Książęce miasto Brzeg
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Krzysztof Spychała

Książęce miasto Brzeg

18

one day

opolskie

Railway station
Brzeg

15 minuts

The main railway station building erected in the early 1870s the is an important city landmark. Built in the so-called brick style, it boasts numerous neoclassical details. The exterior features minor symbolic motifs as well as the figures of Athens, Hermes, and Hephaestus as the personifications of knowledge, transportation, trade, technology, and industry.

History

The original railway station building of 1844 has not survived. At the beginning of the 1870s, todays’ station was built along with a post office. At the beginning of 2012, a major renovation of the station was completed. It covered, for example, the historic brick façades and window and door joinery. Also, the roofing was repaired as well as the interior of the posh ticket offices.

Description

The station building is located almost in the heart of the city, between Dworcowy Square and the railway line. The post office building is in the immediate vicinity (to the west).

The station building is a stand-alone structure with brick façades. Two-storey, it is built on a rectangular plan with three projections on the front. The middle projection (top) houses the main entrance with triple glass door, topped with transom windows. The front façade is of a 24-axis design (north). On the ground floor and in the projections, the axes are designated by rectangular, semicircularly topped window openings, embraced in pilasters, with lower-level plaques with the griffins motifs. The window openings in the second level are rectangular. The façades are also articulated by pilasters and topped with a profiled cornice based on consoles. In the back façade, the window openings are framed with plaques featuring floral decorations, gargoyles and plastic heads. The building is covered with low double-pitched roofs and hipped roofs over the projections.

The building houses a centrally located passenger lounge and ticket offices: in the upper part, supported by fluted pilasters and topped with an extensive facet and a central plafont on the ceiling. The concourse links to the platforms via a tunnel.

The monument is available to visitors.

Compiled by Aleksandra Ziółkowska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 24-11-2015.

Bibliography

  • Ilkosz J., Wodzinska A., Studium historyczno-urbanistyczne miasta Brzeg, Wrocław 1986. 
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Dworzec kolejowy w Brzegu, oprac.  Skarbek J., 1997, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Opolu.
  • Jarczyński M., Koziarski S., 150 lat kolei na Śląsku, Opole 1992.

dom, ob. szkoła muzyczna
Brzeg

15 minuts

dom
Brzeg

15 minuts

poczta
Brzeg

15 minuts

Planty miejskie
Brzeg

two hours

Brama Odrzańska
Brzeg

15 minuts

Castle of Silesian Piasts
Brzeg

one hour

The seat of Silesian Piasts in Brzeg is one of the most important Renaissance castles of Central and Eastern Europe. Its courtyard, with chamfered corners and with cloisters, is reminiscent of the art of Lombardy, while the sculpture decoration of the entrance gate, depicting the continuity of the Piast dynasty from Piast the Wheelwright, through Mieszko I, to Frederick II of Liegnitz and George William II of Liegnitz, constituting a family monument of the family - is replicated on a smaller scale e.g. in the decoration of the castle in Oleśnica.

History

The first manor house in this place was mentioned already in 1235. It was probably a wooden structure located between two town gates: Wrocławska Gate and Zamkowa Gate, circumscribed by a moat and connected with town fortifications. Subsequent conversions took place under the rule of Bolko I, Bolko II, Louis I the Fair, and the most significant conversion, initiated by Frederick II and continued by his son George II, during which the Gothic fortress was transformed into one of the most magnificent Renaissance residences in this part of Europe.

In 1675, the castle along with the whole duchy was taken over by Austrians. In 1682, it was taken over by the Habsburgs and earmarked for temporary ducal residences. Part of the castle was adapted for office purposes. In 1741, during the shelling of the town, the castle was destroyed, and the surviving remnants of castle buildings after a renovation (chancel of the chapel, ground floor of the eastern wing, and some cloisters, and the front façade of the gate house) were adapted for the purposes of food storage of a Prussian stronghold. In the years 1744-1746, another building in the place of the north-western wing was erected, and in 1801, the south-western wing was destroyed during a fire. After the fire, the castle was reconstructed on the basis of a design by Konrad Kirschstein (the wings were lowered by two storeys and a building was added in the place of the northern curtain wall).

During the 1920s, after the departure of the army, when the castle was taken over by the town authorities, the north-eastern wing was adapted to serve as a museum. The inventory and conservation works undertaken in 1935 were interrupted by war hostilities. After the war, roofs were reconstructed (1947-49), and in the 1960s the surveys and conservation works were resumed. The castle complex and the cloisters were thoroughly reconstructed.

Description

The castle is located in the north-western part of the old town. In its vicinity, there are: church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross, to the south: chapel of St Hedwig, and to the north, a park by the Oder. By the north-eastern and south-eastern wall of the church, within the former fortifications, there are gardens inspired by Italian Renaissance, created in the 1990s in the place of gardens from 16th century which have not survived.

In the 14th century, the castle was a four-wing complex with internal trapezoid yard and a quadrangular “Lviv” tower in the south-western corner. Currently, it is a three-wing complex, enclosed from the north-west by a curtain wall. On the south, there is a gate house, slightly projecting in relation to the front façade, and in the south-western corner there is the Lviv tower, and quadrangular towers constituting ending sections of the north-western and the south-western wings. The individual sides of the castle are built on a rectangular floor plan with a single-bay interior layout. The wings have basements underneath. The eastern and the southern wings have three storeys, and the western one is five-storeyed. All are covered with gable roofs. The gate house was originally topped with a hexagonal belvedere tower. Currently, it is covered with a terrace.

The external façades of the castle are covered with smooth plasterwork with irregularly arranged rectangular window openings in sandstone surrounds. The elaborated decoration of the front façade of the three-storey gate house, created in the years 1550-1554, is a significant architectural accent. The front façade, clad in sandstone and two-axial at the ground floor level, with axes defined by the arcades of the drive-way and the entrance, is three-axial in the upper section, with rectangular window openings. The sculptures and reliefs placed on it show a genealogical history of the Piast dynasty and constitute a monument of their glory.

Internal façades from the yard are articulated with three-storey cloisters, reconstructed on the basis of the preserved fragments. The cloisters at the ground and first storey level are arcaded, and at the second storey level - colonnaded, with external staircases in the corners. Lavish stone decoration of portals (semi-circular in rectangular surrounds) and window surrounds is also worth attention.

Accessible historic building. The castle houses the seat of the Museum of the Silesian Piasts which “as the only institution in Poland preoccupies itself - according to its statute - with the whole issue of the Silesian Piasts and Piast traditions in the historic area of Silesian Land”. zamek.brzeg.pl/

compiled by Aleksandra Ziółkowska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 25-05-2016.

Bibliography

  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, t. VII: Województwo opolskie, z. 1: Powiat brzeski, red. T. Chrzanowski, M. Kornecki, Warszawa 1961, s. 13-22.
  • Zabytki sztuki w Polsce. Śląsk, Warszawa 2006, s. 156-159.
  • T. Torbus, Od Brzegu przez Güstrow do Szwecji. Komaskowie z rodziny Parrów i ich wpływ na rozwój architektury renesansowej w środkowej i północnej Europie [w:] Po obu stronach Bałtyku. Wzajemne relacje między Skandynawią a Europą Środkową, Wrocław 2006
  • M. Jagiełło, W. Brzezowski, Ogrody na Śląsku, t. 1, Wrocław 2014
  • strona internetowa muzeum http://zamek.brzeg.pl/ (25.05.2016 r.)

Kościół pw. św. Jadwigi
Brzeg

15 minuts

kościół klasztorny jezuitów, ob. parafialny pw. Świętego Krzyża
Brzeg

30 minutes

ratusz
Brzeg

30 minutes

stare miasto
Brzeg

30 minutes

Parish Church of St Nicholas
Brzeg

15 minuts

The Church of St Nicholas in Brzeg is one of the largest Gothic temples in the Opole region. Its extremely slender nave (relative to the width) is one of the characteristic features of the Silesian reductive Gothic. In addition, the church boasts a remarkable collection of stone epitaphs from different periods.

History

The first mention of the church is found in a document dated 1279. In 1280 the Jesuit Order took over the administration of the church and decided to build a new temple. A contract for the construction of five bays of the nave body was signed in 1370; in the following years, the aisles were completed and covered with ceilings and a roof. The second stage of the project involved the construction of a new chancel and spanned the years 1383-1389. The main construction works on the Brzeg temple came to a close in 1417. In the following centuries, the north porch was added (1420), also St Anne’s Chapel (1506); the sacristy was raised (1625) and wall paintings were made (mid-15th century). In the 19th century, the temple was extended according to the design by Karl Luedecke. The towers were raised and a gallery was added. In 1524 the church witnessed first Protestant sermons. From that time until 1945, the temple was supervised by the Evangelicals.

The church was heavily shelled in 1945. The upper section of the towers collapsed along with some vaults of the aisles; the fittings burnt in a fire. Because of the damage, the building remained idle for some years. The church was rebuilt in the years 1959-1966 and in 1970 its status of a parish church was restored.

Description

The church is located in the south-west part of the old town in Kościelny Square, surrounded by Zakonnic Street (from the west), Kościelna Street (from the north), Polska Street (from the east) and Długa Street (from the south).

It was built as a three-aisled, east-oriented basilica with a three-sided termination of the chancel and straight closed aisles. From the north, in its central part, a quadrilateral St Anne’s Chapel was added together with some utility rooms and a four-sided porch. From the south side, beginning with the third east bay, a two-level sacristy was added with a knight’s chamber on the upper floor, the chapels of St Barbara and St Catherine with a three-sided termination and a porch. On the west, there are two four-storey towers connected by a gallery.

The church is made of brick, rests on a stone basecourse and is partly supported by buttresses. Its façades are articulated with buttresses and slender window openings, mostly terminated in pointed-arch and with tracery.

The nave is covered with a double-pitched roof with dormers, multi-plane over the chancel. The aisles, porch and St Anne’s Chapel are covered with a lean-to roof. The chapels of St Barbara and St Catherine are covered with gable roofs, multi-plane at the terminating part. The towers are topped with hip roofs.

The west façade is 3-axis with a recessed central axis braced with towers. In the ground floor on the central axis, there is a pointed-arch, two-storey stone portal with decorative tracery. In the upper level, the portal is decorated with retaining arches and pinnacles and culminated in a gable, also braced with pinnacles and decorative crockets. On the axis above the portal, there is a pointed-arch window opening culminating in a triangular gable. The corners of the south tower are buttressed. At the level of the fourth storey, the towers are connected by a gallery resting on the arch. The north and south façade consist of the side façades of the nave rested on a high pedestal, topped with a cornice and partitioned by annexes and of high façades of the nave, articulated by the spacing of the pointed-arch window openings. The east façade is articulated by alternating buttresses and slender window openings.

The nave and chancel are covered with stellar vaulting (original in the chancel, reconstructed in the nave). The aisles are covered with groin and barrel vaults, resting on arches. The chancel and sacristy feature the fragments of a Gothic polychrome with the Tree of Life and Ten Thousand Martyrs. The church fittings mostly perished during a fire in 1945. Only epitaphs have survived on the outer walls. In addition, the church features a Gothic Holy Family triptych, brought from the church in Bąków in 1966.

The monument is available to visitors.

Compiled by Aleksandra Ziółkowska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 03-12-2015.

Bibliography

  • Katalog zabytków sztuki w Polsce, t. 7: Województwo opolskie, z. 1: Powiat brzeski, Warszawa 1961, s. 4-9.
  • Harasimowicz J., Mors janua vitae, Śląskie epitafia i nagrobki wieku reformacji, Wrocław 1992.
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Kościół parafialny rzymskokatolicki pw. św. Mikołaja w Brzegu, oprac. Jacek Sawiński, 2005, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Ochrony Zabytków w Opolu.

zespół zakładu karnego
Brzeg

15 minuts

dom
Brzeg

15 minuts

dom
Brzeg

15 minuts

dom
Brzeg

15 minuts

Villa, currently a kindergarten
Brzeg

15 minuts

A typical example of 19th-century residential architecture with Historicist style features, with sumptuous stucco decoration of the façade. The villa is circumscribed by a wrought fencing made by blacksmith master Gustav Bild.

History

The building was erected in 1876 (date on the façade) for Gustav Bild (there is a “GB” monogram on the gate and over one of the windows in the eastern façade). After 1945, the villa housed the seat of the Polish Railways Labour Union. Currently, there is a kindergarten in it.

Description

The villa was built in the southern part of the town, near the railway station. It is enclosed with a decorative wrought fencing made by Gustaw Bild, with his monogram on the gate.

It is a corned building comprised of a number of connected sections: the main section built on a rectangular floor plan with a semi-circular avant-corps in the south-western corner and a longitudinal, two-storey avant-corps topped with a semi-circular terrace in the north-eastern corner. From the north-western side, there is a quadrangular outbuilding which can be accessed from the main section through a connector.

The villa is made of brick. It has two storeys and basements, and a three-storey outbuilding. It rests on a high plinth covered with rustication with sheep-wool texture. It is topped with a squat roof. The ground storey is covered with smooth rusticated strips with accentuated corners. On the level of the first storey, the partitions are defined by corner pilasters. Horizontal articulation is complemented with cornices between the storeys and a crowning cornice with an elaborate frieze with garlands. The entrance is located on the axis of the three-axial southern façade. Above the entrance, there is a terrace flanked by rectangular blind windows. The terrace entrance is topped with a semi-circular pediment with a coat of arms and stylised “B” letter (Bild), and figures of lions. The eastern façade is six-axial (five axes of the villa and the sixth axis of a narrow longitudinal terrace). Between the 2th and the 4th axis, there is a shallow avant-corps topped with a triangular pediment. Window openings of the first storey are topped with semi-circular pediments with floral ornaments in which there are cartouches with a “GB” monogram and date 1876. The western façade is three-axial, with a staircase avant-corps from the south featuring a high window opening with a semi-circular arch in its top section. The façade of the connecting sections is rusticated and pierced with irregularly arranged window openings of various sizes. The outbuilding has two axes from the south and one axis from the east.

Inside the villa, the original layout of rooms has been preserved as well as part of the décor, including stucco decorations on ceilings, hermas flanking the stairs, and door woodwork.

Limited access to the monument.

compiled by Aleksandra Ziółkowska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 19-11-2015.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytku architektury, Willa-pałacyk, ob. przedszkole i biblioteka PKP, Brzeg ulica Towarowa 1, oprac. Wojciechowski A., Rzetecka E., 1985, Archiwum Wojewódzki Urząd Ochrony Zabytków w Opolu.
  • http://brzeg24.pl/aktualnosci/965-dziea322a-mistrzztuki-kowalskiej/ (19-11-2015 r.)

Jewish Cemetery
Brzeg

15 minuts

The cemetery is the only - next to the synagogue (1799) in Długa Street, burned in 1938 and completely transformed into a multi-family house during WW2 - trace of the Jewish presence in Brzeg.

History

The cemetery in ks. Makarskiego Street is - most probably - not the first Jewish burial ground in Brzeg. A preserved tombstone dated 1 September 1348 proves the existence of the cemetery - and hence the community - already in the first half of the 14th century. Yet, today, we know neither its history nor the location (after the liquidation of the cemetery, the 1348 tombstone was used as a component of the judge's table installed in the marketplace and later was built in the façade of the house at 41 Rynek and then in the wall of the town hall).

Today’s cemetery was set up in 1798. The oldest surviving tombstone is that of Zanwla, son of Meir of Grodków, died 30 May 1806, but the first burials had already taken place in 1801. The cemetery had been used until 1937.

Description

The cemetery is located in the south-west outskirts of the town, near the Wrocław-Opole road. From the north-east, it borders on the plot of the Church of God's Mercy and the municipal cemetery. Its area is approx. 0.5 ha, but it used to be several times bigger. About 150 tombstones have survived until today, mainly from the second half of the 19th century. They are vertical steles and obelisks of sandstone and marble. Next to single matzevahs, there are also double ones. The oldest of the surviving tombstones bear Hebrew lettering. From the 2nd quarter of the 19th century, it begins to go with the German text on the reverse side. On many decorated matzevahs of Brzeg, the epitaphs reveal symbols characteristic of Judaism (blessing hands, pitcher) and popular vanitative motifs (broken tree, flower, candle, winged hourglass). A representation of the butterfly to be found on some tombstones is a real rarity.

The monument is available to visitors.

Compiled by Joanna Szot, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Opole, 01-11-2014 r.

Bibliography

  • Czerner R., Zabudowy rynków. Średniowieczne bloki śródrynkowe wybranych dużych miast Śląska, Wrocław 2002.
  • Gawlik S., Ludność żydowska w Brzegu od XIV w. do 1942 r., Biuletyn Żydowskiego Instytutu Historycznego 1986, nr 137, s. 19-33.
  • Wodziński M., Hebrajskie inskrypcje na Śląsku XIII-XVIII wieku, Wrocław 1996.

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