NA SZLAKU GRODÓW CZERWIEŃSKICH
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Ewa Prusicka

NA SZLAKU GRODÓW CZERWIEŃSKICH

11

one day

lubelskie

Hillfort, former stronghold of Sutiejsk
Sąsiadka

one hour

The existing motte contains the remains of the historic fortified settlement of Sutiejsk, one of the so-called Cherven Towns that stood along the route leading from Kiev to Cracow. The Sutiejsk settlement complex consisted of the hillfort proper as well as the open ancillary settlements.

Location and description

The former hillfort, popularly referred to as “The Motte”, is located in the middle of the Sąsiadka village and adjoins the southern side of the cluster of houses which form the settlement. The total surface of the site is approximately 30 000 square metres. It is located at the edge of the valley of the Por river - the left tributary of Wieprz, on a loess hill undercut by two ravines towards the south-east and the south-west. The waterlogged Por river valley surrounds the hill towards the south-west.

The hillfort consists of three major sections, separated from one another by both ramparts and moats: the hillfort proper, the ancillary settlement and the additional fortifications in the form of a defensive rampart. The hillfort itself, with a surface of approx. 140 square metres, was located on the most prominent section of the site, separated from the rest of the complex by a single rampart forming a quadrangle with rounded corners. The height of the relatively well-preserved rampart is between 3.5 and 6 metres, with the width varying between 12 and 15 metres. The ancillary settlement was located between the hillfort proper, the edge of the western ravine and the edge of the river valley; the site of the settlement slopes gently towards the north and has a total surface area of 16 000 square metres. The site was originally protected by a rampart located to the north and the south-east of the settlement itself. The entrance to the ancillary settlement was located towards the south-east. It is on this side that the third part of the complex was located, its significance being of a purely strategic and military nature; it was protected by a single rampart and a moat towards the east; this part of the complex has suffered the greatest amount of damage due to its immediate proximity to the Sąsiadka village. The entire site of the former hillfort remains disused and is overgrown with trees and shrubs. The structure continues to suffer damage as a result of intense erosion, the continuing use of the local road and the excavation of clay, leading to the subsidence of the eastern and western sides of the earthen structure.

History

During the early Middle Ages (between the 11th and the 12th century), a hillfort and ancillary settlement located immediately adjacent to the fort stood on the site, known as Sutiejsk in written sources. The hillfort remained inhabited throughout three settlement phases in total: the construction phase during the 1030s (from the construction of the hillfort - most likely at the request of Jarosław the Wise - until the capture and partial destruction thereof by Bolesław the Bold in 1069), the second phase (from 1096 to the early 12th century) and the third phase, covering the 12th century, during which the hillfort saw different uses - including its use by king Bolesław the Wrymouth as a base camp during his military campaigns. The final days of the hillfort came most likely in 1205, when the fort was captured by duke Roman of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir who waged wars against the Polish dukes in the region during that time.

A Ruthenian chronicle contains a mention of the hillfort in Sąsiadka under its old name of Sutiejsk; the inscription dates back to 1096, yet it actually pertains to an earlier date - 1076, to be precise. Another mention - from 1097 - refers to the capture of Sutiejsk by David Igorovich - the duke of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir. The most recent mention of the hillfort in written sources dates back to 1205 and pertains to the campaign led by duke Roman of the Grand Duchy of Vladimir against the dukes of Poland. The first researcher who connected the existing remains to the historical hillfort of Sutiejsk was Z. Dołęga-Chodakowski. The hillfort was also recognised by K. Moszyński in 1927 as being, in fact, the long-forgotten Sutiejsk hillfort; the researcher reached this conclusion on the basis of a linguistic analysis of the current name of the village - Sąsiadka - as well as on the local topography.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Archaeological research was performed on the site in years 1936 - 1939, 1946-1947 and 1949-1957 under the direction of Z. Wartołowska (although initially the project was headed by W. Antoniewicz). The survey covered an area with a surface of 6140 square metres, encompassing both the former hillfort and its ancillary settlement.

The first contour plan of the site was prepared by B. Guerquin and Z. Sęczykowski in 1936. The location and height plan of the site was drawn up by K. Bęcek and J. Smok in 1985.

Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out by J. Buszewicz, J. Kuśnierz, R. Pomarański and A. Urbański in 1989.

The hillfort in Sąsiadka is one of the most thoroughly researched sites of this kind in Poland.

In the course of research it has been determined that before the rampart of the hillfort was constructed, the whole site was partially levelled. The defensive structure itself was a box rampart (an earthen rampart reinforced with box-like timber structures) These structures were made of wooden logs about 3 metres in length, bound together with lap joints and filled with loess that was dug up from the moat. Wooden walls were positioned perpendicularly towards the external edge of the rampart, while a wooden palisade reinforced with an interwoven layer covered with clay was constructed at the very top of the rampart. The palisade was constructed out of sturdy, vertical posts, traces of which in the form of pits with 30-40 cm diameter have been discovered in all parts of the rampart which were examined by researchers. In addition, the breastwork of the rampart was also protected by a berm. Remnants of a now-vanished wooden tower near the entrance to the hillfort have also been discovered. Inside the former courtyard, traces of a quadrangular residential building with two rooms and a hearth have been discovered; remains of a utility building and a well with the diameter of 8 metres[?], explored to the depth of 15 metres in total, have also been unearthed on the site.

The ancillary settlement was also built on an area which had been partially levelled. Research shows that it was originally protected by an earthen rampart (with the exception of the section located in the immediate vicinity of the river); the northern section of the structure took the form of a box rampart. The traces of the timber box-like revetments discovered here showed that the structures were about 3 metres wide and have been preserved up to the height of 0.5 metres. During the research operations carried out on the site of the ancillary settlement, traces of half-earth lodges made of wooden logs have been unearthed, each of the lodges featuring a pair of dome-shaped hearths. Storage puts and two free-standing hearths have also been found in the immediate vicinity of the lodges. In addition, the survey extended to the so-called defensive rampart - an earthen structure with no traces of additional revetments which provided additional defence against attackers and was erected during the final phase of the hillfort’s existence. Numerous moveable artefacts have been unearthed - mostly fragments of clay vessels as well as numerous metal objects, including different pieces of weaponry and armour (a sword, an axe, spurs and stirrups, arrowheads and spearheads); a variety of bone, glass and stone objects have also been discovered on the site. Another interesting find is the collection of Easter egg sculptures of the Kiev type, made of clay and adorned with yellow enamel. Yet another discovery which deserves a particular attention is the collection of five lead stamps, believed to originate from the late 11th century and the early 12th century, covered with Greek inscriptions which suggest that they may be linked to the court of David Igorevich, the duke of the Great Duchy of Vladimir.

The ring fort is open to visitors. It is located on the site of the Szczebrzeszyn Landscape Park and forms part of the “Central Sightseeing Route of Roztocze”.

compiled by Ewa Prusicka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 20-09-2012.

Bibliography

  • Banasiewicz E., Grodziska i zamczyska Zamojszczyzny, Zamość 1990, pp. 91-96.
  • Gurba J., Grodziska Lubelszczyzny, Lublin 1976, p. 28-29.
  • Kutrzebianka A., Sąciaska, gród z polsko-ruskiego pogranicza, “Wiadomości Archeologiczne”, vol. XIII, 1935, pp. 101-106.
  • Nosek S., Materiały do badań nad historią starożytną i wczesnośredniowieczną międzyrzecza Wisły i Bugu, “Annales UMCS” 1951, vol. VI, 1957, sec. F, 1951, Lublin-Cracow, p. 366.
  • Wartołowska Z., Wykopaliska we wsi Sąsiadka w pow. Zamojskim, “Teka Zamojska”, Vol. 1, 1938, pp. 36-39.
  • Wartołowska Z., Gród Czerwieński Sutiejsk na pograniczu polsko-ruskim, “Światowit”, Vol. XXII, 1958.

transport time to the next site

33 min

Hillfort
Guciów

30 minutes

The barrow cemetery contains the remains of a large settlement complex dating from the Early Middle Ages, which is one of the best preserved complexes of this type in Poland. The complex includes: a fortified settlement and open ancillary settlements adjacent to the fortified centre, and several barrow cemeteries (whose number currently ranges from several to over a hundred barrows), located mostly along the left bank of the Wieprz river. The site is a unique feature of the landscape of Roztocze.

Location and description

The hill fort in Guciów is located in the southern part of the village, at a distance of approx. 750 m to the south-west of the school premises and to the south of the ‘Zagroda Guciów’ open-air museum. It is situated at the peak of the hill known as ‘Monastyr’ or ‘Starzyzna’ which is approx. 100 m above the level of the surface of the Wieprz river valley. The hill fort occupies an area of around 9-10 ha and plots of land being private property. Due to its location and size it is included in the category of large upland hill forts. The structure is located on a kidney-shaped platform of the top of the hill, raised slightly in the southern part and gently sloping towards the edges. On the western, south-western and eastern side it is limited by steep slopes, and on the northern side the slope towards the valley of the Wieprz river is less severe. The structure is now in an extremely dilapidated state. In the north-western part there are three lines of ramparts as part of the earthen structures, preserved to a height of 1 m, divided by deep moats. Much less visible remains of fortifications from the north in the form of two barely visible elongated humps which measure several centimetres in height. Also from the south-east, where the platform combines smoothly with the neighbouring area, it is possible to notice one identifiable and one or two scarcely visible humps, probably the remains of ploughed rampart enclosing the hill fort in an easily accessible part of the hill. Currently, the majority of the area of the hill fort is occupied by cultivated fields; only the steep slopes and, to a lesser extent, the northern and north-eastern parts are covered with forest.

History

The hill fort which is located within the area of the current village of Guciów was functioning in the Early Middle Ages (10th c. - 11th c.). It served as the centre of a large settlement complex, also consisting of open ancillary settlements adjacent to the fortified centre and several barrow cemeteries. The hill fort in Guciów were recorded for the first time by Mikołaj Stworzyński in the early 19th century.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Survey excavations of the site were carried out by H. Zoll-Adamikowa (Department of Archaeology of Lesser Poland of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków) between 1971 and 1972. The scope of the investigations was limited to the lines of fortifications of the hill fort. Archaeologists undertook two research excavations: excavation no. 1 ( 15 x 2 m) in the area of the rampart in the north-eastern part of the hill fort and no. 2 (8 x 1-1.8 m) across the north-western rampart. The location and height plan of the site was drawn up by J. Fellmann in 1972. Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out by H. Wróbel in 1983. The findings from the conducted investigations showed that the ramparts of the hill fort were seriously damaged by cultivation of the fields. An investigation of excavation no. 1 revealed that the remains of the rampart were severely damaged by ploughing across their whole width. A layer with traces of charcoal (most likely from the burned top part of the rampart) was found on a stretch of 11 m, but the original width of the rampart was smaller. Probably it was a 4.5-metre-wide layer, which was characterised by a fairly uniform thickness of around 25-30 m. An investigation of the area beneath it revealed remains of lower parts of the wooden structures of the rampart in the form of poorly preserved elongated wooden elements arranged along the same axis, almost exactly perpendicular to the direction of the course of the rampart. This arrangements indicates most likely the use of the so-called sandwich structure of the rampart, which consisted in laying layers of wooden trunks in an alternating manner, longitudinally and transversely to the axis of the rampart. An investigation of excavation no. 2 undertaken at the site where defensive elements have been preserved to the greatest extent revealed a more complex construction of the rampart — its bipartite structure. Its inner site showed a layering without any traces of the construction, but only an investigation of the lower layer of this part of the earthen rampart uncovered weathered lumps of clay with fine limestones, which presumably formed the original base of the rampart. By contrast, excavations of the outer part of the rampart, beneath a layer of humus and sand, unearthed three or four box-shaped heaps of medium-sized and large limestones, loosely embedded in the layer of clay. Researchers have found no traces of wood on the edges of those boxes. They were approx. 1-1.3 m in width, and approx. 0.5 m in height and most likely formed only a stone ground plate for the higher box-shaped wooden structures which have not been preserved. The findings from an attempt to reconstruct the rampart suggested that originally, the outer part of it was approx. 3.5-4.5 m in height and approx. 6.5 m in width at the base (including the earthen structure of the inner rampart). The inner part which was most likely composed of only earthen structure was 3.5-4 m in width at the base. The recorded bipartite structure of the rampart indicates that it was highly probable that it was built in two phases. The outer part was probably built earlier than the part with the box structure. The inventory of movable monuments at the site was very short and limited to several fragments of ceramic vessels.

The monument is open to visitors. The hill fort is located on the route of tourist trails of Roztocze and an archaeological and nature educational trail.

Compiled by Ewa Prusicka-Kołcon, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 15.08.2014.

 

Bibliography

  • Banasiewicz E., Grodziska i zamczyska Zamojszczyzny, Zamość 1990, pp. 71-73.
  • Gurba J., Grodziska Lubelszczyzny, Lublin 1976, p. 18.
  • Gurba J., Orłowski R., Mikołaj Stworzyński - nieznany inwentaryzator grodzisk południowej Lubelszczyzny z początków XX w., „Wiadomości Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 23, pp. 69-70.
  • Machnik J., Badania archeologiczne na Roztoczu Lubelskim w 1959 roku, „Sprawozdania
  • Archeologiczne” 1961, vol. 12, pp. 89, 95-99.
  • Nosek S., Materiały do badań nad historią starożytną i wczesnośredniowieczną międzyrzecza Wisły i Bugu, „Annales UMCS” 1951, vol. 6, sec. F, p. 365.
  • Zoll-Adamikowa H., Wyniki wstępnych badań wczesnośredniowiecznego zespołu w Guciowie, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, pp. 151-161.

transport time to the next site

1 min

Barrow cemetery in Guciów — site 1 (twenty one earthen mounds)
Guciów

30 minutes

The barrow cemetery contains the remains of a large settlement complex dating from the Early Middle Ages, which is one of the best preserved complexes of this type in Poland. The complex includes: a fortified settlement and open ancillary settlements adjacent to the fortified centre, and several barrow cemeteries (whose number currently ranges from several to over a hundred barrows), located mostly along the left bank of the Wieprz river. The site is a unique feature of the landscape of the Roztocze National Park and Roztocze.

Location and description

The barrow cemetery in Guciów (site 1) is located about 100 m to the north of the village buildings, alongside the road running from Guciów towards Zwierzyniec. It is situated on the uplifted alluvial terrace of the large valley of the Wieprz river, in a forested area, on the site known locally as ‘Półsążek’. It is located within the area of forest plots of the Zwierzyniec Forest District, owned by the Roztocze National Park, and plots being a private property. The cemetery is cut through by the Guciów-Zwierzyniec road and occupies an area of approx. 1 a on the southern side of the road and approx. 1.5 ha on the northern side of the road. Due to additional legal protection the site and the immediate surroundings have been excluded from forest management.

The cemetery comprises twenty one well-preserved burial mounds numbered 1 to 21: three mounds on the southern part of the road from Guciów (no. 1-3) and eighteen mounds on its northern side (no. 4-21), located in an area of approx. 5,000 sq m. Currently, twelve/thirteen burial mounds are easily identifiable and the others are significantly less visible. Their earthen structures are roughly circular in shape, and measure, on average, about 0.5-0,7 m in height and about 7-8 m in diameter. The site was not targeted by illegal digging. Investigations revealed hollows on many burial mounds, which were created while cutting down trees, using heavy equipment. The natural levelling of the site is progressing rather slowly, since the forest surroundings effectively protects the earthen structures against erosion caused by water or other natural agents.

History

The barrow cemetery (site 1) which is located within the area of the current village of Guciów was functioning in the Early Middle Ages (7th/8th c. -10th/11th c.). It was founded as one of several cemeteries in the vicinity of a dynamically functioning fortified settlement and open ancillary settlements adjacent to it.

The barrows in Guciów were recorded for the first time by Mikołaj Stworzyński in the early 19th century.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Exploratory investigations were carried out by J. Machnik and A. Kulczycka-Leciejewiczowa (Department of Archaeology of Lesser Poland of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków) in 1959. At that time, researchers carried out a survey of the north-western quadrant of burial mound no. 11 at site 1, in the form of two perpendicular 0.5-metre-wide ditches, reaching the centre of the mound. In 1972, the archaeological investigation of burial mound no. 11 were continued by H. Zoll-Adamikowa and S. Alfawicka (Department of Archaeology of Lesser Poland of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków) by exploring the north-western quadrant and part of the south-eastern quadrant. The location and height plan of the site and preliminary inventory of the barrows were drawn up by J. Fellmann under the supervision of M. Drewki in 1955. Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out by H. Wróbel in 1983 and 1999. Burial mound no. 11, the investigations of which have been partially completed (north-western quadrant and part of the south-eastern quadrant) is located in the eastern part of the cemetery. Prior to archaeological investigations the earthen structure of the burial mound was 0.7-0.8 m in height. The base was circular in shape and was around 5.5-6 m in diameter. A particularly noticeable feature on the west side is a crescent-shaped sinkhole next to the burial mound. During the investigations researchers determined the layering of the interior of the earthen structure of the mound and found that originally its diameter was more than 1 metre smaller than the current one. The earthen structure of the burial mound was limited by a ditch alongside the mound. An investigation of the northern part of the north-western quadrant, on the inner slope of the ditch alongside the burial mound revealed the outlines of two posts (?) measuring 15 cm and 40 cm in diameter, which supported some wooden structure, around which the highest concentration of burned bones was recorded. The barrow contained an unspecified number of cremation urn graves, most probably on the surface of the mound. In addition of bones, investigations of the fill of the ditch alongside the burial uncovered fragments of ceramics from four or five vessels, whereas an investigation of the ground beneath the humus with turf on the slope of the eastern quadrant of the earthen structure unearthed a fragment of a bandlike iron object. During the later surface surveys and ad-hoc reconnaissance investigations of the earthen structure of the mounds and the immediate surroundings did not reveal the presence of movable archaeological monuments.

The monument is open to visitors. The cemetery is located on the route of tourist trails of Roztocze and educational paths of the Roztocze National Park.

Compiled by Ewa Prusicka-Kołcon, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 15.09.2014.

 

Bibliography

  • Fellmann J., Pomiary grodzisk i cmentarzysk w Polsce. Metody geodezyjnej inwentaryzacji powierzchniowej, [in:] Metodyka naukowo-techniczna badań archeologicznych i antropologicznych, „Rozprawy Zespołu Badań nad Polskim Średniowieczem UW i PW” 1967, vol. 4, p. 29, 46-48, table XXVI-XXVII.
  • Gurba J., Orłowski R., Mikołaj Stworzyński - nieznany inwentaryzator grodzisk południowej Lubelszczyzny z początków XX w., „Wiadomości Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 23, pp. 69-70.
  • Kaczanowski K., Analiza antropologiczna wczesnośredniowiecznych pochówków ciałopalnych z Guciowa, pow. Zamość, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, p. 183 et seq.
  • Machnik J., Badania archeologiczne na Roztoczu Lubelskim w 1959 roku, „Sprawozdania
  •  Archeologiczne” 1961, vol. 12, pp. 89, 95-99.
  • Nosek S., Materiały do badań nad historią starożytną i wczesnośredniowieczną międzyrzecza Wisły i Bugu, „Annales UMCS” 1951, vol. 6, sec. F, pp. 365, 380.
  • Pawlikowa B., Węgle drzewne z wczesnośredniowiecznych kurhanów ciałopalnych w Guciowie, pow. Zamość i Kornatce, pow. Myślenice, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, p. 192.
  • Zoll-Adamikowa H., Wczesnośredniowieczne cmentarzyska ciałopalne na terenie Polski, Wrocław 1975, part 1: Źródła, pp. 80-81.
  • Zoll-Adamikowa H., Wyniki wstępnych badań wczesnośredniowiecznego zespołu w Guciowie, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, pp. 115-126.

Barrow cemetery in Guciów — site 2 (seven earthen mounds)
Guciów

15 minuts

The barrow cemetery contains the remains of a large settlement complex dating from the Early Middle Ages, which is one of the best preserved complexes of this type in Poland. The complex includes: a fortified settlement and open ancillary settlements adjacent to the fortified centre, and several barrow cemeteries (whose number currently ranges from several to over a hundred barrows), located mostly along the left bank of the Wieprz river. The site is a unique feature of the landscape of the Roztocze National Park and Roztocze.

Location and description

The cemetery in Guciów (site 2) is located approx. 300 m to the west of the western end of the village, to the south of the road leading from Guciów towards Obrocz and the barrow cemetery (site 1), in the part of the forest known locally as ‘Popławek’, right alongside the ditch that separates the private forests from state forests (to the west of it). It is situated on the alluvial terrace of the large valley of the Wieprz river, in the state forest belonging to the Roztocze National Part, within forest division no. 101 of the Zwierzyniec Forest District. Due to additional legal protection the site and the immediate surroundings have been excluded from forest management. The cemetery, which is located on two small sand hills (dunes), consists of seven earthen mounds numbered 26 to 32, situated in two groups of three and four barrows. Their earthen structures are roughly circular in shape, and measure, on average, about 0.5-0,7 m in height and about 7-8 m in diameter. Researchers have not noted any intensive levelling of the mounds, since the forest surroundings effectively protects the earthen structure against erosion by water or other natural agents, as well as any traces of activity of ‘treasure hunters’ in this area. The location of the barrows within the boundaries of the Roztocze National Park is conducive to their protection and protects them against unwanted interference with the historic structure of the site.

History

The barrow cemetery (site 2) which is located within the area of the current village of Guciów was functioning in the Early Middle Ages (7th/8th c. - 9th c.). It was founded as one of several cemeteries in the vicinity of a dynamically functioning fortified settlement and open ancillary settlements adjacent to it.

The barrows in Guciów were recorded for the first time by Mikołaj Stworzyński in the early 19th century.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Exploratory investigations were carried out by J. Machnik and A. Kulczycka-Leciejewiczowa (Department of Archaeology of Lesser Poland of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków) in 1959. The investigations of site 2 involved excavating an elongated 0.5-metre wide survey ditch through the whole earthen structure of burial mound no. 29. The location and height plan of the site and preliminary inventory of the barrows were drawn up by J. Fellmann under the supervision of M. Drewki in 1955. Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out by H. Wróbel in 1983. Burial mound no. 29, which has been partially investigated based on a survey excavation, is located in the northern group of four barrows. Prior to archaeological investigations the earthen structure of the mound was 0.6 m in height. The base was circular in shape and was around 7-8 m in diameter. Investigations of the northern and western side of the mound have revealed traces of a ditch running alongside the barrow. During the investigations researchers determined the layering of the interior of the earthen structure of the mound, including traces of burnt material at the base of the mound, while an investigation of the layer of an undisturbed sand soil revealed two obscurations positioned across the excavation, at a distance of 0.8 m in parallel to each other. Researchers have found that originally the mound was smaller in diameter than currently. The earthen structure of the burial mound was limited by a ditch alongside the mound. The barrow contained an unspecified number of cremation urn graves, most probably on the surface of the mound. Excavations of the site have uncovered fragments of three vessels, including two vessels under the turf on the northern and southern slopes and in the fill of the ditch running alongside the barrow, and the third vessel in the cremation layer. During the later surface surveys and ad-hoc reconnaissance investigations of the earthen structure of the mounds and the immediate surroundings did not reveal the presence of movable archaeological monuments.

Limited access to the monument. Viewing of the cemetery is only possible by arrangement with the management of the Roztocze National Park.

Compiled by Ewa Prusicka-Kołcon, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 15.09.2014.

 

Bibliography

  • Fellmann J., Pomiary grodzisk i cmentarzysk w Polsce. Metody geodezyjnej inwentaryzacji powierzchniowej, [in:] Metodyka naukowo-techniczna badań archeologicznych i antropologicznych, „Rozprawy Zespołu Badań nad Polskim Średniowieczem UW i PW” 1967, vol. 4, p. 29, 46-48, table XXVI-XXVII.
  • Gurba J., Orłowski R., Mikołaj Stworzyński - nieznany inwentaryzator grodzisk południowej Lubelszczyzny z początków XX w., „Wiadomości Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 23, pp. 69-70.
  • Kaczanowski K., Analiza antropologiczna wczesnośredniowiecznych pochówków ciałopalnych z Guciowa, pow. Zamość, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, p. 183 et seq.
  • Machnik J., Badania archeologiczne na Roztoczu Lubelskim w 1959 roku, „Sprawozdania
  • Archeologiczne” 1961, vol. 12, pp. 89, 95-99.
  • Nosek S., Materiały do badań nad historią starożytną i wczesnośredniowieczną międzyrzecza Wisły i Bugu, „Annales UMCS” 1951, vol. 6, sec. F, pp. 365, 380.
  • Pawlikowa B., Węgle drzewne z wczesnośredniowiecznych kurhanów ciałopalnych w Guciowie, pow. Zamość i Kornatce, pow. Myślenice, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, p. 192.
  • Zoll-Adamikowa H., Wczesnośredniowieczne cmentarzyska ciałopalne na terenie Polski, Wrocław 1975, part 1: Źródła, pp. 80-81.
  • Zoll-Adamikowa H., Wyniki wstępnych badań wczesnośredniowiecznego zespołu w Guciowie, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, pp. 115-126.

transport time to the next site

1 min

Barrow cemetery in Guciów — site 3 (twenty four earthen mounds)
Guciów

30 minutes

The barrow cemetery contains the remains of a large settlement complex dating from the Early Middle Ages, which is one of the best preserved complexes of this type in Poland. The complex includes: a fortified settlement and open ancillary settlements adjacent to the fortified centre, and several barrow cemeteries (whose number currently ranges from several to over a hundred barrows), located mostly along the left bank of the Wieprz river. The site is a unique feature of the landscape of the Roztocze National Park and Roztocze.

Location and description

The barrow cemetery in Guciów (site 3) is located about 500 m to the west of the Guciów village buildings and about 300 m to the south of the road leading from Guciów towards Obrocz. It is situated on a small hill the left-bank part of the valley of a nameless watercourse flowing into the Wieprz river. It is located within the boundaries of forest division no. 195 of the Zwierzyniec Forest District, at the site known locally as ‘Popławek’, in the area of the Roztocze National Park. Due to additional legal protection the site and the immediate surroundings have been excluded from forest management. The cemetery consists of twenty four burial mounds numbered 36 to 59, which are arranged in a semicircle from the north to the south and to the south-west. Small earthen mounds are located in three clusters (three barrows and eight and thirteen barrows in each) in an area covering about 1 ha. Their earthen structures are roughly circular and oval in shape, and measure, on average, 0.3-0,7 m in height and 7-8 m in diameter. Researchers have not noted any severe levelling of the mounds, since the forest surroundings effectively protects the earthen structure against erosion by water or other natural agents, as well as any traces of activity of ‘treasure hunters’ in this area. The location of the barrows under consideration within the boundaries of the Roztocze National Park is conducive to their protection and protects them against unwanted interference with the historic structure of the site.

History

The barrow cemetery (site 3) which is located within the area of the current village of Guciów was functioning in the Early Middle Ages (7th/8th c. - 8th/9th c.). It was founded as one of several cemeteries in the vicinity of a dynamically functioning fortified settlement and open ancillary settlements adjacent to it. The barrows in Guciów were recorded for the first time by Mikołaj Stworzyński in the early 19th century.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Exploratory investigations were carried out by J. Machnik and A. Kulczycka-Leciejewiczowa (Department of Archaeology of Lesser Poland of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków) in 1959. At that time, burial mound no. 43 was entirely investigated. The location and height plan of the site and preliminary inventory of the barrows were drawn up by J. Fellmann under the supervision of M. Drewki in 1955. Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out by H. Wróbel in 1983. Mound no. 43, which has been entirely investigated, is located in the group of eight barrows situated in the northern part of the cemetery. The poor state of preservation of the structure at this location is due to the erosion of the layers which proceeds on steeply sloping surface of the mound to the north. Prior to archaeological investigations the earthen structure of the burial mound was 0.6 m in height. The base was circular in shape and was 7-8 m in diameter. During the investigations researchers determined the layering of the mound and found hollows formed by excavating earth to the north-west. The hollows have the shape of a ditch which is 1.5 m wide and 0.4 m thick. Researchers found that it was highly probable that the burial mound contained an urn grave located in the pit and a certain form of a grave on the surface of the mound, in which most likely one dead person (or a few more) was buried. Archaeologists also analysed pieces of ceramics and managed to identify fragments of fifteen vessels, which were deposited in several clusters, with the exception of several dozens of shells of one specimen and single fragments of ceramics from six different vessels found within one cluster. During the later surface surveys and ad-hoc reconnaissance investigations of the earthen structure of the mounds and the immediate surroundings did not reveal the presence of movable archaeological monuments.

Limited access to the monument. Viewing of the barrow cemetery is only possible by arrangement with the management of the Roztocze National Park.

Compiled by Ewa Prusicka-Kołcon, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 16.08.2014.

 

Bibliography

  • Fellmann J., Pomiary grodzisk i cmentarzysk w Polsce. Metody geodezyjnej inwentaryzacji powierzchniowej, [in:] Metodyka naukowo-techniczna badań archeologicznych i antropologicznych, „Rozprawy Zespołu Badań nad Polskim Średniowieczem UW i PW” 1967, vol. 4, p. 29, 46-48, table XXVI-XXVII.
  • Gurba J., Orłowski R., Mikołaj Stworzyński - nieznany inwentaryzator grodzisk południowej Lubelszczyzny z początków XX w., „Wiadomości Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 23, pp. 69-70.
  • Kaczanowski K., Analiza antropologiczna wczesnośredniowiecznych pochówków ciałopalnych z Guciowa, pow. Zamość, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, p. 183 et seq.
  • Machnik J., Badania archeologiczne na Roztoczu Lubelskim w 1959 roku, „Sprawozdania
  • Archeologiczne” 1961, vol. 12, pp. 89, 95-99.
  • Nosek S., Materiały do badań nad historią starożytną i wczesnośredniowieczną międzyrzecza Wisły i Bugu, „Annales UMCS” 1951, vol. 6, sec. F, pp. 365, 380.
  • Pawlikowa B., Węgle drzewne z wczesnośredniowiecznych kurhanów ciałopalnych w Guciowie, pow. Zamość i Kornatce, pow. Myślenice, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, p. 192.
  • Zoll-Adamikowa H., Wczesnośredniowieczne cmentarzyska ciałopalne na terenie Polski, Wrocław 1975, part 1: Źródła, pp. 85-86.
  • Zoll-Adamikowa H., Wyniki wstępnych badań wczesnośredniowiecznego zespołu w Guciowie, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, pp. 115-126.

transport time to the next site

15 min

Barrow cemetery in Guciów — site 4 (fifty four earthen mounds)
Guciów

30 minutes

The barrow cemetery contains the remains of a large settlement complex dating from the Early Middle Ages, which is one of the best preserved complexes of this type in Poland. The complex includes: a fortified settlement and open ancillary settlements adjacent to the fortified centre, and several barrow cemeteries (whose number currently ranges from several to over a hundred barrows), located mostly along the left bank of the Wieprz river. The site is a unique feature of the landscape of the Roztocze National Park and Roztocze.

Location and descripition

The cemetery in Guciów (site 4) is located approx. 1 m to the western end of the village of Guciów and approx. 350 m to the north of the Guciów to Obrocz road. It is situated on the high left alluvial terrace of the Wieprz river. It is sited in the state forest belonging to the Roztocze National Part, within forest divisions no. 185 and 186, at the location known as ‘Łomy’. It is located on both sides of a forest clearing to the north of the Guciów-Obrocz road. Due to additional legal protection the site and the immediate surroundings have been excluded from forest management. The cemetery occupies an area of approx. 5 ha and consists of fifty four mounds numbered 76 to 129,disorderly arranged in a cluster (except for mound no. 76, separated from other mounds by a distance of approx. 30 m to the north). The earthen structures of the mounds are roughly circular and oval in shape, and measure, on average, about 0.5-0,8 m in height and about 8 m in diameter. Researchers have not noted any severe levelling of the mounds, since the forest surroundings effectively protects the earthen structure against erosion by water or other natural agents, as well as any traces of activity of ‘treasure hunters’ in this area. The location of the barrows under consideration within the boundaries of the Roztocze National Park is conducive to their protection and protects them against unwanted interference with the historic structure of the site.

History

The barrow cemetery (site 4) which is located within the area of the current village of Guciów was functioning in the Early Middle Ages (8th c. - 9th c.). It was founded as one of several cemeteries in the vicinity of a dynamically functioning fortified settlement and open ancillary settlements adjacent to it.
The barrows in Guciów were recorded for the first time by Mikołaj Stworzyński in the early 19th century.

Condition and results of archaeology research

Exploratory investigations were carried out by J. Machnik and A. Kulczycka-Leciejewiczowa (Department of Archaeology of Lesser Poland of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków) in 1959. At that time, the researchers investigated a part of burial mound no. 99 at site 4 by excavating the site of two 0.7-metre-wide perpendicular diches reaching the centre of the mound, in the south-eastern quadrant (along the axis of the quadrant). The location and height plan of the site and preliminary inventory of the barrows were drawn up by J. Fellmann under the supervision of M. Drewki in 1955. Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out by H. Wróbel in 1983. Mound no.99 which has been partially investigated is situated almost in the central part of the cemetery, on the eastern site of the forest clearing. Prior to archaeological investigations the earthen structure of the barrow was 0.6-0.7 m in height. The base was circular in shape and was 6 m in diameter. During the investigations researchers determined the layering of the interior of the earthen structure of the mound and found that the barrow was surrounded by a ditch which was up to 0.7 m deep. An investigation of the coating of the earthen structure on the top of the mound and in the fill of the ditch running alongside the barrow revealed burned bones of the skeleton of an adult and fragments of ceramics originating from several vessels. Ceramic vessels were also found in the cremation layer. The interpretation of the findings from the investigations indicates that burial mound no. 99 contained a cremation burial on the surface of the mound with proper cremation performed outside the site of the mound. During the later surface surveys and ad-hoc reconnaissance investigations of the earthen structure of the mounds and the immediate surroundings did not reveal the presence of movable archaeological monuments.

Limited access to the monument. Viewing of the barrow cemetery is only possible by arrangement with the management of the Roztocze National Park.

Compiled by Ewa Prusicka-Kołcon, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 16.08.2014.

 

Bibliography

  • Fellmann J., Pomiary grodzisk i cmentarzysk w Polsce. Metody geodezyjnej inwentaryzacji powierzchniowej, [in:] Metodyka naukowo-techniczna badań archeologicznych i antropologicznych, „Rozprawy Zespołu Badań nad Polskim Średniowieczem UW i PW” 1967, vol. 4, p. 29, 46-48, table XXVI-XXVII.
  • Gurba J., Orłowski R., Mikołaj Stworzyński - nieznany inwentaryzator grodzisk południowej Lubelszczyzny z początków XX w., „Wiadomości Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 23, pp. 69-70.
  • Kaczanowski K., Analiza antropologiczna wczesnośredniowiecznych pochówków ciałopalnych z Guciowa, pow. Zamość, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, p. 183 et seq. Fellmann
  • Machnik J., Badania archeologiczne na Roztoczu Lubelskim w 1959 roku, „Sprawozdania
  • Archeologiczne” 1961, vol. 12, pp. 89, 95-99.
  • Nosek S., Materiały do badań nad historią starożytną i wczesnośredniowieczną międzyrzecza Wisły i Bugu, „Annales UMCS” 1951, vol. 6, sec. F, pp. 365, 380.
  • Pawlikowa B., Węgle drzewne z wczesnośredniowiecznych kurhanów ciałopalnych w Guciowie, pow. Zamość i Kornatce, pow. Myślenice, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, p. 192.
  • Zoll-Adamikowa H., Wczesnośredniowieczne cmentarzyska ciałopalne na terenie Polski, Wrocław 1975, part 1: Źródła, pp. 80-81.
  • Zoll-Adamikowa H., Wyniki wstępnych badań wczesnośredniowiecznego zespołu w Guciowie, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, pp. 115-126.

transport time to the next site

3 min

Barrow cemetery in Guciów — site 5 (one hundred one earthen mounds)
Guciów

one hour

The barrow cemetery contains the remains of a large settlement complex dating from the Early Middle Ages, which is one of the best preserved complexes of this type in Poland. The complex includes: a fortified settlement and open ancillary settlements adjacent to the fortified centre, and several barrow cemeteries (whose number currently ranges from several to over a hundred barrows), located mostly along the left bank of the Wieprz river. The site is a unique feature of the landscape of the Roztocze National Park and Roztocze.

Location and description

The cemetery in Guciów (site 5) is located approx. 250 m to the north of the intersection of the Bondyrz to Obrocz road with the forest road to the village of Kosobudy. It is situated on both sides of the road, on a terrace of the right bank of the Wieprz river gently sloping towards the south-west. It is sited at the foot of the western slopes of Stokowa Góra in the part of the state forest known locally as ‘Stoki’ belonging to the Roztocze National Park, on forest plots no. 227 and 228 of the Kosobudy Forest District. Due to additional legal protection the site and the immediate surroundings have been excluded from forest management. The cemetery consists of one hundred one mounds numbered 130 to 230 and occupies and area of about 5 ha. Their earthen structures are roughly circular in shape, and measure, on average, about 0.5-0,7 m in height and about 7-8 m in diameter. Researchers have not noted any severe levelling of the mounds, since the forest surroundings effectively protects the earthen structure against erosion by water or other natural agents, as well as any traces of activity of ‘treasure hunters’ in this area. The location of the barrows within the boundaries of the Roztocze National Park is conducive to their protection and protects them against unwanted interference with the historic structure of the site.

History

The barrow cemetery (site 5) which is located within the area of the current village of Guciów was functioning in the Early Middle Ages (7th c. - 8th c.). It was founded as one of several cemeteries in the vicinity of a dynamically functioning fortified settlement and open ancillary settlements adjacent to it. The barrows in Guciów were recorded for the first time by Mikołaj Stworzyński in the early 19th century.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Exploratory investigations were carried out by J. Machnik and A. Kulczycka-Leciejewiczowa (Department of Archaeology of Lesser Poland of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków) in 1959. At that time, researchers investigated a part of burial mound no. 161 at site 5 by excavating an elongated 0.7-wide ditch along the northwest - southeast axis (approximately). In 1972, the archaeological investigation of burial mound no. 161 were continued by H. Zoll-Adamikowa and S. Alfawicka (Department of Archaeology of Lesser Poland of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków) by exploring the western quadrant and part of the eastern quadrant. The location and height plan of the site and preliminary inventory of the barrows were drawn up by J. Fellmann in 1972. Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out by H. Wróbel in 1983. Burial mound no. 161 which has been partially investigated before commencement of archaeological works was circular in shape, slightly more flattened from the west and south, and 7-8 m in diameter and 0.7-1 m in height. During the investigations researchers determined the layering of the interior of the earthen structure of the mound and found a pit alongside the burial mound from the north and north-east side. An investigation of the cremation layer of the burrow revealed elongated obscurations (traces of beams?) and three circular stains (pillars?), probably the remains of an unspecified structure on the perimeter of the original grave with a large amount of secondarily burned ceramics and charred pine chips. A large concentration of burned bones was recorded directly under the humus, mainly in the fill of the ditch running alongside the burial mound, only a small number at the top and on the slopes of the western and eastern quadrant. Movable materials obtained from investigations of the site included pieces of burned ceramics from at least four vessels (additional vessels as vessels with food) and an irregular iron rod. The interpretation of the findings from the investigations indicates that burial mound no. 161 contained a cremation burial(s) on the surface of the mound with proper cremation performed outside the site of the mound. During the later surface surveys and ad-hoc reconnaissance investigations of the earthen structure of the mounds and the immediate surroundings did not reveal the presence of movable archaeological monuments.

Limited access to the monument. Viewing of the barrow cemetery is only possible by arrangement with the management of the Roztocze National Park.

Compiled by Ewa Prusicka-Kołcon, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 15.08.2014.

 

Bibliography

  • Fellmann J., Pomiary grodzisk i cmentarzysk w Polsce. Metody geodezyjnej inwentaryzacji powierzchniowej, [in:] Metodyka naukowo-techniczna badań archeologicznych i antropologicznych, „Rozprawy Zespołu Badań nad Polskim Średniowieczem UW i PW” 1967, vol. 4, p. 29, 46-48, table XXVI-XXVII.
  • Gurba J., Orłowski R., Mikołaj Stworzyński nieznany inwentaryzator grodzisk południowej Lubelszczyzny z początków XX w., „Wiadomości Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 23, pp. 69-70.
  • Kaczanowski K., Analiza antropologiczna wczesnośredniowiecznych pochówków ciałopalnych z Guciowa, pow. Zamość, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, p. 183 et seq.
  • Machnik J., Badania archeologiczne na Roztoczu Lubelskim w 1959 roku, „Sprawozdania
  • Archeologiczne” 1961, vol. 12, pp. 89, 95-99.
  • Nosek S., Materiały do badań nad historią starożytną i wczesnośredniowieczną międzyrzecza Wisły i Bugu, „Annales UMCS” 1951, vol. 6, sec. F, pp. 365, 380.
  • Pawlikowa B., Węgle drzewne z wczesnośredniowiecznych kurhanów ciałopalnych w Guciowie, pow. Zamość i Kornatce, pow. Myślenice, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, p. 192.
  • Zoll-Adamikowa H., Wczesnośredniowieczne cmentarzyska ciałopalne na terenie Polski, Wrocław 1975, part 1: Źródła, pp. 86-89.
  • Zoll-Adamikowa H., Wyniki wstępnych badań wczesnośredniowiecznego zespołu w Guciowie, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1974, vol. 26, pp. 115-126.

transport time to the next site

37 min

Barrow cemetery
Lipsko-Polesie

30 minutes

Barrow cemetery dating back to the early Middle Ages, one of those best examined by excavations in Poland. It is a unique component in the landscape of the Padół Zamojski area.

Location and description

The barrow cemetery is situated at the top of a 268 m.a.s.l. hill stretching from south-east to north-west, approx. 300 m in straight line from one of springs of the Topornica River and St. Roman’s Chapel, a local place of worship of the saint, nearby village buildings, in a plough field and fallow, and forming part of private plots of land.

Out of about 70 barrows identified in the burial ground in 1922, 24-25 mounds have survived to the present day in an area of 12,570 m2 under conservation protection and converted to non-agricultural use. The average height of the mounds is 20-50 cm, some of them marking their presence as a small bulge of the ground surface of 10-30 cm in height. These are graves containing cremation burials from the early Middle Ages.

History

The barrow cemetery was discovered in 1921 by Michał Drewko. In 1922, when the excavation work first started, the cemetery consisted of about 70 barrows situated in the Zamoyski Family Fee Tail forest. The mounds were in a very good state of conservation at the time. The earthen structures were of approx. 1 m in height, with some rising to about 2 m. The density of the structures was very high, most of the mounds almost abutting on each other. They were located in 2 groups: the southern group (at least 42 barrows) and the northern one (at least 12 barrows). In 1950, when a topographic plan was drawn up, the site consisted of about 60 earthen mounds of 30-100 cm in height, on a circular or sometimes oval plan. The largest barrow, oval in shape, stood 2 m and measured 12 x 22 m at the base. In the late 1960s/early 1970s, the earthen structures of 32 mounds were levelled and ploughed, as the fee tail land was parcelled out, trees were cleared, and the burial ground was turned into cropland. In 1968, the preserved part of the burial ground with an area of 29,475 m2, comprising 28 barrows in various state of preservation, was inscribed on the register of monuments. The mounds basically stood 20-50 cm high, with diameters at base ranging between 3 and 9 m. Currently some 24-25 barrows are discernible; they are converted to non-agricultural use and are held as fallow land.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Excavations at the site were conducted in 1922-23 and 1952-1956 by Michał Drewko for the State Archaeological Museum in Warsaw. The topographic plan of the site was drawn up by Stanisław Miłoszewski in 1950. Surface surveys under the Archaeological Picture of Poland project were conducted at the site in 1997 by Jerzy Kuśnierz.

During six excavation seasons, at least 38 graves were examined. The surveys identified an urn cremation cemetery. According to the survey results, the barrows of the northern group were circular, of a rather uniform size (approx. 5-6 m on average), with a height of approx. 0.5 m (in 1922) and 0.1-0.2 m (in 1952), with a trace of a mound ditch around the barrows. The surface of the primary topsoil was found to be covered with about 20 cm of clean, non-humus earth, with a thin layer of burnt material on top of this bedding, and sometimes (in the 1922-1923 surveys), large chunks of charred pine wood on intensively burned reddish ground. Burned human bones (including teeth) and fragments of clay vessels were found in the mound (the latter were usually deposited around the perimeter of the barrows). The barrows of the northern group had a more distinct crematory layer, containing more numerous human bones. The pottery found in the mounds was more advanced than the vessels in the barrows of the northern group. Heavily coated specimens prevailed, grey and brown in colour, made of clay with a high content of leaning additive, ornamented with horizontal or wavy grooves.

The barrows of the southern group displayed greater diversity in terms of form and size (circular and about 20% oval, usually larger ones). The construction of the barrows of the southern group was similar to those of the northern group. However, they contained inside poorly visible traces of the crematory layer, as well as very few small fragments of pottery. The original humus layer was covered with a 10-20 cm layer of pure loess bedding, with traces of the crematory layer on top of it, in the centre of the mound, with a diameter usually ranging between 1.50 and 3.60 m. The soil under the burnt material layer did not show any traces of burning, whereas the thin underlay of clay deposited directly above the burned material was strongly burned. The crematory layer and the burned clay above it were usually 10-15 cm in thickness. Above and in the vicinity of the crematory layer, small pieces of burned bones were found. When erecting a mound, earth was usually taken from one side, i.e. the side on which barrow slopes were usually less steep. Some graves differed from the described typical interior construction: a barrow without a number (examined in the years 1922-23), No 25, No 27, 35, No 44, No 45, No 52, No 56, No 58, No 59, No 60, No 63, No 64, No 65, No 67. Owing to its construction and the artefacts recovered, barrow No 35 (as numbered by M. Drewko), examined in 1953, deserves attention - it was the largest and best-preserved mound in the burial ground, situated in the northern part of the main, circular cluster of graves. It was oval-shaped, with base dimensions of 24.5 x 12.50 m and 1.80 m in height. According to surveys, the mound base outline was originally smaller at 22.5 x 10 m. The earthen structure was surrounded by a mound ditch. In the central part of the barrow, at a depth of 40 cm, below the former land surface, there was a man-made pit with a length of 3.20 m, towards which the ground lowered gently over a length of 1.60 m. At the bottom of the pit, there was an aggregation of 60 small stones and a dozen or so loosely scattered ones. On and above the stones, there were lumps of burned clay and a few charcoals, whereas in the north-western part of the pit there was ashen-grey earth, probably remains of ashes. Small pieces of burned human and animal bones were very rare, as were pieces of pottery (sacrificial vessels?). Above the pit fill, a layer of pure clay was deposited, with a younger excavation made in it - a pit with a length of 6.20 and width of approx. 3 m. The pit bottom was filled with a layer of lumps of burned clay with dark-brown earth and a few charcoals of 5-12 cm in thickness. The main bulk of the historic material was situated in earth that has flown down from the top of the barrow (traces of urns placed at the top of the barrow) Apart from clay urns, other movable historic items recovered in the course of examination of the barrow included an iron spur, an arrowhead, a fragment of an iron knife, and a single red bead.

The site is accessible to visitors.

compiled by Ewa Prusicka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 02-04-2015.

Bibliography

  • Drewko M., Sprawozdanie z działalności Państwowego Urzędu Konserwatorskiego na Okręg Lubelski, “Wiadomości Archeologiczne”, 1921, vol. 6, p. 183.
  • Drewko M., Sprawozdanie z działalności Państwowego Konserwatora Zabytków Przedhistorycznych na Okręg Lubelski za rok 1922, “Wiadomości Archeologiczne”, 1923, vol. 8, pp. 100-101.
  • Antoniewicz W., Archeologia Polski. Zarys czasów przedhistorycznych i wczesnodziejowych ziem Polski, Warszawa 1928, p. 243.
  • Nosek S., Materiały do badań nad historią starożytną i wczesnośredniowieczną międzyrzecza Wisły i Bugu, Annales UMCS, vol. VI, sec. F, 1951 (print 1957), p. 348.
  • Drewko M., Prace wykopaliskowe na wczesnośredniowiecznym cmentarzysku kurhanowym we wsi Lipsko, pow. Zamość, “Sprawozdania PMA”, vol. II, 1956, pp. 82-84.
  • Drewko M., Sprawozdanie z badań przeprowadzonych w 1955 r. na wczesnośredniowiecznym cmentarzysku kurhanowym we wsi Lipsko, pow. zamojski, Sprawozdania Archeologiczne”, vol. III, 1957, pp. 165-168.
  • Drewko M., Wczesnośredniowieczne kurhany ciałopalne we wsi Lipsko, pow. Zamość, “Sprawozdania PMA”, vol. V, 1953, fasc. 3-4, pp. 36-41.
  • Drewko M., Wielki kurhan wczesnośredniowiecznego cmentarzyska we wsi Lipsko, pow. Zamość, “Wiadomości Archeologiczne”, 1954, vol. XX, pp. 307-309.
  • Prusicka-Kołcon E., Wczesnośredniowieczne cmentarzyska kurhanowe w Lipsku Polesiu i Mokem, “Zamojski Kwartalnik Kulturalny”, 2008, No. 3, pp. 14-18.

transport time to the next site

44 min

Hillfort
Bronisławka

one hour

The existing burgstall is all that remains of an early medieval hillfort and castle which had stood here both during the late Middle Ages and in the early modern period, serving as the seat of the starosta (alderman) of the Grabowiec district - part of the Bełż province. Its distinguishing features are its location - on the top of the hill that looms above the surrounding terrain - as well as its long and complex history.

Location and description

The burgstall is located on the site of the Bronisławka village, at the north-western edge thereof, in the immediate vicinity of the border with Grabowiec; in spite of this, however, the burgstall continues to be referred to as the Grabowiec hillfort and burgstall in the literature on the subject. It is located atop a hill known as “Góra Zamkowa” (Castle Hill) which rises above the surrounding terrain. Towards the west and the north of the hill lies the Kalinówka river valley, while a road leading towards Hrubieszów and Zamość leads at the foot of the hill, adjoining it to the west.

The hill which had served as the site of the now-vanished hillfort and castle is artificially separated from the rest of the loess plateau promontory by a moat, forming an oval landform with dimensions of approximately 60 x 110 metres, its relative height being about 35 metres. All that survives of the now-vanished fortified complex are the traces of the moat, fragments of which can still be easily discerned towards the south and east, with the terrain flowing seamlessly into a small plateau towards the west. Parts of the ramparts towards the east have also been preserved. At the western edge of the burgstall there is a large earthen mound with three crosses at the top, built during the January Uprising. Today, the entire hill is completely disused, overgrown by trees and shrubs.

History

Based on the cultural layers and the ceramic artefacts and other moveable items obtained from the site, it has been determined that a hillfort existed in Bronisławka back in the early Middle Ages; it was later replaced by a castle that stood there between the 14th and 18th century. Back in the prehistoric period, the area was inhabited by the representatives of the Lublin-Volhynia neolithic culture.

The first mentions of Grabowiec appear in Ruthenian sources dating back to 1208, while the Grabowiec hillfort is first referred to in a chronicle of the Kingdom of Galicia-Volhynia from 1268. There are also numerous mentions of the Grabowiec castle in written sources. After 1772, the castle ceased to serve as the seat of the local starosta and was converted into a prison, while in 1807 it was sold by the state authorities to one Felkis Radziejowski. Soon afterwards, during the period before 1819 as well as around 1837, the majority of the structure was demolished. The first mentions of the Grabowiec hillfort in the literature on the subject were made by S. Nosek in 1957.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Surface research within the framework of the “Archaeological Picture of Poland” research programme was carried out in 1971 and 1995.

The excavation research on the site was performed in 1968 by Andrzej Kutyłowski and Jan Gurba from the Department of Archaeology (currently Institute of Archaeology) of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University in Lublin. Two trial excavations were made at the top of the hill, their dimensions being 5 x 10 metres; they were located near the old excavations made during the interwar period in an amateur effort at exploring the history of the site, with one being located in the western part of the hill and the other in the north-eastern section thereof. The researchers explored mixed layers without reaching the undisturbed soil below, with the depth of excavations being 130 and 210 centimetres on site no. 1 and 2 respectively. In 1971, Maria Supryn, representing the Historical Monument Conservation Workshop (PP PKZ) branch office in Lublin, carried out further excavation works on the site. Right before the commencement of excavation research, a total of 16 geological boreholes were made in selected sections of the hillfort in order to ensure the preliminary identification of the undisturbed soil levels and the depth of the cultural layers. The research was performed in six stages: excavation no. 1 (dimensions: 5 x 5 metres) in the western part of the hill, created through the broadening of the existing 1968 research excavation; excavation no. 2 (dimensions: 5 x 5 metres) in the northern part of the hill, created through the broadening of the existing 1968 research excavation towards the west; excavation no. 3 (dimensions: 5 x 5 metres) in the central part of the hill; excavation no. 4 (dimensions: 5 x 2.5 metres) at the end of the road leading towards the hill, on the inner side of the ramparts where it was believed remnants of gatehouse structures would be located; excavation no. 5 (dimensions: 5 x 2 metres) inside the moat and excavation no. 6 (dimensions: 3 x 1.5 metres) on a hill near the Castle Hill, made in order to determine whether there were any surviving traces of an open settlement there.

The location and height plan of the site was drawn up by K. Bęcek and J. Smok in 1986.

Based on the research performed, it has been determined that there were in fact three distinct phases in the history of the Castle Hill. The earliest phase is linked with the presence of a prehistoric settlement during the neolithic period. It is from that period that fragments of ceramic vessels, stone and flint artefacts and a skeletal grave that have been found here all originate, forming the remnants of the Lublin-Volhynia culture settlement that existed here. The second phase, beginning in the 12th century, is the phase during which a hillfort appeared on the site. It has been determined in the course of research performed that before the structure itself was built, a part of the hilltop has been artificially levelled. Remnants of other structures linked to the vanished hillfort have been identified in the lower sections of the excavation no. 1 - parts of what is believed to have been a house as well as remains of a hole in the ground which was excavated either to serve as a place for a furnace or as part of a larger, residential structure. It is also from this period that the traces of fortified structures discovered in excavation no. 4 originate; these take the form of earthen ramparts without any additional wooden reinforcements. The four pits discovered in excavation no. 3 which had been most likely created for storage purposes are also from the same period. The third, final phase in the history of the site involves the presence of a castle which was erected here during the 14th century; this phase can be discerned in varying degrees throughout the site. Very little remains from the earliest period of this phase (between the 14th and the 15th century); the relics dating back to the 16th and 17th century are likewise scarce, having most likely been levelled somewhere around the mid-17th century, when the castle underwent a comprehensive restoration. It was during that period that the moat has also been deepened; as a result, only early modern artefacts have been unearthed in the soil at the bottom of the moat, within the layer with a thickness of between 0.3 and 1.4 metres. Most of the artefacts in question dated back to the 17th and 18th century. The thickness of the deposited layers on the site of the former inner courtyard of the hillfort was approximately 4 metres. A layer of limestone rubble discovered in the excavation no. 2 is believed to be related to early modern developments which took place on the site of the courtyard, before the general redesign of the castle itself, with the layer of rubble in question being interpreted as having either served to reinforce the edge of the flat top of the hill or as having been left there after an unidentified building has been demolished.

Numerous moveable artefacts have been unearthed in all of the excavations. These were mostly fragments of clay vessels as well as of tiled stoves and glassware; an abundance of metal, bone and stone artefacts has also been unearthed. The notable artefacts found on the site include a number of coins - a silver one-and-a-halfer (półtorak) from the period of the reign of king Sigismund III Vasa dating back to 1625, a silver Lithuanian shilling (szeląg), likewise from the period of Sigismund III Vasa (1626) and a copper shilling from the era of king John Casimir (1666); there were also stone foundry moulds from the 12th-14th century, iron heads of crossbow bolts and arrows from the 13th century and fragments of glass bracelets dating back to the period between the 12th and the 13th century.

Unlimited access to the historic site.

compiled by Ewa Prusicka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 14-02-2015.

Bibliography

  • Nosek S., Materiały do badań nad historią starożytną i wczesnośredniowieczną międzyrzecza Wisły i Bugu, „Annales UMCS”, Vol. VI, sec. F, 1951 (1957), Lublin-Kraków, s. 350.
  • Gurba J., Grodziska Lubelszczyzny, Lublin 1976.
  • Banasiewicz E., Grodziska i zamczyska Zamojszczyzny, Zamość 1990, s. 62-64.
  • Kutyłowski A., Gurba J., Grabowiec, pow. Hrubieszów, „Informator Archeologiczny. Badania rok 1968”, 1969, s. 344.
  • Kutyłowski A., Gurba J., Opracowanie materiałów wykopaliskowych z wykopalisk prowadzonych w 1968 roku w Grabowcu, powiat Hrubieszów, Lublin 1968 (mps w Archiwum WUOZ w Lublinie Delegatura w Zamościu).
  • Supryn M., Grabowiec, pow. Hrubieszów, „Informator Archeologiczny. Badania 1971 roku”, 1972, s. 170-171.
  • Supryn M., Grabowiec, pow. Hrubieszów, woj. lubelskie. Dokumentacja z badań archeologicznych przeprowadzonych na stanowisku "Góra Zamkowa" - wykonana na zlecenie PWRN Wydział Kultury Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Lublinie, Lublin 1972 (mps w Archiwum WUOZ w Lublinie Delegatura w Zamościu).
  • Supryn M., Informacja o badaniach archeologicznych na stanowisku „Góra Zamkowa” Grabowcu, pow. Hrubieszów, „Biuletyn TRH”, 1972, R. 10, nr 2, s. 19-23.
  • Prusicka E., Zamek Grabowiec - wyniki badań archeologicznych [w:] Zamki Lubelszczyzny w źródłach archeologicznych, Lublin 2015, s. 115-126

transport time to the next site

39 min

The hillfort and ancillary settlement, site no. 1 (hillfort) and 2 (ancillary settlement)
Czermno

one hour

The hillfort is what remains today of the historic fortified settlement of Czerwień (Cherven), one of the so-called Cherven Towns. It is estimated that the settlement complex in Czermno occupied an area of approx. 40 hectares. It consisted of the main hillfort, an ancillary settlement immediately adjacent to the fort as well as open ancillary settlements and burial grounds located slightly further away.

Location and description

The hillfort is located to the south-east of the cluster of houses which form the Czermno village, in the surrounding meadows situated at the fork of the Huczwa and Sieniocha rivers. The site is locally known as “Zamczysko” (The Burgstall). A fortified ancillary settlement, known locally as “Wały” (The Ramparts) or “Mały Zamek” (The Little Castle) is located in the immediate vicinity of the former hillfort; a further ancillary settlement, located slightly further away, is locally referred to as “Podzamcze” (Castle Grounds), while the area of the former open settlements carries the name “Mieścisko”, which suggests that it had once been the site of a now-vanished town.

The surviving remains of the historical Cherven complex is the hillfort and the ancillary settlements covering an area of about 3.5 hectares in total, or about 40 hectares if we also include the open settlements and burial grounds. The site is located in a waterlogged Huczwa and Sieniocha river valley; once a swampy, inaccessible territory, the valley has since been partially drained following the construction of a melioration system. The hillfort itself is of the lowland type, its earthen structures erected on a level terrain. The hillfort is a ring-shaped structure, its dimensions being 155 x 119 metres; the ramparts, rising to the height of up to about 6 metres above the bottom of the valley, have been preserved in a relatively good condition. Around the hillfort itself, there are also traces of ancillary settlements, open settlements, burial grounds located either in these settlements or at the outskirts, as well as a longitudinal rampart stretching for about 1.5 kilometres, forming the southern boundary of the entire complex. The remnants of causeways as well as traces of wooden bridges preserved in the underlying soil all prove that the settlement complex and the hillfort were linked by a transit network which was quite sophisticated for its time. Today, the site of the former hillfort remains disused and is overgrown with grass, while the area formerly occupied by the ancillary settlement and the open settlements beyond now serves as arable fields and meadows.

History

The settlement complex formerly known as Cherven, located in what is now the village of Czermno, was the centre of the so-called Cherven Towns during the early Middle Ages (between the 10th and the 13th century), serving as the residence of both secular and ecclesiastical dignitaries as well as an important international trade centre; last but not least, the crucial function of Cherven at the time was that it facilitated contacts between Poland and Ruthenia. The fall of the hillfort was probably the result of the Tatar Invasion of Poland (1241).

The actual identity of the Czermno hillfort and the medieval hillfort of Cherven has been confirmed back during the early 19th century. The very first reference to Cherven in written sources dates back to the times of Nestor the Chronicler, who mentions it in his “Tale of Past Years” as having been captured in 981 by Vladimir, the prince of Kiev, along with other Cherven Towns. The very same chronicler also noted that, in 1018, the Cherven Towns have been taken by the Polish king Bolesław Chrobry; later on, in 1031, Cherven itself was captured by Yaroslav the Wise, the prince of Kiev. The hillfort is frequently mentioned in subsequent Ruthenian chronicles, including, in particular, the Galician-Volhynian Chronicle, in years 1121, 1157, 1163, 1173, 1205, 1221, 1225, 1265, 1288 and, for the very last time, in 1289.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Archaeological investigations of the site were carried out in 1940 by L. Czykałenko and in 1952 by K. Jażdżewski and A. Nadolski within the framework of the research project on ‘Research on the Origins of the Polish State’ and as part of the operations of the ‘Archaeological Station of the Cherven Towns of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków’. The exploration of the site was continued in 1976 by L. Gajewski and J. Gurba, in years 1977-1979 - by J. Gurba, L. Gajewski and A. Kutyłowski as well as by A. Urbański in 1985. In 1997, I. Kutyłowska carried out research in the so-called “Castle Grounds”, i.e. on the site of the second ancillary settlement. From 2010 onwards, the site of the ancillary settlements has been explored under the direction of M. Piotrowski; he was later succeeded by T. Dziekoński, who remains responsible for the ongoing research programme.

Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out in 1984 by Sławomir Jastrzębski.

Based on the research performed, it has been determined that the hillfort and its immediate surroundings (the ancillary settlement) were circumscribed by a wooden and earthen box rampart. In addition to utility and residential wooden buildings, masonry structures (tserkvas) have been discovered in the former inner yard of the hillfort as well as on the site of the ancillary settlement. A cemetery was located inside the hillfort itself, alongside the tserkva, with women being buried in the middle of the burial ground, children - at the base of the eastern rampart, while all male burials took place in a separate cluster of graves. A cemetery arranged in a similar manner has also been discovered in the second ancillary settlement (the so-called “Castle Grounds”). The analysis of the archaeological findings made on the site of the former ancillary settlements proves that they included both residential buildings and craftsmen’s workshops. Between the ancillary settlement and the open settlements on the other side of the Huczwa and Sieniocha rivers, traces of oakwood and pinewood piles driven deep into the swamp below have been identified; these served as the foundation for wooden bridges about 3-4 metres wide, with the longest of them being about 750 metres in length. During the surveys that spanned a number of years, numerous valuable moveable artefacts have been unearthed, most of them being fragments of clay vessels. The valuable findings collected on the site include a miniature stone icon in the form of a visage of Christ in bas-relief, glass bracelets, Kiev Easter eggs, spindle whorls made of pink Ovruch slate as well as metal reliquaries (engolpions). The findings made during the most recent series of exploratory activities intended to verify the presence of metal artefacts in tilled soil and to save those artefacts from the so-called treasure hunters are particularly lavish and valuable. The most intriguing among the more than 2 thousand metal artefacts found (including objects made of bronze, silver, iron and gold) are the reliquaries (engolpions), small crucifixes covered with enamel, a few hundred lead stamps of the Drohiczyn type, lead discs with a hole in the centre (weights?), various coins, an impressive collection of jewellery including rings, temple rings as well as the so-called kolt - an exceedingly rare piece of jewellery often worn by Ruthenian aristocrats. In addition, various weapons or parts thereof (axes, sword hilts, arrowheads, spurs, horseshoes and pieces of harnesses) have been found, as have various tools such as ard ploughs, half-scythes, knives and scissors. The most important and valuable of all the findings made are two stashes of silver jewellery discovered in the inner yard of the hillfort, containing, among others, bracelets, ear cuffs, kolts and rings.

The ring fort is open to visitors. The fort is located along the “Historical Trail” and the Tyszowce-Czermno kayak trail.

compiled by Ewa Prusicka, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 20-10-2014.

Bibliography

  • Abramowicz A., Ceramika z Czermna nad Huczwą, “Archeologia Polski”, vol. 4, 1959, pp. 149-185.
  • Banasiewicz E., Grodziska i zamczyska Zamojszczyzny, Zamość 1990, pp. 53-59.
  • Gurba J., Kompleks osadniczy Czerwień-Czermno w świetle najnowszych badań archeologicznych, “Biuletyn Lubelskiego Towarzystwa Naukowego”, vol 25, 1983, pp. 43-47.
  • Gurba J., Problematyka „Grodów Czerwieńskich”, “Rocznik Tomaszowski”, vol. 1, 1983, pp. 11-14.
  • Gurba J., Wczesnośredniowieczny Czerwień i Grody Czerwieńskie na pograniczu polsko-ruskim. [in:] geograficzne problemy pogranicza Europy Zachodniej i Wschodniej, H. Maruszczak, Z. Michalczyk (eds.). Lublin 2004, pp. 54-55.
  • Gurba J., Kutyłowski A., Czermno - przykład wczesnośredniowiecznego kompleksu osadniczego [in:] Przewodnik XII ogólnopolskiego Zjazdu Polskiego Towarzystwa Geograficznego, part. II, Lublin 1974, pp. 51-54.
  • Jażdżewski K., Ogólne wiadomości o Czermnie-Czerwieniu, “Archeologia Polski”, vol. 4, 1959, pp. 67-92
  • Koj L., Koj J., Wyniki badań wału grodziska wczesnośredniowiecznego w Czermnie-Czerwieniu, “Archeologiczne Listy”, 1983, no. 6.
  • Kuśnierz J., Historia i stan badań latopisowych grodów Czerwień i Wołyń oraz ich okolic, [in:] “Zamojsko-Wołyńskie Zeszyty Muzealne”, vol. I, 2003, pp. 9-26.
  • Kutyłowska I., Osada rzemieślnicza w Czermnie Kolonii, stan. 3, woj. zamojskie, “Archeologia Polski Środkowowschodniej”, vol. III, 1998, pp. 167-170.

transport time to the next site

33 min

Hill fort in Gródek Nadbużny
Gródek

one hour

The hill fort contains the remains of the historic fortified settlement of Wołyń, one of the so-called Cherven Towns. It is estimated that the settlement complex in Wołyń occupied an area of approx. 15 h. It consisted of the proper fortified centre, ancillary settlements immediately adjacent to the centre and open ancillary settlements.

Location and description

The hill fort is located in the northern part of the village of Gródek Nadbużny, at the mouth of the Huczwa river to the Bug river, on the distinctive promontory that is separated by a deep excavation from the high alluvial terrace of the valley of the Huczwa river. Currently, it is known as ‘The Castle’; formerly, it was referred to as ‘Horodysek’. This name, however, has reached the plateau located about 1 km to the south of the hill fort and is used there. The hill fort covers approx. 1 ha and is situated in a heavily exposed area. The difference in height between the base of the hill fort and the crown of the rampart is approx. 20 m. On average, the circular maidan surrounds a single and relatively well-preserved earthen rampart which is 5-10 m in width at the base and 2-4 m in height. The 10-20-metre-wide moat which is now used as a local road separates the hill fort from the test of the high plain.

History

The hill fort with ancillary settlements immediately adjacent to it was functioning on the site currently occupied by the village of Gródek in the Early Middle Ages (10th-13th c.). It was founded on the site of intensive prehistoric settlement. The collapse of the hill fort was probably a result of the Mongol Invasion of Poland (in 1241?). In the 13th-15th and 18th centuries the area of the hill forts served as the cemetery. In the 17th century the area was built up with manor buildings. An investigation of the hill fort also uncovered trenches from the First and Second World War.

The preserved remains of the earthen ramparts of the hill fort in Gródek Nadbużny and vast hills which extend in the surrounding area were associated closely with the fortified settlement of Wołyń by Jan Długosz in the Annals or Chronicles of the Famous Kingdom of Poland [pol. Roczniki czyli Kroniki Sławnego Królestwa Polskiego] as early as in the 15th century. According to chronicler Nestor, in 1018 Bolesław I the Brave crossed the river during a military expedition against Yaroslav the Wise, Grand Prince of Kiev.

Condition and results of archaeological research

Archaeological investigations of the site were carried out within the framework of the research project on ‘Research on the Origins of the Polish State’ and as part of the operation of the ‘Archaeological Station of the Cherven Towns of the Institute of History of Material Culture of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Kraków’. In addition, more than one third of the fortified settlement was investigated, as well as adjacent settlements were surveyed. The location and height plan of the site was drawn up by J. Fellmann in 1952. Surface surveys of the site within the framework of the ‘Archaeological Picture of Poland’ project were carried out by S. Jastrzębski in 1986. The findings made during the investigations have indicated that the hill fort is characterised by exceptionally complex stratigraphic relations. Its area was used extensively as early as before the establishment of the fortified settlements since excavations of the site revealed Neolithic objects (two Lublin-Volyn Painted Pottery culture graves), a Lusatian Culture pit which was used for an unknown purpose and graves from the Roman period. The oldest usable level associated with the functioning of the fortified settlement dates back to the 10th century (from this period date the remains of residential and utility buildings with half-earth lodges unearthed in the central part of the hill fort). The preserved rampart was constructed in the 11th century after the first fortifications had been partially levelled. At that time, the perimeter of the fortified settlement was approx. 260 m. The rampart was largely destroyed probably in the mid-13th century. Its relics bear traces of burning on the inner side of the fortified settlement. The half-earth lodges and above-ground buildings built slightly later which were recorded in the area of the maidan date from the second phase of construction of the buildings in the hill fort. Researchers have found numerous historical materials and, in particular, special regard should be paid to glass bracelets (which prove the Ruthenian influence), temple rings (which are evidence of contacts with the West Slavic world), and weapon elements, including fragments of chainmail, axe, large number of arrowheads and large knives-daggers, as well as lead stamp/seal dating probably from the 11th century. The residential and utility buildings as ancillary settlements immediately adjacent to the fortified centre were operating on the eastern side of the hill fort. Between the 8th and 11th century a large agricultural and farming settlement also existed on the north shore of the Huczwa river, at a distance of about 200 m from the hill fort. Once the settlement was abandoned, people started to establish settlements alongside the right bank of the Huczwa river, in the immediate vicinity of the hill fort.

The monument is open to visitors. The hill fort is located on route of: ‘Szlak Nadbużański’, ‘Nadbużańskiego Szlak Rowerowy’, ‘Królewski Kąt’ Historic and Nature Trail, ‘Nadbużański Tramp’ Local Tourist Trail, Transgranicza Trasa Turystyczna [Cross-Border Tourist Route], Transgraniczny Szlak Turystyczny [Cross-Border Tourist Trail].

Compiled by Ewa Prusicka-Kołcon, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Lublin, 20.09.2014.

 

Bibliography

  • Banasiewicz E., Grodziska i zamczyska Zamojszczyzny, Zamość 1990, p. 64-70.

  • Bender W., Kieszkowska E., Kieszkowski K., Bronicka-Rauhutowa J., Badania w Gródku Nadbużnym w pow. Hrubieszowskim w 1955 r., „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1957, vol. 3, pp. 169-189.

  • Gądzikiewicz M., Sprawozdanie tymczasowe z badań przeprowadzonych w 1954 r. na stanowisku 2 (podgrodzie) w Gródku Nadbużnym, pow. Hrubieszów, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 2, pp. 69-74.

  • Gurba J., Grodziska Lubelszczyzny, Lublin 1976.

  • Kuśnierz J., Historia i stan badań latopisowych grodów Czerwień i Wołyń oraz ich okolic, „Zamojsko-Wołyńskie Zeszyty Muzealne” 2003, vol. 1, pp. 9-26.

  • Poppe A., Gród Wołyń. Z zagadnień osadnictwa wczesnośredniowiecznego na pograniczu polsko-ruskim, „Studia Wczesnośredniowieczne” 1958, vol. 4, pp. 227-300.

  • Poppe A., Wołyń, [in:] Słownik starożytności słowiańskich, vol. 6, Wrocław 1977-1980, part 2, pp. 587-589.

  • Rajewski Z., Sprawozdanie z badań na Grodach Czerwieńskich w 1954 r., „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 2, pp. 49-53.

  • Rauhut L., Sprawozdanie z badań w 1954 r. nad konstrukcją wału grodowego w Gródku Nadbużnym, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 2, pp. 65-67.

  • Rauhut L., Średniowieczne cmentarzysko szkieletowe na stanowisku 1A w Gródku Nadbużnym, „Sprawozdania Archeologiczne” 1956, vol. 2, pp. 78-81.

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