Ukryta wartość Gdyni
Narodowy Instytut Dziedzictwa pl

users tour Dominika

Ukryta wartość Gdyni

6

two hours

pomorskie

Dworzec Główny
Gdynia

15 minuts

Dworzec Podmiejski
Gdynia

15 minuts

Gdynia - Historic Urban Layout of the City Centre
Gdynia

30 minutes

On 10 February 1920, General Józef Haller threw a ring into water of the Bay of Puck - a gesture intended as a symbol of the marriage between the Republic of Poland and the sea. This fact served to reaffirm the provisions of the Treaty of Versailles under which Poland took control over a 147-kilometre section of the coast. Gdańsk, together with its port infrastructure, remained outside the border and, as the Free City of Gdańsk, remained under thesupervision of the League of Nations. Dominated by the Germans, it was precluded from becoming a Polish maritime trading centre. Arguments for the construction of a new port also included numerous economic reasons e.g. possibility of bypassing the border barriers imposed by the neighbouring countries.

The choice fell on the region of the village of Gdynia, located at the mouth of the River Chylonka, where appropriate depth of the bay made it possible for ships to approach the coast, while the presence of a railway line ensured that goods could be transported to and from other locations in Poland. On 1 November, 1920, the Polish Economic Committee to the Council of Ministers granted an amount of 40 million marks to the Ministry of Military Affairs to construct a temporary military port and shelters for fishermen in Gdynia. Meanwhile, engineer Tadeusz Wenda started his work on the design of a commercial port capable of accommodating ocean-going ships. Works began in the spring of 1921. On 23 September 1922, the Legislative Sejm stated that the construction of the permanent port in Gdynia was one of the most significant tasks for the country. The works commenced in 1925; however, it was only in 1926 that they gathered momentum, as the position of the minister of industry and trade was taken over by Eugeniusz Kwiatkowski, an engineer.

During the same year, the construction of the city started to the south of the port. The plan for the city centre were drawn up on the basis of designs by Adam Kuncewicz and Roman Feliński, an urban planner from Lviv, who decided that the maritime “façade” of Poland - as Gdynia was called at the time - would be modelled on a sequence of squares in Nancy from the era of Stanisław Leszczyński. 10 Lutego street - together with an elongated square at its end, known as Kościuszki square - was to be the monumental axis of the plan. In 1936, after the completion of the Southern Pier which formed an extension of the said axis, the construction of a Grand District opening towards the sea also became a possibility, although the project was not finalised due to the outbreak of the World War II. The city centre, the construction of which was halted in 1939, features a unique urban layout, symbolically emphasising the link between Gdynia and the Baltic Sea.

The buildings comprising the centre originate mainly from the inter-war period; examples include the building of the Bank of Poland (1929) and the neo-Baroque church of the Blessed Virgin Mary - the Queen of Poland (1924-1927). However, it is Modernism that remains the dominant style in the area in question; the tenement houses from the 1930s in Świętojańska street, for example, are among the most interesting examples of this style anywhere in Poland. Some of the buildings in the city centre exemplify the then-popular tendency towards grand architectural forms (an example of this trend is the Cotton House, designed by W. Tomaszewski and erected in 1938); other buildings remain true to the Art Deco style (for example the building of the Meteorology Institute, designed by T. Doberski and W. Tomaszewski, 1927-1929). Maria Jolanta Sołtysik, a researcher examining the topic of Gdynia architecture, stated that the mid-1930s saw the rise in popularity of a luxurious variety of functionalism which combined modernity with elegance, attention to detail and opulent fittings, coupled with plentiful references to the design of modern ships. Outstanding examples of this trend include the office building of the Office Workers Insurance Institution (designed by R. Piotrowski, 1934) and the residential building of the Pension Fund of the Bank of National Economy (Bank Gospodarstwa Krajowego), designed by S. Ziołowski (1935-1937). The architecture of these buildings was international in character and took inspiration from designs of the most eminent European architects such as, for example, Erich Mendelsohn.

During that period, Gdynia became a place that attracted many distinguished architects. Apart from those already referred to above, one should mention K. Jakimowicz, who designed the former building of the Bank of National Economy (1928-1929) and Z. Karpiński, the designer of the Courthouse (designed in cooperation with T. Sieczkowski and R. Sołtyński, 1936).

Within several years, Gdynia was transformed from a fishing village into a thriving city. It obtained an official city status and saw a period of rapid development. With the passing of time, it became a significant Baltic port and a serious competitor for Gdańsk. During the brief interwar period, the Republic of Poland made a tremendous effort to create its own maritime policy and has subsequently managed to ensure its successful implementation. The very fact that Polish citizens - who had lived for centuries without caring much for the sea and the issues surrounding it - now became interested with sea travel, the navy and the national ensign was a great success in itself. Meanwhile, the city of Gdynia became a symbol of modernity - a status which it continues to enjoy even today.

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Gdynia

15 minuts

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Gdynia

15 minuts

Passenger Terminal
Gdynia

30 minutes

The Passenger Terminal is a valuable example of a modernist public building. It represents a harmonious combination of the representative and storage function. The structure is subtly decorated. The modern passenger terminal in the Polish port of Gdynia is of great historical value. Now, it is a symbol and houses the Emigration Museum.

History

The Passenger Terminal was designed by the Katowice branch of a company based in Berlin, Dyckerhoff & Widmann, in 1932. The construction work was conducted by Skąpski, Wolski, Wiśniewski. The building was commissioned on 8 December 1933. The port and passenger terminal were solemnly consecrated by bishop Okoniewski. The ceremony was attended by, among others, Ferdynand Zarzycki, Ministry of Industry and Trade, and ministers: Józef Beck, Emil Kaliński, Bronisław Nakoniecznikow-Klukowski, Władysław Marian Zawadzki, Kazimierz Papée and General Gustaw Orlicz-Dreszer. The terminal was a base for the transatlantic passenger carrier “G-A-L”, which handled the New York and South American lines. The structure covered an area of 2.5 thousand m2 and was equipped with all the equipment needed to load and unload passengers; it had a railway siding with tracks installed on both sides of the building, which was intended to handle emigrant traffic, and a transit warehouse. In the interwar period, the building housed Sunday services for the employees of the port and GUM in Gdynia and was used as a venue for our New Year's Eve celebrations. During World War 2, the passenger terminal was adapted for use as offices. At the beginning of the occupation of Gdynia, on 14 September 1939, Polish symbols, including relief eagles and commemorative plaques, were removed from the front façade of the terminal. On 9 October 1943, during the Allied bombing of the port, part of the passenger hall, i.e., the north-western corner and wall facing the French Quay, were destroyed. This was repaired temporarily, since it proved impossible to install reinforced structural components in the original shape and restore the original body of the building because of the destruction of the foundations of part of the building. The left upper corner of the building was not restored. The terminal hall was missing a gallery on the left side of the entrance and the asymmetry of the other elements of the décor and structure of the building. After the war, the building housed the Harbour’s Master’s Office and a postal and telegraph office, among others. At that time, the Passenger Terminal did not serve its basic function because of the political situation. Passenger traffic was resumed in the second half of the 1950s. During the 1970s, in addition to the facilities for passenger service, the building house the Department of Shipping Services of the Port of Gdynia Authority, Customs Office, Gdynia 18 Postal and Telecommunications Office, Maritime Agency Port Office, office of C. Hartwig company, and PKP’s shipping department.

Since the suspension of all transatlantic liner shipping movements by Polish ship-owners in 1987, the Passenger Terminal ceased to serve its original function and became an office building for port institutions and companies, and part of the transit warehouse started to be used as a storage facility.

In 2005, the SEBTrans-Link project was completed to prepare the concept of revitalisation of the Passenger Terminal. Cruise ships which more and more often call at the Port of Gdynia currently use the Dutch Quay and French Quay (located on both sides of the Passenger Terminal) as a berth in the port.

Since June 2009, the building houses the office of clearance for the ferry service to Helsinki and Travemünde of Finnish shipowner Finnlines.

In the middle of 2015, the building was adapted for use as the Emigration Museum of the Passenger Terminal. The museum will assemble and present collections on the history of Polish emigration.

Description

The Passenger Terminal in Gdynia is located at the French Quay of the Port of Gdynia, at Witolda Gombrowicza Square, in the vicinity of the office of the Harbour Master’s Office and the Monument to the People of the Sea. The building consists of two parts, is compact, and built on a rectangular floor plan. It is composed of the terminal hall and transit warehouse. The main hall called the “Passenger Hall” (situated on the west side) has three storeys; originally, it was covered with a thin-walled quadrangle reinforced concrete cupola (“Zeiss-Dywidag”) topped with a pyramidal skylight. The terminal hall housed ticket counters, information desk, postal office, luggage storage, restaurant, waiting room, and doctor’s offices. To the west, it adjoins the transit warehouse, which is a two-storey reinforced concrete frame structure. The upper storey is covered with a ten-span arched roof; originally, it was used as a hallway; the lower storey was adapted for use as a luggage storage. The front (west) façade of the terminal hall features wide windowless corners, which vertically cover two upper glazed storeys. This part of the façade is partitioned by pillars positioned between the windows and extended beyond the edge of the crowning cornice. The ground floor was horizontally separate with a massive roof and accentuated with the stairs along the whole width of the front façade. The north and south façades were originally identical, arranged horizontally in the form of three rows of narrow windows, with the ground floor separated from the upper parts by a roof over the ramps. The vertical shallow bays with masts projecting beyond the roof surface were the dominant feature of the western corners. After the damage caused during World War 2, the south-western corner was not reconstructed. The eastern part, i.e., the transit warehouse, features a clearly discernible frame structure, which can be seen in the longitudinal façades, and a row of windows under the upper ende of the ground floor storey. The face of the upper storey was set back, which allowed to create a gallery terminating in a staircase in the north-eastern corner. The interior has the form of a central hall surrounded by a gallery which can be accessed via spectacular stairs. The renovation and adaptation of the building for use as the Emigration Museum began in May 2013. The removed relief eagles were attached to the front façade. At the same time, the south-western façade underwent alterations; the existing structure was replaced with a glass pane. The alterations also involved the construction of the steel structure of a glazed tunnel running from the Transit Warehouse, which was an original viewpoint.

The site is accessible to visitors during the opening hours of the Emigration Museum.

compiled by Dorota Hryszkiewicz-Kahlau, Regional Branch of the National Heritage Board of Poland in Gdańsk, 06-11-2014.

Bibliography

  • Gosk A., Muzeum Emigracji [w:] Renowacje i zabytki 2010, nr 4 (36), s.132-134;
  • Sołtysik M.J., Gdynia miasto dwudziestolecia międzywojennego, urbanistyka i architektura, Warszawa 1993;
  • Sołtysik M.J., Modernistyczna Gdynia - dziedzictwo lat międzywojennych, [w:] Renowacje i zabytki 2010, nr 4 (36), s.60-73;
  • Karta ewidencyjna zabytków architektury i budownictwa Dworzec Morski, Gdynia, Ewa Stieler, 1988;
  • http://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dworzec_Morski_w_Gdyni
  • http://muzeumemigracji.pl/dworzec-morski/

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