, there are side altars, of Our Lady and of St Benedict, dating back to 1694 and made by the Kraków woodcarver, Franciszek Czerny. The nave draws attention to its richly carved pulpit, made in the years 1694-1695 by the Nowy Korczyn woodcarver, Mateusz Roskwitowicz, with the body resting on the trunk of a family tree growing out of the body of St Benedict. The wings of the monastery adjoin the church from the west. In the monastery section, there is an interesting basilica-like layout of the floor with a high corridor, lit from above thanks to the small, rectangular windows set in bays. The vault of the choir - the nuns’ oratory in the east end of the south wing - is embellished with a stucco decoration from around 1637 with four-leaf fields with hierograms in the glory of rays. The entrance wall to the oratory is covered with a Rococo wall painting from about 1770-1780; the lower entrance is dominated by the illusionistic portal of rich architecture with the figures of Benedictine saints. The south pavilion, the former monastery gate, was built probably about the mid-18th century and transformed in the years 1769-1771 by the architect the Rev. Józef Karśnicki. Its gable is topped with an abutment with the statue of the Blessed Virgin Mary leading the Child. On the other side of the yard, there is the rector’s house built around 1769-1771 by the architect the Rev. Józef Karśnicki; the nearby belfry was raised in the years 1749-1750. Between the buildings, at the front, a late Baroque pulpit of ca. 1770 was set up for preaching during the missions along with the figures of Saints Benedict and Scholastica.

Today, the Higher Seminary; monastic buildings are inaccessible; church interior is open to visitors during the sightseeing hours.

Compiled by Jerzy Zub, 14.12.2014.

Bibliography

  • Buliński M., Monografija miasta Sandomierza, Warszawa 1879.
  • Wiśniewski J., Dekanat sandomierski”, Radom 1915.
  • Gajkowski J., Benedyktynki sandomierskie, Sandomierz 1917.
  • Miłobędzki A. Architektura polska XVII wieku, Warszawa 1980.
  • Dzieje Sandomierza, red. Samsonowicz H., t. I-IV, Warszawa 1993.
  • Polanowski L., Dawny klasztor panien w Sandomierzu. Zarys dziejów i ostatnie odkrycia, (w:) Zeszyty Sandomierskie, nr 9, 1999, s. 83-89.
  • Szylar A., Kościół św. Michała w Sandomierzu. Fundacja i dzieje świątyni do kasaty klasztoru benedyktynek w 1903 r., (w:) Nasza Przeszłość, t. 99, Kraków 2003.
  • Klasztor Panien Benedyktynek w historii i kulturze. Sandomierz. Materiały z sesji. Sandomierz, 24 października 2003 r., red. Burek K., Sandomierz 2003.
  • Szylar A., Fundacja klasztoru benedyktynek sandomierskich w świetle kroniki benedyktynek chełmińskich (w:) Zeszyty Sandomierskie, nr 25, Sandomierz 2007, s. 34-37.
  • Szylar A., Etapy kasaty klasztoru benedyktynek sandomierskich (w:) Zeszyty Sandomierskie, nr 28, Sandomierz 2009, s. 48-51.

Opatów Gate and the remains of defensive walls
Sandomierz

15 minuts

The remains of city walls with defensive towers and the town gate of the reign of Casimir the Great have a great historical, educational and scenic values important for Sandomierz as the town incorporated in 1286.

History

The incorporation of Sandomierz in 1286 by Leszek the Black covered Town Hill but excluded the area later occupied by the Holy Trinity Hospital and the surroundings of the collegiate church of the Blessed Virgin Mary on Cathedral Hill. In the 1320s, an earth and wood rampart was erected. Possibly, it coincided with the repairs of the fortifications and the castle buildings (1328). The wooden development of Sandomierz was destroyed in a fire during the invasion of Lithuanians in 1349. As a result, the town was redesigned and redeveloped. The town incorporated the area previously outside the town ramparts: the collegiate church and the Holy Spirit Hospital. The city was surrounded by stone fortifications erected by Casimir the Great. Initially, the fortifications between the town and the castle were wooden or earthen; stone ramparts were built along with the Kraków Gate no earlier than at the end of the 15th century or even later. Perhaps, it was then that the castle defensive system was combined with the town walls. However, by the end of the 14th century, the majority of the planned defensive perimeter was finished as in a source of 1394, when describing the location of the church of St Paul, the phrase “extra muros” was used. Out of the town gates existing in the later period, only the Opatów Gate (know as the Grand Gate), the Lublin Gate (also known as the Fisherman’s Gate) and the gate in the west wall (today known as the Needle's Eye), linking the premises of the two Dominican monasteries, were used. The other gate, known as Zamiejska, was located in the area of Collegium Gostomianum and Długosz’s House; other gates, probably made later, were in the north wall. The aforementioned Kraków gate (the Little Gate) and the Zawichost Gate were built much later, the latter probably no earlier than in the 1st half of the 16th century. Another gate, not known from the sources, but discovered during the archaeological excavations was built (or started) in the west walls, north of the Needle’s Eye. This gate was located at the end of the street leading from the south-west corner of the market, before today’s Zamkowa Street was laid out. In the following centuries, the walls were repeatedly repaired and the gates rebuilt. In 1776 the Needle’s Eye was repaired and vaulted, and in 1782 the walls of the Zawichost and Opatów Gates were renovated. In 1810 a decision was made to demolish the walls that were on the verge of collapsing, however, the Opatów Gate was remained intact. Demolition works were carried out throughout the 19th century. In the 20th century, further restoration work followed. In 2006 the walls and the gate attic were restored.

Description

To the present time, the following sections of town fortifications have been preserved: larger sections of the north wall on both sides of the Opatów Gate, part of the west wall between Żydowska Street and Podwale Street and in Zamkowa Street (with the Dominican wicket next to the house at 2 Zamkowa Street), as well as smaller relics in the lower parts of houses at 10 and 12 Forteczna Street, 2 Tkacka Street, and 7, 9 and 15 Katedralna Street. The walls were built on a stone foundation of large Gothic brick laid in a “Polish” style, with the burr brick heads. The defensive walls embedded rectangular towers open to the inside of the fortifications; their tops featured crenellation. The Opatów Gate was originally lower than now, its height more or less the same as that of the walls. Built on a square plan, it had two floors, the lower of which contained a pointed-arch gateway. From the north, on both sides of the gateway arcades two flat buttresses were built with stone guides for lowering the portcullis. The interior of the gate was accessible from the second floor via the guards entrances from the porch on the town wall. The gate tower was raised most probably in the 15th century. It coincided with the horizontal division of the façade of the extended tower by means of a plastered belt lined with friezes of bricks laid “on edge”. A similar, double frieze topped the wall of the building under the drip edge of the roof, presumably a tent roof. In the upper part, the gate tower was probably fitted with wooden hoardings - only the metal hooks fastening the beam have been preserved. Inside, there were wooden platforms connected by ladders which led to the embrasures in the gate tower walls. In the 15th century, the foregate walls were added in the north while, at the same time, the lower parts of the guides of the portcullis closing the passage were walled up. In the mid-16th century, an attic was added.

The monument is open to visitors. Ticketed sightseeing of Opatowska Gate.

Compiled by Leszek Polanowski, 09.12.2014.

Bibliography

  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, vol. III: Województwo kieleckie, fasc. 11: Powiat sandomierski, compiled by Łoziński J. Z. and Przypkowski T., Warszawa 1962, pp. 94-95.
  • Widawski J., Miejskie mury obronne w państwie polskim do początku XV wieku, Warszawa 1973.
  • Karty ewidencyjne, Mury miejskie - pozostałości, Brama Opatowska, Furta Dominikańska, compiled by Polanowski L., 1990, Archiwum Delegatury w Sandomierzu Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków.

Town hall
Sandomierz

30 minutes

The town hall in Sandomierz is an example of the a municipal government seat typical of towns under Magdeburg Law of the Małopolska and Silesia regions. The tower character of the oldest Gothic town hall in Sandomierz is similar to other project existing in smaller cities, mushrooming in medieval Poland. Similarly characteristic is the application of the attic, the most characteristic element of the transformation of the building in the 16th century.

History

Traditionally, the construction of the town hall - as a wooden building - is dated to the end of the 13th century when the town received Magdeburg Law in 1286. After the Lithuanian invasion in 1349, a new town layout was designed and the town hall was rebuilt as a stone structure. Most likely, it was a building on a square plan, which now forms the southern part of the existing edifice. The late Middle Ages period is marked by the prosperity and the increasing importance of the bourgeoisie. The town hall was extended in the 15th century and in 1511 altered in the spirit of the Renaissance, as seen in its rich attic. After the fire in 1623 the tower collapsed but was rebuilt in the following years. The town hall was affected again during the Polish-Swedish wars, again in the aftermath of a great fire caused by an explosion in the Sandomierz castle. The heavily destroyed town was able to reconstruct its town hall only during the reign of King Jan III Sobieski. In another fire in 1757, the roofs and upper floor chambers were destroyed as well as the adjacent stalls. The building was restored fairly quickly, however, in 1759 King Augustus III banned the construction of merchant stalls and butchery shops in the vicinity of the town hall. Over the next decades, the condition of the town hall rapidly deteriorated. At some point, it was so poor that, as part of the urban regulation plan, there was a proposal to demolish it. Fortunately, the town authorities managed to save the building. Yet, the comprehensive reconstruction did not take place until 1873 and 1905 saw thorough renovation of the façades, uncovering the brick of the walls from under the heavily damaged plaster. In the 1970s during the city rehabilitation and after comprehensive studies, the restoration and adaptation works were carried out. The ground floor was transformed as exhibition space and the upper was adapted as a convention space for the municipal authorities.

Description

The town hall is located in the heart of the market square, on a gentle slope leaning towards the south-east corner of the area. The building is dominated by the tower, quadrangular up to the the attic, further octagonal and topped with a cupola. The second floor of the tower is available through a wooden sheltered staircase touching the hall’s wall. Under the stairs, there is the entrance to the basement. The façades are topped by an attic of a triple-layer system. The bottom and highest one is divided by blind arcades; the upper one is decorated with voluted corbels alternated with circular vents, and the most ornamental highest parts of the attic are composed of alternating higher and lower pedestals linked by volutes. In the corners of the lower layer, there are four heads, supposedly symbolizing the four estates: the cloak, knighthood, bourgeoisie and peasantry, and a prominent cornice bears the half-figures of animals, probably lions. The basement chambers, the oldest of which is the south one, now accommodate a club and a café. The ground floor of the hall in the middle can be accessed through the vestibule located in the tower. It is used for as exhibition space. The upper floor mirrors the layout of the ground floor with the hall occupying the entire width of the central part of the area.

The site is accessible from outside. The basement and ground floor open at specific times.

Compiled by Jerzy Zub, 16.12.2014.

Bibliography

  • Sobieszczański F. M., Ratusz w Sandomierzu, (w:) Tygodnik Ilustrowany, 1860, II, nr 42.
  • Buliński M., Monografija miasta Sandomierza, Warszawa 1879.
  • Słonimski Z., Ratusz w Sandomierzu (w:) Architekt, X, 1909.
  • Kalinowski W., Lalik T., Przypkowski T., Rutkowski H., Trawkowski S., Sandomierz, Warszawa 1956.
  • Kiryk F., Rynek sandomierski w XVI - XVII w., jego formy i funkcje (w:) Kwartalnik Historii Kultury Materialnej, t, XLI/2, Warszawa 1993.
  • Dzieje Sandomierza, Samsonowicz H., t. I - IV, Warszawa 1993 - 94.
  • Komorowski W., Średniowieczne ratusze w Małopolsce i na ziemiach ruskich Korony (w:) Civitas & villa. Miasto i wieś w średniowiecznej Europie, Wrocław-Praha 2002, s. 241-48.

Długosz’s House, today the Diocesan Museum
Sandomierz

one hour

The so-called Długosz’s House is an example of an architectural project sponsored by the clergy - representing the social elite of the time of higher intellectual aspirations, but also sensitive to artistic values, as evidenced by the involvement of the great patrons such as Zbigniew of Oleśnica, Andrzej of Bnin and, above all, Jan Długosz. The Sandomierz building shows the typical skills and techniques of Macin Proszko who worked for Długosz in the years 1460-1480; his approach was upheld and continued by Jan Murator.

History

The development of the house is related to the formation of a group of Mansionaries appointed to sing psalms for the Holy Mary, the patroness of the Sandomierz collegiate church. The construction of the house for Mansionaries was completed in the last period of the sponsorship and architectural initiatives of Jan Długosz. The contractor was the Kraków workshop of Marcin Proszko, and the work was supervised by the Mansionary, Stanisław Łukawski, with the assistance of the site manager Mikołaj Lorincz. Perhaps after the death of Marcin Proszko about 1476, Długosz cooperated with Jan Murator, probably Marcin’s apprentice, known from the correspondence of the founder with the Rev. Stanisław Łukawski, a Mansionary of Sandomierz. At the beginning of the 2nd half of the 17th century, the Mansionaries carried out a major renovation of their main seat, probably destroyed during the Polish-Swedish War in the aftermath of the explosion of ammunition in the Sandomierz castle. The Mansionary priests stayed in Sandomierz until 1819, that is, the dissolution of the congregation. In 1864 the building fell under the administration of the collegiate chapter and was converted into the dwellings of the church service. In 1934, after many years of attempts, on the initiative and thanks to the efforts of Bishop Włodzimierz Jasiński, renovation was undertaken under the supervision of a Kraków architect Franciszek Mączyński. The idea was to restore the building as an exhibition space. The work was completed in October 1937 and the opening coincided with the exhibition designed by Dr Karol Estreicher.

Description

Długosz’s House is one of the most attractive spots in the town’s landscape, situated upon an escarpment in the south-east part of the urban settlement. It is a Gothic, brick and mortar, two-storey building, erected on a rectangular plan, with façades decorated with burr bricks of a diamond pattern. The erection plaque has been preserved. It is typical of the projects of Jan Długosz’s sponsorship; The plaque is embedded in the south, originally frontal façade. In the upper part, there is a visible the Wieniawa coat of arms of the House of Długosz with lambrequins and a jewel, undersigned with a miniscule inscription of 1476. The ground floor is divided into two parts by a large hall; narrow, barrel-vaulted staircase fitted with the wall leads to the upper floor and to the basement. The ground floor and first floor have beamed ceilings, decorated with moldings. The crossbeam on the ceiling bears the date of 1658 - renovation of the building after the devastation during the Polish-Swedish wars. Today, the facility houses the collection of the Diocesan Museum, including works of art from the Sandomierz region, for example, numerous Gothic paintings, the reliquary of the Holy Cross presented to the collegiate by King Władysław Jagiełło, late Romanesque monuments from Goźlice with the famous statue of Madonna of the 1st half of the 13th century, relics documenting the Sarmatian burial customs, numerous architectural details of the Dominican church of St James renovated after 1905, numerous works of woodcarving and sacred sculptures, manuscripts, artistic handicraft and archaeological collections.

The building is accessible during the opening hours of the Diocese Museum.

Compiled by Jerzy Zub, 15.12.2014.

Bibliography

  • Buliński M., Monografija miasta Sandomierza, Warszawa 1879.
  • Górski E., Diecezjalne Muzeum Sandomierskie, Sandomierz 1946.
  • Kalinowski W., Lalik T., Przypkowski T., Rutkowski H., Trawkowski S., Sandomierz, Warszawa 1956.
  • Smoleńska J., Działalność budowlana Jana Długosza (w:) Kwartalnik Architektury i Urbanistyki, t. XV/3-4, Warszawa 1969.
  • Buczek A., Mecenat artystyczny Jana Długosza w dziedzinie architektury (w:) Dlugossiana. Studia historyczne w pięćsetlecie śmierci Jana Długosza, Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego, t. DLXI, Prace historyczne nr 65, Kraków 1980.
  • Pietrusiński J., Sztuka średniowieczna w Sandomierzu XII - XV w (w:) Dzieje Sandomierza, t. I, Warszawa 1993.
  • Stępień U., Przewodnik po Muzeum Diecezjalnym w Sandomierzu, Sandomierz 1994.
  • Kumor B., Wielka fundacja Jana Długosza w Sandomierzu (w:) Zeszyty Sandomierskie, nr 9, Sandomierz 1999, s. 81-82.
  • Węcławowicz T., Małopolska i ziemie ruskie Korony (w:) Architektura gotycka w Polsce, Warszawa 1995.

Collegiate church of the Nativity of the Blessed Virgin Mary, today the cathedral
Sandomierz

15 minuts

The collegiate church of Sandomierz (not cathedral) dominates the town landscape as the most important temple in the town and the Sandomierz region. The collegiate church is one of the most valuable works of Gothic architecture in Poland, displaying the interior fittings of major importance for the Polish artistic culture, in particular in the area of Sandomierz, including perhaps the perfect example of Byzantine-Ruthenian painting of the reign of King Wladysław Jagiełło and a number of works by Maciej Polejowski, an excellent creator of original Rococo sculpture, or large canvases embedded in the paneling, showing the martyrs of the Roman Church and some of the local ones.

History

The oldest - as confirmed in the bull of Pope Eugene II in 1148 - Romanesque temple, probably founded by Bolesław the Wrymouth, goes back to the early 12th century. Owing to the efforts of Duke Casimir II the Just, in 1191 the church became a collegiate church and was offered considerable assets. In 1241 the temple was looted by the Mongols; later, it was desecrated during their next invasion in 1260 when the invaders slaughtered the local residents seeking shelter within its walls. The foundation of the Gothic church by King Casimir the Great culminated in its consecration by Bishop Jan Radlica of Kraków in 1382. The church was heavily damaged during the Polish-Swedish War as a result of the explosion in the Sandomierz castle, caused by the retreating Swedish army, and the great fire of the town. During the reconstruction of the church in the years 1670-1674, the façade was rebuilt. In the spirit of the Counter-Reformation movement, the interior turned Baroque, largely on the initiative of Canon Stefan Żuchowski. The years 1737-1741 saw the construction of the belfry, finally completed in 1761. Between 1779 and 1773, Maciej Polejowski, an outstanding representative of the Lviv artistic circles, created a suite of Rococo altars. Under the 1818 bull of Pope Pius VII, the collegiate church was transformed into a cathedral. Already as the cathedral, the building was renovated in 1825 and again in the years 1886-1889. The brick faces of the wall were exposed and a neo-Gothic bell turret was erected. The Warsaw architect and conservator Konstanty Wojciechowski supervised the project.

Description

The church sits on the south edge of the old town hill. The Gothic, brick church of a three-nave, five-bay body and the presbytery closed on three sides dominates the town skyline. North of the presbytery there are two sacristies, for canons and curates, and one more, for mansionaries, to the south. Quite impressive is the Baroque façade with a porch built between 1670 and 1674. The decorative portal of the porch dated back to 1672 and was founded by the great benefactor of the church, the Rev. Wojciech Lipnicki, provost of the collegiate church and auxiliary bishop of Kraków. The Baroque gable of the façade is crowned with a triangular pediment with a statue of the Madonna with Child. Below there is a cartouche with the emblem of the Sandomierz Collegiate Chapter. The three-nave, five-bay body is divided by pointed-arch arcades, resting on square pillars. The large-volume interior is covered with a cross vault with keystones featuring heraldic decoration; their idea was, undoubtedly, to allude to the unification of the kingdom under the rule of King Casimir the Great, founder of the church. Also a rich plant and animal ornamentation was used on the friezes, arcade bases and capitals of supporting ribs. Inside, particularly impressive is the late-Baroque main altar of 1756, founded by the Rev. Stanisław Lipski. The side walls and ceiling of the presbytery are covered with Byzantine-Ruthenian paintings, one of the largest and most valuable among other similar types of this decoration in Poland; it is distinctive through the wealth of iconographic motifs. It was most probably sponsored by King Władysław II Jagiełło about 1420. The nave is dominated by Baroque paneling, running around the walls of the body, installed between 1708 and 1717 and providing the framework for a set of large paintings depicting a vision of the death of the martyrs of the Roman and Sandomierz Church. A great set of altars placed at inter-nave pillars was installed between 1771 and 1773 and is the work of the outstanding sculptor Maciej Polejowski, one of the greatest representatives of the Lviv Rococo sculpture school of the 2nd half of the 18th century. The area was enclosed with a fence about 1828. Next to the cathedral, outside the fence, there is a bell tower built between 1737 and 1741 according to designs ordered in Kraków.

The cathedral is accessible in the opening hours or upon arrangement with the parish priest.

Compiled by Jerzy Zub, 07.12.2014.

Bibliography

  • Buliński M., Monografija miasta Sandomierza, Warszawa 1879.
  • Rokoszny J., Przed restauracją katedry sandomierskiej, (w:) Kronika diecezji sandomierskiej, nr 9, Sandomierz 1912.
  • Oleś A., Zachodnia fasada katedry w Sandomierzu. Odkrycia konserwatorskie (w:) Ochrona Zabytków Sztuki, t. 1. 1930/31, cz. 1, s. 217-19.
  • Kalinowski W., Lalik T., Przypkowski T., Rutkowski H, Trawkowski S., Sandomierz, Warszawa 1956.
  • Warszycki A., Katedra w Sandomierzu, (w:) Biuletyn Kwartalny Radomskiego Towarzystwa Naukowego, t. VII, z. 1-2, s.99-110, Radom 1970.
  • Kowalczyk J., Dzieła Macieja Polejowskiego w Ziemi Sandomierskiej, (w:) Rocznik Muzeum Świętokrzyskiego, t. VI, Kraków 1970.
  • Makarewicz S., Fundacja i założenia programowe polichromii bizantyńskiej z bazyliki katedralnej w Sandomierzu, (w:) Studia Theologica Varsaviensia, t. 13, nr 2, Warszawa 1973.
  • Węcławowicz T., Małopolska i ziemie ruskie Korony (w:) Architektura gotycka w Polsce, Warszawa 1995.
  • Kowalczyk J. Przemiany wystroju wnętrza Kolegiaty sandomierskiej w okresie rokoka (w:) Zeszyty Sandomierskie, nr 9, Sandomierz 1999, s. 50-59.
  • Dworzak A., Nieznane projekty sandomierskiej dzwonnicy kolegiackiej (w:) Zeszyty Sandomierskie, nr 35, Sandomierz 2013, s. 20-25.

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