Religijnym szlakiem po Kielcach. Zabytkowe świątynie i cmentarze wielu wyznań
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Łukasz Młynarski NID OT Kielce

Religijnym szlakiem po Kielcach. Zabytkowe świątynie i cmentarze wielu wyznań

14

świętokrzyskie

kościół parafialny pw. św. Wojciecha
Kielce

30 minutes

cmentarz
Kielce

15 minuts

synagoga, ob. budynek nieużytkowany
Kielce

15 minuts

kościół parafialny pw. Podwyższenia Krzyża
Kielce

15 minuts

Evangelical church, currently Evangelical-Augsburg church of the Holy Trinity – Ecumenical Temple of Peace
Kielce

15 minuts

An example of eclectic architecture from the 1st half of the 19th century — a church with Classicist façades and neo-Gothic tower dome; an evidence of the presence of the Evangelical community in Kielce. 

History

On the turn of the 18th and 19th century, many Evangelical Protestants lived in the city of Kielce and its vicinity, mainly specialists of German origin employed in the Old-Polish Industrial Area and teachers of the Academy of Metallurgy. Efforts to create a parish were undertaken already in 1812, but the authorities issued a permit to built Evangelical church only in 1835. Two years later, Evangelical Protestants received a large state-owned square at the newly delimited Konstantego Street, on which, in late summer of 1836, they started to build a church according to the plans of a member of Evangelical community, voivodeship engineer Karol Meyzer.  The building, preserved until today, resembles in many aspects — inter alia shape of the body, façade, and form of the tower — the church of St. Michael erected in accordance with a design by Stanisław Zawadzki in Nowy Dwór Mazowiecki (home town of Meyzer). The completed church was consecrated in 21 November / 3 December 1837. The construction was carried out under the supervision of Kajetan Hołdakowski from Pińczów. In the same time, a two-storey house was built nearby for the pastor, separated from the church by a garden. The church was renovated a number of times (in 1902, the dome structure on the tower was built anew). After the World War II, the number of Evangelical Protestants in Kielce significantly dropped, which translated into impoverishment of the parish and neglecting the building of the church. In the 1960s, the church was leased to a Polish-Catholic parish and its name was changed to St. Peter and Paul's. Since 1968, a preacher station of the Evangelical-Augsburg parish in Radom had operated in Kielce. In 2001, a general renovation of the neglected building was carried out. In September the same year, the church was called the Ecumenical Temple of Peace. The current church of the Holy Trinity is a filial church of the Evangelical-Augsburg parish in Radom and is used by Evangelical Protestants, Polish Catholics, and the faithful of the Christian Church of Evangelical Faith.

Description

The church is located in the southern frontage of Sienkiewicza Street, at its eastern end, near the junction with Ewangelicka Street, just by Moniuszki Square.  It is a free-standing structure situated on the axis transverse to the street, with a narrow, Baroque tower façade along the line of street buildings, and a presbytery on the south.   Nearby, on the western side in the street frontage, there is a two-storey building of the pastor's house (3 Sienkiewicza Street).  The church square is separated from the street by a fence with metal spans.  The church is made of stone and plastered, and comprised of a single-nave body under a low gable roof, and of a two-storey tower. The high, cuboid tower is framed with pilasters and covered with a neo-Gothic dome in the form of a pyramid flanked by pinnacles in the corners. The nine-axis side façades of the nave are pierced with slim windows with semi-circular top sections. Their Classicist style stems from four-column porticos arranged in the Tuscan order, topped with triangular gables and forming, along with the body, a cross plan.  A spacious nave on a rectangular floor plan is covered by a flat roof, with crown molding along the longer sides. The altar was provided with a frame in the form of a deep, semi-circular niche, whose rectangular clearance is flanked by two Tuscan columns. Behind the altar wall, there is a small sacristy with a diagonal ending section. The choir gallery rests on four Tuscan columns and features a balustrade decorated with panels.

The building is open to visitors; the interior may be accessed only during services

Compiled by Anna Adamczyk, 15.12.2014.

Bibliography

  • Filling card, Kościół ewangelicki p.w. Św. Piotra i Pawła, compiled by E. Traczyński, Kielce 2005, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Konserwatora Zabytków w Kielcach i Archiwum Narodowego Instytutu Dziedzictwa w Warszawie,
  • Adamczyk A., Kościoły kieleckiego śródmieścia, „Renowacje i Zabytki”, no 4, 2012, pp. 104.
  • Adamczyk A., Modras J., Polanowski L., Prace przy zabytkach architektury sakralnej i zabudowie miejskiej, [in:] Cedro J. (ed.), Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, Kielce 2014, pp. 39.
  • Adamczyk J. L., Przewodnik po zabytkach architektury i budownictwa Kielc, Kielce 1998, pp. 66-67.
  • Adamczyk J. L., Wróbel T., Portrety zabytków Kielc, Kielce 2004 r., pp. 36.
  • Mazur H., Początki parafii ewangelicko-augsburskiej w Kielcach - wybór źródeł, [in:] Kłaczkow J. (ed.), Z tradycji i dziejów ewangelików kieleckich, Kielce 2011, pp. 139-160.
  • Mazur H., Źródła do dziejów Kościołów ewangelickich w zasobie Archiwum Państwowego w Kielcach, [in:] Kłaczkow J. (ed.),  Z tradycji i dziejów ewangelików kieleckich, Kielce 2011, pp. 161-189.
  • Mazur H., Inwentarz parafii ewangelicko-augsburskiej w Kielcach z 1853 r., [in:] Studia Muzealno-Historyczne, vol. 4, Kielce 2012, pp. 187.
  • Oborny A., Znani kieleccy ewangelicy, [in:] Kłaczkow J. (ed.), Z tradycji i dziejów ewangelików kieleckich, Kielce 2011, pp. 55-78.
  • Rudkowski W., Kłaczkow J, Dzieje kieleckiej parafii ewangelickiej w świetle dokumentacji Archiwum Kościoła Ewangelicko-Augsburskiego [in:] Kłaczkow J. (ed.), Z tradycji i dziejów ewangelików kieleckich, Kielce 2011, pp. 191-206.
  • Stegner T., Protestanci na terenie guberni radomskiej i kieleckiej w XIX i na początku XX wieku, „Studia Kieleckie”, no 1, 1995, pp. 15-16.
  • Szczepański J., Architekci i budowniczowie. Materiały, Warszawa-Kraków 1990, pp. 94-98.
  • Szczepański J., Mniejszość niemiecka w Kielcach, [in:] Główka J. (ed.), Kielce przez stulecia, Kielce 2014, pp. 184-185.
  • Wrońska-Gorzkowska R., Gorzkowski E., Album Kielecki. Starówka, vol. II: Ulica Henryka Sienkiewicza, Kielce 1996, pp. 23-28.
  • Zarys historii Parafii Ewangelicko-Augsburskiej w Kielcach, www.radom.luteranie.pl

Complex of the cathedral of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary
Kielce

one hour

An impressive Baroque architectural complex — a dominant landscape feature of Zamkowe Wzgórze and the old city of Kielce The cathedral has a unique shape with early modern build-ups, lavish décor and consistent, late-Baroque fittings. The history of the complex and the phases of its construction are related to the operations of the Kielce chapter and the rule of bishops of Cracow.

History

The former collegial church, and currently the cathedral, was founded, according to Jan Długosz, ca. in 1171 by bishop of Cracow Gedeon. It was a small, stone, Romanesque, twin-tower church with a sacristy added to it in 1514, built in the eastern part of the current cathedral. The existing church was constructed in a couple of stages. In the late 16th century, at the initiative of bishop Piotr Myszkowski, the Romanesque church was extended. In years 1632-1635, the western part of the building was built — partially from foundations and partially the former structure was adapted for that purpose — and the church received its present form. In 1719-1728, the Romanesque, eastern part of the building was dismantled and two new bays of the nave body as well as a presbytery with an apse and side annexes were founded by bishop Kazimierz Łubieński. The work was finished under the supervision of bishop Konstanty Feliks Szaniawski, who also founded the interior fittings (inter alia with the set of altars from the workshop of Antoni Frąckiewicz) The last major change consisted in adding, in years 1869-1872, neo-Baroque gables of the façade in accordance with a design by Franciszek Ksawery Kowalski, with sculptures by Juliusz Faustyn Cengler. The steeple turret was also replaced then — with a new and fairly bigger one. In the end of the 19th century, the interior was decorated with wall painting. In the recent years, the building was renovated and its décor and fittings underwent thorough conservation works. During the works, a painting originating, according to estimates, from the 20th of the 17th century, was discovered in the northern porch. The collegiate church is surrounded by a former cemetery. Before 1630, it was partially fenced by walls. During the 20s of the 18th century, bishop Szaniawski ordered to built porches along the southern part of the walls. They led from the palace to the collegiate church and further on to the seminary. Also, he erected two stone gates — from the city, and the palace. In the second quarter of the 19 century, the land was levelled and new fencing was built; the porches were gradually dismantled. The bell tower was founded in 1642-1657 by bishop Piotr Gembicki, and in 1729, in times of bishop Szaniawski, it was extended upwards by one storey, covered with a dome, and equipped with a clock. In years 1869-1872, F. K. Kowalski converted the dome of the bell tower and installed sculptures of Evangelists by J. F. Cengler in the corners. In the 1940s, these built-ups were removed, and the Baroque style of the tower was restored. A chapel called Ogrójcowa, used as a funerary chapel, was built in 1760. It was founded by priest Józef Rogalla. In 1913, it was extended by a western apse. During renovation in 1955, frescos originating from the 18th century were uncovered and subjected to conservation works. In years 2001-2003, façades of the bell tower and mortuary were renovated, and two stone sculptures on the cemetery — of the Blessed Virgin Mary and St. John of Nepomuk — underwent conservation.  

Description

The cathedral complex is located on the top of Wzgórze Zamkowe, at Panny Marii Square. From the west, it neighbours the Palace of Bishops. It is Baroque in style, with neo-Baroque elements.  The central part of an elevated plateau (former cemetery) is occupied by an oriented, brick and stone, three-nave basilica, with an elongated presbytery covered with a semi-circular apse, flanked by annexes from two sides. On the top section of the roof, there is a neo-Baroque steeple. The western part of the building is plastered, and the eastern part — clad with stone ashlars. Side façades are accentuated by alternating windows with almost straight top section and Tuscan pilasters or buttresses.  The three-axial front façade is decorated with a neo-Baroque gable with lavish architectural and sculptural decoration. The eastern façade features an identical gable. Marble portals of 1632 and 1635 are preserved. Inside, the naves are separated by semi-circular arcades resting upon pillars and covered with groin vaults (in side naves, on arches). The western part of side nave bays is covered with decorative plasterwork. The whole interior is decorated with figural painting from the end of the 19th century. The lavish fittings originate mainly from the 18th century. Among its older elements, the Renaissance gravestone of Elżbieta Zebrzydowska) is particularly worth attention. In the northern façade, a marble board from the end of the 18th century is embedded, with a "primer" engraved (e.g. alphabet, truths of the faith, digits, measures, weights). The free-standing, brick and stone bell tower with three storeys protrudes afore the northern section of fencing — towards the city, and is covered with a Baroque dome. It the middle of its northern façade, there is a coat of arms cartouche of bishop Gembicki. On this side, there is a small, brick and stone Ogrójcowa chapel on a square floor plan, with a semi-elliptical porch on the east and a semi-circular apse on the west. The square of the church is fenced by a retaining wall, on which stone and cast iron bays and gates preceded by staircases are placed.  Square stone sculptures can be also found within it.

The building is open to visitors. Also the crypt and treasury are available for visiting.

Compiled by Anna Adamczyk, 14.12.2014.

Bibliography

  • Adamczyk A., Kościoły kieleckiego śródmieścia, „Renowacje i Zabytki”, nr 4, 2012, pp. 96-100.
  • Adamczyk A., Modras J., Polanowski L., Prace przy zabytkach architektury sakralnej i zabudowie miejskiej, [in:] J. Cedro (ed.), Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, Kielce 2014, pp. 38.
  • Adamczyk A., Prace remontowo-konserwatorskie i budowlane w granicach województwa świętokrzyskiego i dawnego kieleckiego, [in:] A. Piasecka (ed.), Prace konserwatorskie w latach 1990-2000. Dziesięć lat Służby Ochrony Zabytków w Kielcach, Kielce 2001, pp. 29.
  • Adamczyk J. L., Portrety zabytków Kielc, Kielce 2004, pp. 4-6.
  • Adamczyk J. L., Przewodnik po zabytkach architektury i budownictwa Kielc, Kielce 1998, pp. 22-26.
  • Adamczyk J. L., Wzgórze Zamkowe w Kielcach, Kielce 1991, pp. 16-19, 92-99, 121.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, vol. II: Województwo kieleckie, J. Z. Łoziński, B. Wolff (ed.), fasc. 4: Powiat kielecki, oprac. T. Przypkowski, Warszawa 1957, pp. 25-32.
  • Pieniążek-Samek M., Dziedzictwo kultury, [in:] J. Główka (ed.), Kielce przez stulecia, Kielce 2014, pp. 110-117.
  • Wojtasik Z., Zub J., Konserwacja tzw. zabytków ruchomych, [in:] J. Cedro (ed.), Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, Kielce 2014, pp. 136-137.
  • Wróbel T., Osiemsetlecie fundacji bpa Gedeona w Kielcach, [in:] Kielecki Przegląd Diecezjalny, 1971, no 5, pp. 194-231.
  • Zdanowski J., Kościół katedralny Najświętszej Marji Panny w Kielcach, Kielce 1930.

kaplica ogrójcowa
Kielce

dzwonnica
Kielce

Hospital church of the Holy Trinity, currently seminar church of the Holy Trinity
Kielce

15 minuts

The church is an example of a "stonework" style in the 17th-century sacred architecture of Lesser Poland. Decoration of nave vaults is rather incomparable to the then analogues. The main altar of the church (ca. 1730) is associated with the work of Franciszek Frąckiewicz (sculptures) and Szymon Czechowicz (painting of the Holy Trinity), leading artist of the late Baroque in Poland.

History

Beginnings of the hospital in Kielce date back to at least 16th century. The first recorded mention of the chapel of Holy Trinity to the hospital comes from 1595. In the next years, local nobility and clergy generously supported the institution. In 1638, preparations were started to build a brick and stone hospital and church facilities, which were stopped, however, on the order of bishop of Cracow Jakub Zadzik. He order to use the materials gathered and builders hired for the needs of his own palace which was under construction then. In December, the hospital parish was established. Ca. in 1642, at the initiative of canon of Kielce Maciej Obłomkowicz and starost of Kielce Stanisław Czechowski, the construction works were resumed, and they were entrusted to the crew working on the bishop's manor house. In 1644, a shelter and the church of the Holy Trinity along with a grave chapel of the Czechowski family were completed. In 1646, the church was consecrated. In 1726, the hospital parish was included into the endowment of the seminary in Kielce. Soon thereafter, bishop of Cracow Konstanty Szaniawski founded new seminar buildings by the church. In the 20s-60s of the 18th century, the chapel of the Czechowski family was demolished and a sacristy was built on its place, while a chapel of the Blessed Virgin Mary was housed in the former sacristy. Moreover, the church was renovated, and its fittings replaced in that period. In the 19th century, the structure was renovated numerous times (inter alia, in years 1841-47, its interior and façades were restored; in 1883, the front façade was converted; and in 1890, a steeple according to a design of Franciszek Ksawery Kowalski was built). In the 1950s-80s, the church and its fittings were subjected to conservation and restoration works a couple of times; roofs, altars, and plasterwork were renovated, among other things. In 1991, façades underwent restoration.

Description

The church of Holy Trinity is located in the centre of Kielce, in a densely built-up area, between the building of the former school and the Seminary. It is an oriented, single-nave church, comprised of rectangular: vestibule, three-bay nave, and a rood arch of the presbytery with an apse divided by pronounced pillars.  The presbytery is adjoined from the south by a rectangular sacristy, and from the north — by a square chapel. Both are lower than the presbytery. The building is made of brick and stone and entirely plastered. It is covered with a gable roof (over the nave with a turret steeple) and a shed roof (over sacristy and chapel). Amongst plain façades of the building, the western façade stands out. It is divided into two distinct areas and features a triangular gable in the ending section. On the sides, it is flanked by buttresses with obelisks on tops. Also, it is enriched by a "marble" relief depicting God the Father (originally, it was the Annunciation). The main entrance is emphasised with a stone portal from ca. 1644. The interior of the nave body and the presbytery of the church is divided by single Tuscan pilasters. It is covered with barrel vaults with lunettes (over the nave and presbytery), and a half-dome (presbyterial apse), covered with geometric stucco decorations; the chapel, vestibule, and sacristy feature double barrel vaults. The noticeable elements of church's fittings include: a Baroque main altar originating from ca. 1730 (workshop of Franciszek Frąckiewicz ?), with a painting of Holy Trinity (by Szymon Czechowicz), Baroque ambo and side altars from the 40s and 60s of the 18th century, choir gallery with a pipe organ casing from the 2nd half of the 18th century (converted in 1896, 1985).

The historic building is accessible to visitors. It may be visited upon prior telephone appointment.

Compiled by Łukasz Piotr Młynarski, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 25.09.2014.

Bibliography

  • Karta ewidencyjna. Kościół Seminaryjny p.w. św. Trójcy w Kielcach, compiled by Wic J., Kielce 1996.
  • Adamczyk J. L., Wzgórze zamkowe w Kielcach, Kielce 1991, pp. 21, 46-49, 159, 164, 183-184.
  • Adamczyk J. L., Przewodnik po zabytkach architektury i budownictwa Kielc, Kielce 1997, pp. 27-28.
  • Karpowicz M., Tomasz Poncino (ok. 1590-1659). Architekt pałacu kieleckiego, Kielce 2002, pp. 52.
  • Katalog Zabytków Sztuki w Polsce, vol. II: Województwo kieleckie, ed. J. Z. Łoziński i B. Wolff, fasc. 4: Powiat kielecki, compiled by T. Przypkowski, Warszawa 1957, pp. 37-38.
  • Kazimierza Stronczyńskiego opisy i widoki zabytków w Królestwie Polskim (1844-1855), vol. II: Gubernia Radomska, compiled by K. Guttmejer, Warszawa 2010, pp. 36, 250.
  • Miłobędzki A., Architektura region u świętokrzyskiego w XVII wieku, „Rocznik Muzeum Narodowego w Kielcach” 1975, vol. 9, pp. 57-83.
  • Pazdur J. Dzieje Kielc do 1863, Wrocław-Warszawa-Kraków 1967, pp. 93.
  • Pieniążek-Samek M., Tributum gratitudinis reddo. Fundacje artystyczne na terenie Kielc w XVII i XVIII wieku. Studium z historii kultury, Kielce 2005, pp. 90, 101, 131, 133, 158, 152, 165, 183-184, 190-191, 195.
  • Pieniążek-Samek M., W czasach potrydenckiej reformy, [in:] Kielce przez stulecia, ed. J. Główka, Kielce 2014, pp. 77-86.
  • Pieniążek-Samek M., Dziedzictwo kultury. Kościół pod wezwaniem Świętej Trójcy, [in:] Kielce przez stulecia, ed. J. Główka, Kielce 2014, pp. 125-127.
  • Puchowski F., Seminarium kieleckie. Rys historyczny i dokumenty, Kielce 1901.
  • Rosiński P., Zabytkowe organy w województwie kielecki, Warszawa-Kraków 1992, pp. 133-135.
  • Samek M., XVII- wieczna architektura kościoła Św. Trójcy w Kielcach, „Rocznik Muzeum Narodowego w Kielcach” 1989, vol. 15, pp. 57-83.
  • Zdanowski J., Kościół Św. Trójcy w Kielcach, „Pamiętnik Kola Kielczan” 1929, vol. 4, pp. 58-72.

Old Catholic cemetery
Kielce

one hour

A uniform complex of religious cemeteries, bearing witness to life of a number of generations of people making history of Kielce and the region, with numerous cast iron gravestones preserved.  

History

The cemetery was created in the early 19th century. Originally, it was surrounded by a wooden fence, and thereafter, in the 20s of the 19th century, by a stone fence. It was primarily dominated by earth graves and the first permanent gravestones originate from the 30s of the 19th century. In that time, a separate Evangelical cemetery (currently municipal cemetery) was also created next to it.  In 1857, an Orthodox cemetery came into being (one of very few preserved historical complexes of Orthodox gravestones in Central Poland), and next to it, a plot was designated for fallen Muslim soldiers serving in the Russian army. In 1919, part of the Orthodox cemetery was started to be used to bury soldiers fallen in the Polish-Soviet war. In the 1930s, a cemetery of the Polish Army 1863-1921 was created. Near to it, there are grave plots of soldiers of the Polish Army fallen in 1939 and a war cemetery of soldiers of the Soviet Army 1944-1945. In years 1953-58, on the side of the city centre, a cemetery of soldiers of the Home Army and victims of Nazi terror was established, the so-called Partisan Cemetery. In that way, a uniform complex of religious cemeteries with adjoining war cemetery was created. In 1993, an inventory of the cemetery was carried out, and in the next years, more than 100 stone gravestones were safeguarded against destruction, and a couple dozen cast iron monuments from the 19th century and more than a hundred stone monuments underwent conservation works.

Description

The cemetery is located in the southern part of the city, at P. Ściegienny Street, on the site of a former bishop manor farm, "Psiarnia", by a sculpture of St. Joseph. Originally, it was located outside the city. The central part of the cemetery complex is occupied by a Catholic cemetery. On the south, it borders an Orthodox cemetery and an uprising veterans and Soviet soldiers cemetery; on the north — a municipal cemetery and a Partisan Cemetery. Its area is divided into plots crossed by alleys. A couple thousand graves can be found here, of which approx. 1000 originate from the period before 1939. The oldest graves come from the 30s of the 19th century (among other things, the epitaph plaque of J. Miernicka, cast iron gravestone of M. Pożarska, stone gravestone of K. Meyzer). In the cemetery, there are approximately 70 cast iron gravestones (of F. Kowalski, J. Popielicka and J. MacConnal, among others), made in the works in Białogon or works by the river Kamienna; numerous neo-Classicist graves reminiscent of Roman sarcophagi, in the form of stelae, plinths topped with an urn (tombs of Marro and Plewiński families), obelisks or broken columns; figural gravestones with sculptures of angels, mourners, or saints (grave of W. Radziejkowski presenting a man in nobility clothing); neo-Gothic gravestones in the form of slender shrines (I. Z. Smoleński). A real pearl of the cemetery is the Art Nouveau gravestone of Róża nee Poznański Mayzel shaped as a sitting woman in a long dress, wringing hands in a sorrowful gesture against the background of a wall of red sandstone. In addition, one can found here family tombs shaped as cuboid edifices, with doors leading to the chamber, three chapels (neo-Baroque chapel of 1845 of the Malinowski family, chapel of the Łącki family, and chapel of bishops suffragans), symbolic graves, plaques commemorating the victims of Nazi terror, people murdered in Soviet prison camps, a Monument to the Victims of Siberian Exile, and on the Partisan Cemetery — a Katyn Monument, a monument to the victims of Nazi concentration camps, a plaque of the soldiers of the National Military Organisation, a cross and a rock commemorating Henryk Dobrzański "Hubal", a grave with remnants of Stefan Artwiński, president of Kielce, murdered in 1939, and by the Orthodox cemetery, there is a plot of the soldiers serving in the inter-war period in the 4th Infantry Regiment of the Polish Legions and the 2nd Light Artillery Regiment.

The cemetery is generally accessible.

Compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 22.08.2014.

Bibliography

  • Oettingen U., Ratujmy zabytki kieleckich cmentarzy, Kielce 1994.
  • Oettingen U., Kieleckie „miasto umarłych” [in:] Kielce przez stulecia, Kielce 2014, pp. 283-288.
  • Sabat T., Prace konserwatorskie przy zabytkowych nagrobkach prowadzone w latach 1990-2000 na terenie województwa świętokrzyskiego i dawnego kieleckiego [in:] Piasecka A. (ed.) Prace konserwatorskie w latach 1990-2000. Dziesięć lat Służby Ochrony Zabytków w Kielcach, Kielce 2001, pp. 101-102.
  • Sabat T., Zub J., Konserwacja zabytkowych cmentarzy [in:] Cedro J. (ed.), Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, Kielce 2014, pp. 181-183.
  • Sabatowie T. Z., „Sabat” dla cmentarzy. Cmentarz Stary w Kielcach. Przewodnik po wybranych grobach ludzi zasłużonych dla regionu, Kielce 1995.
  • Szczepański J., Cmentarze kieleckie, Kielce 1982.
  • Szczepański J., Cmentarz katolicki „stary” w Kielcach, Kielce 1985.

Jewish Cemetery
Kielce

30 minutes

the cemetery along with a set of gravestones constitutes a valuable historical monument of Judaic culture and an integral element of the historical landscape of Kielce

History

The Jewish cemetery was created in 1870 in the Pakosz district as the only cemetery of non-prevailing denomination not included in the "Old" cemetery. The complex was built by a known architect from Kielce, Franciszek Ksawery Kowalski Earlier, sparse Jews of Kielce buried their deceased in a cemetery in nearby Chęciny. A dozen or so ohalim were present here. An ohel is a small building in which esteemed members of the Jewish community were buried, mainly tzadikim and rabbis. During the World War II, the cemetery was primarily used as the execution site of Jewish and Polish population, which heavily damaged the cemetery. In 1946, 42 Jewish victims of pogrom of the 4th July were buried. Later on, corpses of a few Jews murdered in the ghetto of Kielce, originally buried in a couple of spots in the city, were exhumed and transferred to the Jewish cemetery. The cemetery was closed for burials in 1967. In spring 1986, in the face of progressing decay, the Nissenbaum Family Foundation undertook to clean and renovate the cemetery. In that time, the monument of victims of so-called "Kielce pogrom" was renovated, and two more monuments for the Shoah victims were erected. The date of the commissioning ceremony for the restored cemetery coincided with the 45th anniversary of the liquidation of the ghetto of Kielce. A symbolic key was presented to the city. In 2007, one of the ohalim was recovered. It was renovated and fenced, gravestones were set up inside, and by the entrance, an information board was installed.

Description

The cemetery is located in the southern part of the city, at Pakosz Street and Na Stadion Avenue. Originally, this was an area outside the city. The area of the cemetery is approximately 3 ha. It is surrounded by a metal fence on concrete foundation. Ca. 330 gravestones survived, of which approx. 150 matzevot were used to build the lapidarium, fenced by a chain on metal posts. The matzevot were gathered on three platforms in the form of a stepped pyramid. On two lower ones, they were arranged in a rectangle, and on the highest platform, in a row. The cemetery is the place of burial of many outstanding members of Jewish community of Kielce, including many tzadikim — charismatic religious leaders of Chasidism: inter alia Chaim Szmul Horowicz; Mordechaj Twerski, who was called "Motełe of Kazimierz"; rabbi Dawid Goldman; Ozer Abracham Rabinowicz; Elemelech Jakub Rabinowiz; Nisan Jehuda Twerski, killed by the Nazis in 1942. They graves became a destination of pilgrimages of many religious Jews. On the cemetery, there is a board commemorating children from the labour camp operated at Jasna and Stolarska Streets, executed on 23 May of 1943. First and last names of the victims are engraved on it, along with an inscription of the following content: "Here rest the holy ashes of our 45 dearest innocent children, murdered brutally by German criminals on 23rd of May 1943. The youngest child was 15 months, and the oldest one 15 years old". The Jewish cemetery is also the place of burial of the victims of the so-called Kielce pogrom, commemorated by a monument of July 2010, erected at the initiative of the Jan Karski Association, with support of private individuals. Names of all victims of the pogrom, who were killed on 4 July 1946, are placed on the board, along with those who died of injuries in the next days. Next to the list, there is also a short description of the events in four languages: Yiddish, Hebrew, English and Polish. One of the elements of the monument is a Star of David with the inscription "4 VII 1946". Next to it, a 500-pound rock brought from Israel is placed.

The cemetery is closed for visitors, data of the person holding keys is available on an information board.

Compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 26.08.2014.

Bibliography

  • Burchard P., Pamiątki i zabytki kultury żydowskiej w Polsce, Warszawa 1990, pp. 138-139.
  • Sabat T., Zub J., Konserwacja zabytkowych cmentarzy [in:] compiled by Cedro J., Prace konserwatorskie w woj. świętokrzyskim w latach 2001-2012, Kielce 2014, pp. 183.
  • Szczepański J., Cmentarze kieleckie, Kielce 1982.
  • Urbański K., Kieleccy Żydzi [in:] Cmentarz oraz zabytki kultury żydowskiej w Kielcach 1862-1987, Kielce 1988.
  • Urbański K., Społeczność żydowska w Kielcach, Kielce 1989.
  • Urbański K., Kieleccy Żydzi, Kielce 1993.
  • Urbański K., Zagłada ludności żydowskiej Kielc 1939-1945, Kielce 1994.
  • Urbański K., Gminy żydowskie duże w województwie kieleckim, Kielce 2003.
  • Urbański K., Almanach gmin żydowskich województwa kieleckiego w latach 1918-1939, Kielce 2007.
  • Urbański K., Blumenfeld R., Słownik historii kieleckich Żydów, Kielce 1995.
  • Bielawski K., Białek B., Kielce (woj. świętokrzyskie), www.kirkuty.xip.pl

cerkiew prawosławna, ob. kościół rzymskokatolicki garnizonowy pw. Matki Boskiej Królowej Polski
Kielce

15 minuts

d. zespół klasztorny Bernardynów
Kielce

one hour

Complex of parish church of Transfiguration of Jesus
Kielce

15 minuts

A complex featuring an architectural and spatial form of uniform style, reminiscent of "Zakopane architectural style", promoted by Stanisław Witkiewicz.

History

In 1916, at the initiative of the owner of metalworks in Białogon, engineer Leon Skibiński, a committee for construction of a wooden chapel was appointed. The design was developed my Mateusz Galas. A year later, bishop of Kielce Augustyn Łosiński decided to establish a separate parish here, so Galas re-designed the chapel into a church. The building was completed in spring 1918. The parish was established on 17 April 1918. It was separated out of the cathedral parish in Kielce (a mother parish), and out of the parish in Chęciny and in Piekoszów. Over the tower, an old bell, "Aleksander", taken from the turret of the local metalworks, was placed. The interior design was not put into practice. In 1960, at the initiative of parish priest Franciszek Sieradzki, a belfry was built, in which the said bell was placed. Ca. in 1972, ceilings were replaced, and in mid-1980s, most of the floors were replaced by a marble floor.  In 1991, wood shingle replacement was commenced.  On 22 September 2013, bishop of Kielce Kazimierz Ryczan consecrated the new, brick and stone church.

Description

The complex is located in the south-western part of Kielce, in the area of an old industrial housing estate, Białogon, in its central part, at the junction of Fabryczna and Kolonia Streets, on a square similar in shape to a triangle.  In the central part, there is the church, and ca. 18 m to the west — the belfry. The church site is fenced with a wooden fence on a stone foundation. From the side of Fabryczna Street, the square may be accessed by a wooden, three-arcaded gate. The church is a wooden building based on a log structure, on a stone foundation, with walls connected by dovetail joints with ends. It is a single-nave structure, with a strongly elongated, rectangular nave which changes into a non-separated presbytery from the north, terminated with a three-sided ending section. The church is adjoined from the west by a chapel of Our Lady of Perpetual Help and by a lower sacristy with a vestibule from the east. With them, the church's floor plan is shaped in a cross. From the south, the nave is adjoined by a porch in the form of a tower, in its upper sections constructed on the basis of a post-and-frame structure, surrounded by low arcades — arcatures. The nave and presbytery is covered by Zakopane-style roofs laid with wood shingles, with strongly bent slopes and a purlin roof truss, with a higher roof over the presbytery featuring a triangular ending section. The chapel and sacristy are covered by gablet roofs. Over the tower, there is a pyramid dome with strongly upturned slopes, with a cross on a globe. The steeple is formed as a quadrangular turret covered with a tented roof with strongly upturned slopes, topped with a cross on a gable. The front façade is created by the wall of the tower surrounded by arcatures with an openwork fence between the posts. Over the entrance, in the triangular gable, there is a semi-circular opening. Walls of the tower are covered with wood shingles in the upper section, and in the uppermost section — with wooden shutters. Triangular gables of the chapel and sacristy are decorated with a motif of halves of solar disks with beams. The interior is not painted, and the walls are covered with wood panelling. Over the nave, choir gallery, and presbytery, there are ceilings covered with weatherboards, trapezoid in section. Over the rood opening, also trapezoid in section, there is a motif of fish scale.  On the straight rood beam, over which there is a wooden crucifix, there is an inscription engraved: "May Jesus Christ be glorified". The upper sections of the walls are decorated with a frieze made of horizontally arranged planks, ended in the bottom section by a motif of volutes. The passage from the porch to the nave features a semi-circular ending section, and there are two rectangular windows with wooden grids on the sides. The wooden choir balcony, protruding from the balustrade and decorated with a motif of the radiant sun, is supported on decoratively shaped corbels. The fittings are not uniform and include, among other things, a kilim by Władysław Skoczylas. An openwork, wooden belfry, built on a rectangular floor plan, is based on a post structure strengthened with braces, and is covered with a gablet roof laid with wood shingles, with a wooden cross on a base on the roof ridge. In the middle of its high, there is a shed roof. The wooden, three-arcaded gate is covered with a gablet roof with a decorated, triangular gable and diagonal roofs over side arcades.

The building is accessible from outside; access to the interior upon prior arrangement.

Compiled by Nina Glińska, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Kielce, 09.12.2014.

Bibliography

  • Filling card, Zespół kościoła parafialnego p.w. Przemienienia Pańskiego, compiled by Chojnacki Olgierd, Kielce 1993, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Konserwatorskiego w Kielcach.
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Kościół parafialny p.w. Przemienienia Pańskiego, compiled by Chojnacki Olgierd, Kielce 1993, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Konserwatorskiego w Kielcach.
  • Karta ewidencyjna, Dzwonnica w zespole kościoła parafialnego p.w. Przemienienia Pańskiego, compiled by Chojnacki Olgierd, Kielce 1993, Archiwum Wojewódzkiego Urzędu Konserwatorskiego w Kielcach.
  • Katalog duchowieństwa i parafii diecezji kieleckiej, Robak J. (ed.), Kielce 1999, pp. 306-307.
  • Adamczyk A., Kościoły drewniane w województwie kieleckim, Kielce 1998, pp. 78-81.
  • Adamczyk J. L., Przewodnik po zabytkach architektury i budownictwa Kielc, Kielce 1997, pp. 81.
  • Dobrowolska K., Kielce-Białogon. Parafia pw. Przemienienia Pańskiego. Dekanat Kielce-Zachód  [in:] Tkaczyk P. (ed.) Diecezja kielecka. Miejsca - Historia - Tajemnice, Kielce 2011, pp. 203.
  • Mirowski R., Drewniane kościoły i dzwonnice ziemi świętokrzyskiej, Kielce 2002, pp. 27-28.

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